(1/7511) Mechanism and specificity of the terminal thioesterase domain from the erythromycin polyketide synthase.
BACKGROUND: Polyketides are important compounds with antibiotic and anticancer activities. Several modular polyketide synthases (PKSs) contain a terminal thioesterase (TE) domain probably responsible for the release and concomitant cyclization of the fully processed polyketide chain. Because the TE domain influences qualitative aspects of product formation by engineered PKSs, its mechanism and specificity are of considerable interest. RESULTS: The TE domain of the 6-deoxyerythronolide B synthase was overexpressed in Escherichia coli. When tested against a set of N-acetyl cysteamine thioesters the TE domain did not act as a cyclase, but showed significant hydrolytic specificity towards substrates that mimic important features of its natural substrate. Also the overall rate of polyketide chain release was strongly enhanced by a covalent connection between the TE domain and the terminal PKS module (by as much as 100-fold compared with separate TE and PKS 'domains'). CONCLUSIONS: The inability of the TE domain alone to catalyze cyclization suggests that macrocycle formation results from the combined action of the TE domain and a PKS module. The chain-length and stereochemical preferences of the TE domain might be relevant in the design and engineered biosynthesis of certain novel polyketides. Our results also suggest that the TE domain might loop back to catalyze the release of polyketide chains from both terminal and pre-terminal modules, which may explain the ability of certain naturally occurring PKSs, such as the picromycin synthase, to generate both 12-membered and 14-membered macrolide antibiotics. (+info)
(2/7511) Cloning and characterisation of a novel ompB operon from Vibrio cholerae 569B.
The ompB operon of Vibrio cholerae 569B has been cloned and fully sequenced. The operon encodes two proteins, OmpR and EnvZ, which share sequence identity with the OmpR and EnvZ proteins of a variety of other bacteria. Although the order of the ompR and envZ genes of V. cholerae is similar to that of the ompB operon of E. coli, S. typhimurium and X. nematophilus, the Vibrio operon exhibits a number of novel features. The structural organisation and features of the V. cholerae ompB operon are described. (+info)
(3/7511) Re-entering the translocon from the lumenal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. Studies on mutated carboxypeptidase yscY species.
Misfolded or unassembled secretory proteins are retained in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and subsequently degraded by the cytosolic ubiquitin-proteasome system. This requires their retrograde transport from the ER lumen into the cytosol, which is mediated by the Sec61 translocon. It had remained a mystery whether ER-localised soluble proteins are at all capable of re-entering the Sec61 channel de novo or whether a permanent contact of the imported protein with the translocon is a prerequisite for retrograde transport. In this study we analysed two new variants of the mutated yeast carboxypeptidase yscY, CPY*: a carboxy-terminal fusion protein of CPY* and pig liver esterase and a CPY* species carrying an additional glycosylation site at its carboxy-terminus. With these constructs it can be demonstrated that the newly synthesised CPY* chain is not retained in the translocation channel but reaches its ER lumenal side completely. Our data indicate that the Sec61 channel provides the essential pore for protein transport through the ER membrane in either direction; persistent contact with the translocon after import seems not to be required for retrograde transport. (+info)
(4/7511) AMP-activated protein kinase phosphorylation of endothelial NO synthase.
The AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in rat skeletal and cardiac muscle is activated by vigorous exercise and ischaemic stress. Under these conditions AMPK phosphorylates and inhibits acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase causing increased oxidation of fatty acids. Here we show that AMPK co-immunoprecipitates with cardiac endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and phosphorylates Ser-1177 in the presence of Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM) to activate eNOS both in vitro and during ischaemia in rat hearts. In the absence of Ca2+-calmodulin, AMPK also phosphorylates eNOS at Thr-495 in the CaM-binding sequence, resulting in inhibition of eNOS activity but Thr-495 phosphorylation is unchanged during ischaemia. Phosphorylation of eNOS by the AMPK in endothelial cells and myocytes provides a further regulatory link between metabolic stress and cardiovascular function. (+info)
(5/7511) Oligosaccharide modification in the early secretory pathway directs the selection of a misfolded glycoprotein for degradation by the proteasome.
