Salivary contribution to exhaled nitric oxide.
Dietary and metabolic nitrate is distributed from the blood to the saliva by active uptake in the salivary glands, and is reduced to nitrite in the oral cavity by the action of certain bacteria. Since it has been reported that nitric oxide may be formed nonenzymatically from nitrite this study aimed to determine whether salivary nitrite could influence measurements of exhaled NO. Ten healthy subjects fasted overnight and ingested 400 mg potassium nitrate, equivalent to approximately 200 g spinach. Exhaled NO and nasal NO were regularly measured with a chemiluminescence technique up to 3 h after the ingestion. Measurements of exhaled NO were performed with a single-breath procedure, standardized to a 20-s exhalation, at a flow of 0.15 L x s(-1), and oral pressure of 8-10 cmH2O. Values of NO were registered as NO release rate (pmol x s(-1)) during the plateau of exhalation. Exhaled NO increased steadily over time after nitrate load and a maximum was seen at 120 min (77.0+/-15.2 versus 31.2+/-3.0 pmol x s(-1), p<0.01), whereas no increase was detected in nasal NO levels. Salivary nitrite concentrations increased in parallel; at 120 min there was a four-fold increase compared with baseline (1.56+/-0.44 versus 0.37+/-0.09 mM, p<0.05). The nitrite-reducing conditions in the oral cavity were also manipulated by the use of different mouthwash procedures. The antibacterial agent chlorhexidine acetate (0.2%) decreased NO release by almost 50% (p<0.01) 90 min after nitrate loading and reduced the preload control levels by close to 30% (p<0.05). Sodium bicarbonate (10%) also reduced exhaled NO levels, but to a somewhat lesser extent than chlorhexidine acetate. In conclusion, salivary nitric oxide formation contributes to nitric oxide in exhaled air and a large intake of nitrate-rich foods before the investigation might be misinterpreted as an elevated inflammatory activity in the airways. This potential source of error and the means for avoiding it should be considered in the development of a future standardized method for measurements of exhaled nitric oxide. (+info)
Phase I study of transforming growth factor-beta3 mouthwashes for prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis.
The purpose of this study was to establish the safety and tolerability of recombinant transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-beta3; CGP 46614) mouthwashes intended for prevention of chemotherapy-induced mucositis. Local effects were especially analyzed by objective and subjective measurements of mucositis. Secondary aims were analysis of potential systemic exposure and development of anti-TGF-beta3-antibodies. Eleven breast cancer patients received chemotherapy with 1.5 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v., 80 mg/m2 epirubicin i.v., and 1.0 g/m2 5-fluorouracil i.v. (n = 8) or 1.6 g/m2 carboplatin i.v., 480 mg/m2 thiotepa i.v., and 6 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v. divided over 4 days (n = 3). TGF-beta3 mouthwashes (10 ml; provided by Novartis, Basel, Switzerland) were administered for 4 days, four times a day, starting 1 day before chemotherapy. The dose was escalated in following patients from 25 microg/ml (n = 3) to 50 microg/ml (n = 3) and 100 microg/ml (n = 5). Clinically, the mucosa was scored objectively and according to WHO criteria. The percentage of viable oral epithelial cells was determined by trypan blue dye exclusion. Morphology of cells was assessed in buccal smears. Plasma samples were collected for determination of TGF-beta3 levels and anti-TGF-beta3-antibodies. Adverse events were recorded by the patient in a diary. Mouthwashes with TGF-beta3 were well tolerated. Three patients scored for mucositis > grade 0 (WHO grading criteria). The percentage of viable oral epithelial cells in patients treated with 1.5 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v., 80 mg/m2 epirubicin i.v., and 1.0 g/m2 5-fluorouracil i.v. was stable, whereas in patients treated with 1.6 g/m2 carboplatin i.v., 480 mg/m2 thiotepa i.v., and 6 g/m2 cyclophosphamide i.v. divided over 4 days, an increase was observed. The morphology of buccal cells showed a transient shift from mature to immature cells in the first week. Neither systemic absorption of TGF-beta3 nor development of TGF-beta3-antibodies was observed. TGF-beta3 mouthwashes were well tolerated and deserve further study in preventing chemotherapy-induced mucositis. (+info)
Genetic fingerprinting in mouthwashes of patients after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation.
Detection of chimerism by PCR analysis of short tandem repeats (STR) in blood samples of patients who received allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) has proved to be an important method for early detection of relapse. The prerequisite for this type of analysis is knowledge of donor and recipient pretransplantation genotypes. In some cases, recipient cells from time points prior to BMT are not available and the pretransplant fingerprint cannot be determined. As BM recipients only alter their genotype in blood cells, we attempted to identify patient's pretransplantation genotypes after transplantation in mouthwash samples that contain easily accessible epithelial cells. Of 17 patients who had undergone BMT between one week and 45 months prior to analysis, DNA was isolated from mouthwash cell pellets or from epithelial cells obtained from mouthwashes. PCR analysis of STR loci in the von Willebrand and the tyrosine hydroxylase genes were performed. Even though the mouthwash cell pellets contained about 75% epithelial cells (presumably of recipient origin) and only about 25% leukocytes (presumably of donor origin), three of five patients showed donor genotype and only two patients exhibited chimeric DNA patterns, when cellular DNA was obtained by boiling of mouthwash cell pellets. Following phenol/chloroform extraction, eight of 10 DNA samples exhibited a chimeric pattern, while two of 10 DNAs showed only donor genotype. Of three patients, epithelial cells were attached to magnetic beads prior to DNA isolation. Even this DNA contained donor and recipient material. From our results it appears that blood cells serve as preferential DNA source in mouthwash samples and cannot be removed by epithelial cell separation. (+info)
A clinical comparison of the efficacy and efficiency of two professional prophylaxis procedures in orthodontic patients.
