Microbial and chemical transformations of some 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9,10-enes.
Resting cells of Streptomyces griseus, Mucor mucedo, and a growing culture of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus when mixed with compounds related to 12,13-epoxytrichothec-9-ene-4beta,15-diacetoxy-3alpha-ol(anguidine) produced a series of derivatives that were either partially hydrolyzed or selectively acylated. These derivatives showed marked differences in activities as assayed by antifungal and tissue culture cytotoxicity tests. (+info)
Proteolytic activation and inactivation of chitin synthetase from Mucor rouxii.
Crude chitin synthetase preparations from the mycelial and yeast forms of Mucor rouxii behaved differently. The mycelial preparations, incubated at 28 degrees C, lost virtually all chitin synthetase activity in a few hours; by contrast, the activity of enzyme preparations from yeast cells increased several fold during similar incubations. These spontaneous changes were probably caused by endogenous protease(s). Seemingly, the chitin synthetase in yeast preparations was present mainly in a latent, 'zymogenic', form that was activated by proteases. In the mycelial preparations, chitin synthetase was present mainly in an active state and was rapidly degraded by endogenous proteolysis. Exogenous proteases accelerated activation and destruction of chitin synthetase; an acid protease from Rhizopus chinensis was the most effective activator. The activation of chitin synthetase was inhibited by a soluble protein in the cell-free extract. Treatment with the detergent Brij 36T stabilized the chitin synthetase of crude preparations against spontaneous changes. Stabilized preparations were rapidly activated by exogenous proteases. The different behaviour of chitin synthetases in crude extracts of mycelium and yeast cells is consistent with, and perhaps partially responsible for, the differences in wall construction between mycelial and yeast forms of M. rouxii. (+info)
Mode of action of chitin deacetylase from Mucor rouxii on N-acetylchitooligosaccharides.
The mode of action of chitin deacetylase from the fungus Mucor rouxii on N-acetylchitooligosaccharides with a degree of polymerization 1-7 has been elucidated. Identification of the sequence of chitin oligomers following enzymatic deacetylation was verified by the alternative use of two specific exo-glycosidases in conjunction with HPLC. The results were further verified by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. It was observed that the length of the oligomer is important for enzyme action. The enzyme cannot effectively deacetylate chitin oligomers with a degree of polymerization lower than three. Tetra-N-acetylchitotetraose and penta-N-acetylchitopentaose are fully deacetylated by the enzyme, while in the case of tri-N-acetylchitotriose, hexa-N-acetylchitohexaose and hepta-N-acetylchitoheptaose the reducing-end residue always remains intact. Furthermore, the enzyme initially removes an acetyl group from the nonreducing-end residue of all chitin oligomers with a degree of polymerization higher than 2, and further catalyses the hydrolysis of the following acetamido groups in a processive fashion. The results are in agreement with the mode of action that the same enzyme exhibits on partially deacetylated water soluble chitosan polymers. (+info)
The role of malic enzyme in the regulation of lipid accumulation in filamentous fungi.
The hypothesis is advanced that NADP(+)-malic enzyme (ME; EC 126.96.36.199) is an important activity in regulating the extent of lipid accumulation in filamentous fungi. In Mucor circinelloides, a fungus capable of accumulating only 25% (w/w, dry wt) lipid, even under the most propitious conditions, ME disappears 15-20 h after nitrogen exhaustion, coincident with the cessation of lipid accumulation. In contrast, ME in Mortierella alpina, a fungus capable of accumulating 50% (w/w, dry wt) lipid, remains active for over 60 h after N-exhaustion during which time lipid accumulation continues. No other enzyme activity studied, including the lipogenic enzymes acetyl-CoA carboxylase, fatty acid synthase, diacyglycerol acyltransferase, ATP: citrate lyase and the NADPH-generating enzymes glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, 6-phosphogluconate dehydrogenase and NADP+:isocitrate dehydrogenase, demonstrated any correlation with the accumulation of storage lipid in either fungus. Full activity of ME is restored in Mr. circinelloides within 4 h by adding NH4+ to the cultures, but this is prevented by adding cycloheximide as an inhibitor of protein synthesis. This suggests that the decrease in ME activity occurs due to down-regulation of the ME gene. (+info)
Characterization of the oligosaccharides assembled on the Pichia pastoris-expressed recombinant aspartic protease.
