Maroteaux-lamy syndrome: five novel mutations and their structural localization.
Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI, MPS VI) is an autosomal recessive disorder due to the deficiency of the lysosomal enzyme N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (arylsulfatase B, ASB). Mutation analysis in Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome resulted in the identification of approximately 40 molecular defects underlying a great genetic heterogeneity. Here we report five novel mutations in Italian subjects: S65F, P116H, R315Q, Q503X, P531R; each defect was confirmed by restriction enzyme or amplification refractory mutation system (ARMS) analysis. We also performed a three-dimensional (3-D) structure analysis of the alterations identified by us, and of an additional 22 point mutations reported by other groups, in an attempt to draw helpful information about their possible effects on protein conformation. (+info)
Evaluation of fibroblast-mediated gene therapy in a feline model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI.
Fibroblast-mediated ex vivo gene therapy was evaluated in the N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulfatase (4S) deficient mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) cat. Skin biopsies were obtained at birth from severely affected MPS VI kittens and used to initiate fibroblast outgrowths for retroviral transduction with the 4S cDNA. 4S gene expression in transduced cells was under the transcriptional control of the MoMLV long terminal repeat promoter or the cytomegalovirus (CMV) immediate-early promoter. Characterisation of gene-transduced fibroblasts demonstrated the cells to be over-expressing 4S activity. Twenty-four to forty million autologous, gene-corrected fibroblasts were implanted under the renal capsule of three MPS VI kittens at 8-16 weeks of age. Transient, low levels of 4S activity were detected in peripheral blood leukocytes shortly after implantation but were not detectable within 3-8 weeks' post-implantation. Long-term biochemical and clinical evaluation of these cats demonstrated identical disease progression to that previously described in untreated, clinically severe MPS VI cats. (+info)
Autologous transplantation of retrovirally transduced bone marrow or neonatal blood cells into cats can lead to long-term engraftment in the absence of myeloablation.
Autologous transplantation of retrovirally transduced bone marrow (BM) or neonatal blood cells was carried out on eight cats (ranging in age from 2 weeks to 12 months) with mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI). The transducing vector contained the full-length cDNA encoding human arylsulfatase B (hASB), the enzymatic activity deficient in this lysosomal storage disorder. Following transplantation, the persistence of transduced cells and enzymatic expression were monitored for more than 2 years. Five of the cats received no myeloablative preconditioning, two cats received 370-390 cGy of total body irradiation (TBI), and one cat received 190 cGy TBI. Evidence of transduced cells, as judged by enzymatic activity and PCR detection of the provirus, was demonstrated in granulocytes, lymphocytes, or BM cells of the treated animals up to 31 months after transplantation. Radiation preconditioning was not required to achieve these results, nor were they dependent on the recipient's age. However, despite the long-term persistence of transduced cells, the levels of ASB activity in the transplanted animals was low, and no clinical improvements were detected. These data provide evidence for the long-term persistence of retrovirally transduced feline hematopoietic cells, and further documentation that engraftment of transduced cells can be achieved in the absence of myeloablation. Consistent with previous bone marrow transplantation studies, these results also suggest that to achieve clinical improvement of MPS VI, particularly in the skeletal system, high-level expression of ASB must be achieved in the treated animals and improved techniques for targeting the expressed enzyme to specific sites of pathology (e.g. chondrocytes) must be developed. (+info)
Advantages of using same species enzyme for replacement therapy in a feline model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI.
In a feline model of mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI), recombinant feline N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase (rf4S) administered at a dose of 1 mg/kg of body weight, altered the clinical course of the disease in two affected cats treated from birth. After 170 days of therapy, both cats were physically indistinguishable from normal cats with the exception of mild corneal clouding. Feline N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulfatase was effective in reducing urinary glycosaminoglycan levels and lysosomal storage in all cell types examined except for corneal keratocytes and cartilage chondrocytes. In addition, skeletal pathology was nearly normalized as assessed by radiographic evidence and bone morphometric analysis. Comparison of results with a previous study in which recombinant human 4S (rh4S) was used at an equivalent dose and one 5 times higher indicated that rf4S had a more pronounced effect on reducing pathology than the same dose of rh4S, and in some instances such as bone pathology and lysosomal storage in aorta smooth muscle cells, it was as good as, or better than, the higher dose of rh4S. We conclude that in the feline MPS VI model the use of native or same species enzyme for enzyme replacement therapy has significant benefits. (+info)
Report of a mucopolysaccharidosis occurring in Australian aborigines.
