Neurobehavioral effects during experimental exposure to 1-octanol and isopropanol.
(25/104)OBJECTIVES: The study examined acute neurobehavioral effects provoked by controlled exposure to 1-octanol and isopropanol among male volunteers. METHODS: In a 29-m3 exposure laboratory, 24 male students (mean age 25.8 years) were exposed to 1-octanol and isopropanol. Each substance was used in two concentrations (0.1 and 6.4 ppm for 1-octanol; 34.9 and 189.9 ppm for isopropanol:). In a crossover design, each subject was exposed for 4 hours to the conditions. Twelve subjects reported enhanced chemical sensitivity; the other 12 were age-matched controls. At the onset and end of the exposures neurobehavioral tests were administered and symptoms were rated. RESULTS: At the end of the high and low isopropanol exposures the tiredness ratings were elevated, but no dose-dependence could be confirmed. For both substances and concentrations, the annoyance ratings increased during the exposure, but only for isopropanol did the increase show a dose-response relation. The subjects reported olfactory symptoms during the exposure to the high isopropanol and both 1-octanol concentrations. Isopropanol provoked no sensory irritation, whereas high 1-octanol exposure slightly enhanced it. Only among the subjects with enhanced chemical sensitivity were both 1-octanol concentrations associated with a stronger increase in annoyance, and lower detection rates were observed in a divided attention task. CONCLUSIONS: Previous studies reporting no neurobehavioral effects for isopropanol (up to 400 ppm) were confirmed. The results obtained for 1-octanol lacked dose-dependency, and their evaluation, is difficult. The annoying odor of 1-octanol may mask sensory irritation and prevent subjects with enhanced chemical sensitivity from concentrating on performance in a demanding task. (+info)
Elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite theory of multiple chemical sensitivity: central role of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors in the sensitivity mechanism.
(26/104)The elevated nitric oxide/peroxynitrite and the neural sensitization theories of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) are extended here to propose a central mechanism for the exquisite sensitivity to organic solvents apparently induced by previous chemical exposure in MCS. This mechanism is centered on the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors by organic solvents producing elevated nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, leading in turn to increased stimulating of and hypersensitivity of NMDA receptors. In this way, organic solvent exposure may produce progressive sensitivity to organic solvents. Pesticides such as organophosphates and carbamates may act via muscarinic stimulation to produce a similar biochemical and sensitivity response. Accessory mechanisms of sensitivity may involve both increased blood-brain barrier permeability, induced by peroxynitrite, and cytochrome P450 inhibition by nitric oxide. The NMDA hyperactivity/hypersensitivity and excessive nitric oxide/peroxynitrite view of MCS provides answers to many of the most puzzling aspects of MCS while building on previous studies and views of this condition. (+info)
A review of a two-phase population study of multiple chemical sensitivities.
(27/104)In this review we summarize the findings of a two-phase study of the prevalence, symptomatology, and etiology of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS). We also explore possible triggers, the potential linkage between MCS and other disorders, and the lifestyle alterations produced by MCS. The first phase of the study consisted of a random sampling of 1,582 individuals from the Atlanta, Georgia, metropolitan area to determine the reported prevalence of a hypersensitivity to common chemicals. In this phase, 12.6% of the sample reported a hypersensitivity. Further questioning of individuals with a hypersensitivity indicated that 13.5% (1.8% of the entire sample) reported losing their jobs because of their hypersensitivity. The second phase was a follow-up questioning of the respondents who initially reported hypersensitivity. In this phase, we found that individuals with hypersensitivity experience a variety of symptoms and triggers. A significant percentage (27.5%) reported that their hypersensitivity was initiated by an exposure to pesticides, whereas an equal percentage (27.5%) attributed it to solvents. Only 1.4% had a history of prior emotional problems, but 37.7% developed these problems after the physical symptoms emerged. This suggests that MCS has a physiologic and not a psychologic etiology. (+info)
Perceived treatment efficacy for conventional and alternative therapies reported by persons with multiple chemical sensitivity.
(28/104)Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a condition in which persons experience negative health effects in multiple organ systems from exposure to low levels of common chemicals. Although symptoms experienced from particular chemicals vary across persons, they are generally stable within persons. The sensitivities often spread over time, first to related chemicals and then to other classes of chemicals. This study examined self-reported perceived treatment efficacy of 101 treatments used by 917 persons with self-reported MCS. Treatments examined included environmental medicine techniques, holistic therapies, individual nutritional supplements, detoxification techniques, body therapies, Eastern-origin techniques, newer therapies, prescription items, and others. The three most highly rated treatments were creating a chemical-free living space, chemical avoidance, and prayer. Both creating a chemical-free living space and chemical avoidance were rated by 95% of respondents as helpful. Results for most therapies were mixed. Participants had consulted a mean of 12 health care providers and spent over one-third of their annual income on health care costs. We discuss this drain on personal resources and describe respondents' attitudes toward the possibility of healing from MCS. (+info)
Central neurological abnormalities and multiple chemical sensitivity caused by chronic toluene exposure.