The role of conformation-based quality control in the early secretory pathway is to eliminate misfolded polypeptides and unassembled multimeric protein complexes from the endoplasmic reticulum, ensuring the deployment of only functional molecules to distal sites. The intracellular fate of terminally misfolded human alpha1-antitrypsin was examined in hepatoma cells to identify the functional role of asparagine-linked oligosaccharide modification in the selection of glycoproteins for degradation by the cytosolic proteasome. Proteasomal degradation required physical interaction with the molecular chaperone calnexin. Altered sedimentation of intracellular complexes following treatment with the specific proteasome inhibitor lactacystin, and in combination with mannosidase inhibition, revealed that the removal of mannose from attached oligosaccharides abrogates the release of misfolded alpha1-antitrypsin from calnexin prior to proteasomal degradation. Intracellular turnover was arrested with kifunensine, implicating the participation of endoplasmic reticulum mannosidase I in the disposal process. Accelerated degradation occurred in a mannosidase-independent manner and was arrested by lactacystin, in response to the posttranslational inhibition of glucosidase II, demonstrating that the attenuated removal of glucose from attached oligosaccharides functions as the underlying rate-limiting step in the proteasome-mediated pathway. A model is proposed in which the removal of mannose from multiple attached oligosaccharides directs calnexin in the selection of misfolded alpha1-antitrypsin for degradation by the proteasome. (+info)
(6/7511) Possible involvement of proteasomes (prosomes) in AUUUA-mediated mRNA decay.
We have identified a cellular target for proteasomal endonuclease activity. Thus, 20 S proteasomes interact with the 3'-untranslated region of certain cytoplasmic mRNAs in vivo, and 20 S proteasomes isolated from Friend leukemia virus-infected mouse spleen cells were found to be associated with a mRNA fragment showing great homology to the 3'-untranslated region of tumor necrosis factor-beta mRNA that contains AUUUA sequences. We furthermore demonstrate that 20 S proteasomes destabilize oligoribonucleotides corresponding to the 3'-untranslated region of tumor necrosis factor-alpha, creating a specific cleavage pattern. The cleavage reaction is accelerated with increasing number of AUUUA motifs, and major cleavage sites are localized at the 5' side of the A residues. These results strongly suggest that 20 S proteasomes could be involved in the destabilization of cytokine mRNAs such as tumor necrosis factor mRNAs and other short-lived mRNAs containing AUUUA sequences. (+info)
(7/7511) Mechanisms for generating the autonomous cAMP-dependent protein kinase required for long-term facilitation in Aplysia.
The formation of a persistently active cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) is critical for establishing long-term synaptic facilitation (LTF) in Aplysia. The injection of bovine catalytic (C) subunits into sensory neurons is sufficient to produce protein synthesis-dependent LTF. Early in the LTF induced by serotonin (5-HT), an autonomous PKA is generated through the ubiquitin-proteasome-mediated proteolysis of regulatory (R) subunits. The degradation of R occurs during an early time window and appears to be a key function of proteasomes in LTF. Lactacystin, a specific proteasome inhibitor, blocks the facilitation induced by 5-HT, and this block is rescued by injecting C subunits. R is degraded through an allosteric mechanism requiring an elevation of cAMP coincident with the induction of a ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase. (+info)
(8/7511) Constitutive degradation of PML/RARalpha through the proteasome pathway mediates retinoic acid resistance.
PML/RARalpha is the leukemogenetic protein of acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Treatment with retinoic acid (RA) induces degradation of PML/RARalpha, differentiation of leukaemic blasts, and disease remission. However, RA resistance arises during RA treatment of APL patients. To investigate the phenomenon of RA resistance in APL, we generated RA-resistant sublines from APL-derived NB4 cells. The NB4.007/6 RA-resistant subline does not express the PML/RARalpha protein, although its mRNA is detectable at levels comparable to those of the parental cell line. In vitro degradation assays showed that the half-life of PML/RARalpha is less than 30 minutes in NB4.007/6 and longer than 3 hours in NB4. Treatment of NB4.007/6 cells with the proteasome inhibitors LLnL and lactacystin partially restored PML/RARalpha protein expression and resulted in a partial release of the RA-resistant phenotype. Similarly, forced expression of PML/RARalpha, but not RARalpha, into the NB4/007.6 cells restored sensitivity to RA treatment to levels comparable to those of the NB4 cells. These results indicate that constitutive degradation of PML/RARalpha protein may lead to RA resistance and that PML/RARalpha expression is crucial to convey RA sensitivity to APL cells. (+info)