The first 2 reported cases of a mucopolysaccharidosis occurring in an Australian aboriginal family are presented. Though these children had the characteristic morphological features of the Hurler syndrome, enzyme assay of cultured fibroblasts showed normal levels of alpha-L-iduronidase and decreased activity of arylsulphatase B. Thus, they represented the Hurler syndrome clinically, while they had the enzyme defect of the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome, and they may represent a new severe form of the Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome. The parents of these children were first cousins. Though the children were not full blood aborigines, examination of the pedigree indicates that the gene originated in the common aboriginal family. (+info)
Umbilical cord blood transplantation for Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI).
Severe Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (mucopolysaccharidosis type VI) is usually fatal by early adulthood. Bone marrow transplantation is the only form of definitive enzyme replacement therapy available. A 5-year-old boy with Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome has successful recovery of bone marrow and enzymatic functions after umbilical cord blood transplant from his unaffected HLA-identical brother. Busulphan (16 mg/kg) and cyclophosphamide (200 mg/kg) were used as preparative chemotherapy with short methotrexate and long cyclosporin as prophylaxis against graft-versus-host disease (GVHD). A total of 6.08 x 10(7)/kg nucleated cells and 2.92 x 10(5)/kg CD34+ cells were transplanted with neutrophil engraftment achieved on day 26. There was no evidence of acute and chronic GVHD. Fifteen months after transplant, a normal level of N-acetylgalactosamine-4-sulphatase activity was achieved despite mixed chimerism. There was clinical improvement of hepatosplenomegaly, facial and skin features, joint mobility and resolution of suppurative middle ear effusion. He returned to school and continued to perform well in academic studies. We report here the first successful umbilical cord blood transplant as treatment of Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome. (+info)
Clinical and laboratorial study of 19 cases of mucopolysaccharidoses.
The mucopolysaccharidoses (MPS) are a heterogeneous group of inborn errors of lysosomal glycosaminoglycan (GAG) metabolism. The importance of this group of disorders among the inborn errors of metabolism led us to report 19 cases. METHOD: We performed clinical, radiological, and biochemical evaluations of the suspected patients, which allowed us to establish a definite diagnosis in 19 cases. RESULTS: Not all patients showed increased GAG levels in urine; enzyme assays should be performed in all cases with strong clinical suspicion. The diagnosis was made on average at the age of 48 months, and the 19 MPS cases, after a full clinical, radiological, and biochemical study, were classified as follows: Hurler - MPS I (1 case); Hunter - MPS II (2 cases); Sanfilippo - MPS III (2 cases); Morquio - MPS IV (4 cases); Maroteaux-Lamy - MPS VI (9 cases); and Sly - MPS VII (1 case). DISCUSSION: The high relative frequency of Maroteaux-Lamy disease contrasts with most reports in the literature and could express a population variability. (+info)
Clinical and morphological features including expression of betaig-h3 and keratan sulphate proteoglycans in Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome type B and in normal cornea.
AIM: To carry out a detailed morphological study of the cornea of a 16 year old female with a Maroteaux-Lamy syndrome (MLS). METHODS: Following a penetrating keratoplasty in July 1999, ultrastructural changes in the cornea were examined using electron microscopy. Proteoglycans were visualised using cuprolinic blue dye; and betaig-h3 and keratan sulphate were detected by immunoelectron microscopy. RESULTS: The epithelial cells were degenerate and contained apoptotic nuclei. Proteoglycans were present in epithelial cells, intercellular spaces, and in swollen desmosomes. An abnormally large quantity of proteoglycans was present throughout the stroma. Keratocytes throughout the stroma had no cell organelles, were vacuolated, and contained a large quantity of abnormal proteoglycans. Labelling for betaig-h3 was intense around electron lucent spaces in stroma. No labelling was seen in keratocytes or endothelial cells. In normal cornea, keratan sulphate labelling was regular throughout the stroma. In MLS VI type B cornea, keratan sulphate labelling was weak in the anterior stroma but very intense in the posterior stroma and in keratocyte lysosomes and vacuoles. CONCLUSION: A deficiency of aryl sulfatase B results in the deposition of keratan sulphate proteoglycan and other proteoglycans in lysosomes, causing the death of keratocytes and an abnormal build-up of proteoglycans in the stroma. This might be responsible for the lateral aggregation of collagen fibrils and impaired fibrillogenesis in MLS VI. Degenerate swollen keratocytes, together with gross changes in epithelial, stromal, and endothelial cells, would be expected to increase light scattering significantly in these corneas. (+info)