(29/104)Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) is a syndrome in which multiple symptoms occur with low-level chemical exposure; whether it is an organic disease initiated by environmental exposure or a psychological disorder is still controversial. We report a 38-year-old male worker with chronic toluene exposure who developed symptoms such as palpitation, insomnia, dizziness with headache, memory impairment, euphoria while working, and depression during the weekend. Upon cessation of exposure, follow-up neurobehavioural tests, including the cognitive ability screening instrument and the mini-mental state examination, gradually improved and eventually became normal. Although no further toluene exposure was noted, non-specific symptoms reappeared whenever the subject smelled automotive exhaust fumes or paint, or visited a petrol station, followed by anxiety with sleep disturbance. During hospitalization for a toluene provocation test, there was no difference between pre-challenge and post-challenge PaCO(2), PaO(2), SaO(2) or pulmonary function tests, except some elevation of pulse rate. The clinical manifestations suggested that MCS was more relevant to psychophysiological than pathophysiological factors. (+info)
Reproducibility of immunological tests used to assess multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome.
(30/104)Whether persons with multiple chemical sensitivity syndrome (MCS) have immunological abnormalities is unknown. To assess the reliability of selected immunological tests that have been hypothesized to be associated with MCS, replicate blood samples from 19 healthy volunteers, 15 persons diagnosed with MCS, and 11 persons diagnosed with autoimmune disease were analyzed in five laboratories for expression of four T-cell surface activation markers (CD25, CD26, CD38, and HLA-DR) and in four laboratories for autoantibodies (to smooth muscle, thyroid antigens, and myelin). For T-cell activation markers, the intralaboratory reproducibility was very good, with 90% of the replicates analyzed in the same laboratory differing by < or = 3%. Interlaboratory differences were statistically significant for all T-cell subsets except CD4+ cells, ranging from minor to eightfold for CD25+ subsets. Within laboratories, the date of analysis was significantly associated with the values for all cellular activation markers. Although reproducibility of autoantibodies could not be precisely assessed due to the rarity of abnormal results, there were inconsistencies across laboratories. The effect of shipping on all measurements, while sometimes statistically significant, was very small. These results support the reliability of fresh and shipped samples for detecting large (but perhaps not small) differences between groups of donors in the T-cell subsets tested. When comparing markers that are not well standardized, it may be important to distribute samples from different study groups evenly over time. (+info)
Identification of responsible volatile chemicals that induce hypersensitive reactions to multiple chemical sensitivity patients.
(31/104)Multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) has become a serious problem as a result of airtight techniques in modern construction. The mechanism of the MCS, however, has not been clarified. Responsible chemicals and their exposure levels for patient's hypersensitive reactions need to be identified. We measured the exposure of 15 MCS patients to both carbonyl compounds and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that may induce hypersensitive reactions. The exposures of those not suffering from MCS (non-MCS individuals) were also measured at the same time. To characterize the chemicals responsible for MCS symptoms, we applied a new sampling strategy for the measurement of carbonyls and VOCs using active and passive sampling methods. The results of our study clearly demonstrated that the chemicals responsible for such hypersensitive reactions varied from patient to patient. Moreover, the concentrations during hypersensitive symptoms, which were apparent in some of the MCS patients, were far below both the WHO and the Japanese indoor guidelines. The average exposure levels of MCS patients within a 7-day period were lower than those of paired non-MCS individuals except for a few patients who were exposed to chemicals in their work places. This result indicates that the MCS patients try to keep away from exposures to the chemical compounds that cause some symptoms. (+info)
Prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivities: a population-based study in the southeastern United States.
(32/104)We examined the prevalence of multiple chemical sensitivities (MCS), a hypersensitivity to common chemical substances. We used a randomly selected sample of 1582 respondents from the Atlanta, Ga, standard metropolitan statistical area. We found that 12.6% of our sample reported the hypersensitivity and that, while the hypersensitivity is more common in women, it is experienced by both men and women of a variety of ages and educational levels. Our prevalence for MCS is similar to that (15.9%) found by the California Department of Health Services in California and suggests that the national prevalence may be similar. (+info)