Aspartic protease, widely used as a milk-coagulating agent in industrial cheese production, contains three potential N-glycosylation sites. In this study, we report the characterization of N-linked oligosaccharides on recombinant aspartic protease secreted from the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris using a combination of mass spectrometric, 2D chromatographic, chemical and enzymatic methods. The carbohydrates from site I (Asn79) were found to range from Man6-17GlcNAc2 with 50% bearing a phospho-diester-motif, site II (Asn113) was not occupied and site III (Asn188) contained mostly uncharged species ranging from Man-13GlcNAc2. These charged groups are not affecting the transport through the secretion pathway of the recombinant glycoprotein. Changes from a molasses-based medium to a minimal salts-based medium led to a clear reduction of the degree of phosphorylation of the N-glycan population. (+info)
Microfibril assembly by granules of chitin synthetase.
Purified preparations of chitin synthetase (EC 188.8.131.52; UDP-2-acetamido-2-deoxy-D-glucose:chitin 4-beta-acetamidodeoxyglucosyltransferase), capable of forming microfibrils in vitro, were isolated from yeast cells of Mucor rouxii. Chitin synthetase was obtained either by substrate-induced liberation of bound enzyme (54,000 x g pellet) or by isolation of unbound enzyme present in the 54,000 x g supernatant of a cell-free extract. Both preparations contained ellipsoidal granules from about 350 to 1000 A diameter. Many granules exhibited a marked depression. No typical unit membrane profiles appeared in thin sections of glutaraldehyde/OsO4-fixed samples. Upon incubation with substrate and activators, chitin microfibrils were produced. The microfibrils were often found intimately associated with granules. The most common configurations were: a microfibril with a granule at one end, or two microfibrils "arising" from the same granule. These findings lend support to the granule hypothesis for the elaboration of cell wall microfibrils by end-synthesis. (+info)
Structural and functional definition of the human chitinase chitin-binding domain.
Mammalian chitinase, a chitinolytic enzyme expressed by macrophages, has been detected in atherosclerotic plaques and is elevated in blood and tissues of guinea pigs infected with Aspergillus. Its normal physiological function is unknown. To understand how the enzyme interacts with its substrate, we have characterized the chitin-binding domain. The C-terminal 49 amino acids make up the minimal sequence required for chitin binding activity. The absence of this domain does not affect the ability of the enzyme to hydrolyze the soluble substrate, triacetylchitotriose, but abolishes hydrolysis of insoluble chitin. Within the minimal chitin-binding domain are six cysteines; mutation of any one of these to serine results in complete loss of chitin binding activity. Analysis of purified recombinant chitin-binding domain revealed the presence of three disulfide linkages. The recombinant domain binds specifically to chitin but does not bind chitosan, cellulose, xylan, beta-1, 3-glucan, beta-1,3-1,4-glucan, or mannan. Fluorescently tagged chitin-binding domain was used to demonstrate chitin-specific binding to Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Candida albicans, Mucor rouxii, and Neurospora crassa. These experiments define structural features of the minimal domain of human chitinase required for both specifically binding to and hydrolyzing insoluble chitin and demonstrate relevant binding within the context of the fungal cell wall. (+info)
Overexpression of the crgA gene abolishes light requirement for carotenoid biosynthesis in Mucor circinelloides.
This work describes the isolation and characterization of crgA, a Mucor circinelloides gene, which has a dominant-positive effect on light-regulated carotenogenesis. The crgA gene was originally identified in a transformation experiment as a 3'-truncated open reading frame which caused carotenoid overaccumulation in the dark. The complete cloning and sequencing of crgA revealed that its putative product presented several recognizable structural domains: a RING-finger zinc binding domain near the N-terminus, a putative nuclear localization signal, two stretches of acidic amino acids, glutamine-rich regions and a putative isoprenylation motif. The expression of exogenous copies of the complete crgA gene or two different 3'-truncated versions, produced a similar dominant-positive effect on the light-inducible carotenogenesis of M. circinelloides. The presence of these exogenous sequences also caused a missregulation of the endogenous crgA gene, resulting in its overexpression. Collectively, these observations suggest that crgA is involved in the regulation of carotenoid biosynthesis by light. (+info)