This study compared the efficacy and efficiency of two professional prophylaxis procedures in orthodontic patients performing different oral hygiene regimens: the air powder polishing system (APP), and the rubber cup and pumice (RCP) technique. Sixty-two patients were divided into two groups: group I included 40 subjects who did not use any chlorhexidine mouthwash and group II comprised 22 subjects who regularly rinsed with a chlorhexidine mouthwash (at a 0.12 per cent concentration) and showed increased tooth staining. Using a split-mouth experimental design, the buccal and lingual tooth surfaces were cleaned in half of the mouth by the APP and in the opposite half by the RCP technique. Tooth surfaces were scored before (PRE) and after (POST) the experimental procedures for the plaque index (PI), and for the presence of tooth staining. In addition, the treatment time required by each procedure was recorded. In test group I, significant reductions in the PI after APP and RCP were observed. Likewise, in test group II, both procedures significantly reduced the baseline PI values. In both experimental groups, the percentage of stained sites significantly decreased after APP and RCP, but in test group II, APP seemed to be more effective than RCP. In addition, APP required significantly less time than RCP to remove dental plaque and staining. These data show that both professional prophylaxis procedures are effective in orthodontic patients, with APP being the most time-efficient technique and the most effective method for removal of tooth staining. (+info)
Self-collection of oral epithelial cell DNA under instruction from epidemiologic interviewers.
Oral epithelial cells provide an easily accessible source of germline DNA. Two methods for collection were compared in a 1992-1995 case-control study of oral cancer in Puerto Rico. One group of subjects (55 controls without oral cancer) collected oral rinse samples at home or work under the direction of a nonmedically trained interviewer ("self-collection"); the other group (94 controls) participated in a clinic-based collection, which also included blood and urine samples, conducted by a medical technician ("clinic collection"). Participation was higher for self-collection (98.2%) than for clinic collection (70.7%) (p < 0.001). DNA yields ranged from 2.0 to 204.5 microg (median, 25.9 microg) and did not differ by collection method, although yields varied by interviewer among self-collected samples (p = 0.02). Success rates for polymerase chain reaction amplification of the ADH3, NAT1, and multiplex CYP1A1/GSTT1/GSTM1 genotyping assays ranged from 76.4% (NAT1) to 98.2% (ADH3) for self-collected samples and were similar to those for clinic-collected samples (87.2-97.9%). Failure to amplify was associated with low DNA content (p = 0.015). Similar results were observed among cases (91 self-collected, 66 clinic collected), except that DNA yields did not vary by interviewer and a larger fraction (10.2%) of samples contained less than 5 microg of DNA, perhaps because of disease-related oral impairment. Self-collection of oral epithelial DNA samples appears satisfactory and efficient for many epidemiologic studies. (+info)
Characterization of exhaled nitric oxide: introducing a new reproducible method for nasal nitric oxide measurements.
Nitric oxide (NO) is present in the human nasal airways and has been suggested to originate primarily from the paranasal sinuses. The aim of this study was to establish a new and reproducible method for measurement of nasal NO. Through repeated single-breath measurements the intra- and inter-individual variations of NO levels in nasally (into a tightly fitting mask covering the nose) and orally exhaled air were determined in healthy humans. Variations due to the methods used were investigated. The contribution of oral NO to the nasal exhalations by introducing a mouthwash procedure was also studied. This study shows distinct individual values of NO in nasally and orally exhaled air of healthy humans. Some diurnal variability was also found with a rise in NO in nasally and orally exhaled air over the day, but no, or little, day-to-day variability when comparing the results from separate mornings. There was no correlation between NO levels in nasally and orally exhaled air, whereas there was a strong correlation between NO levels in air exhaled through the left and right nostril. The levels of NO in air exhaled at 0.17 L x s(-1) through either nostril separately were higher than in air exhaled at the same flow rate through both nostrils simultaneously. After the introduction of a mouthwash procedure the level of NO in orally, but not nasally exhaled air was reduced. To conclude the method using nasal exhalation into a nose mask is highly reproducible. It is also suggested that subtracting the level of NO in orally exhaled air, after mouthwash, from that in nasally exhaled air, would adequately reflect nasal NO levels. (+info)
Reduction of saltiness and bitterness after a chlorhexidine rinse.
Chronic rinsing with chlorhexidine, an oral-antiseptic, has been shown to decrease the saltiness of NaCl and the bitterness of quinine. The effect of acute chlorhexidine on taste has not been investigated. The purpose of the present study was to examine the effect of acute chlorhexidine rinses on taste intensity and quality of 11 stimuli representing sweet, salt, sour, bitter and savory. All stimuli were first matched for overall intensity so the effects of chlorhexidine would be directly comparable across compounds. As a control treatment, the bitter taste of chlorhexidine digluconate (0.12%) was matched in intensity to quinine HCl, which was found to cross-adapt the bitterness of chlorhexidine. Subjects participated in four experimental conditions: a pre-test, a quinine treatment, a chlorhexidine treatment, and a post-test condition, while rating total taste intensity and taste qualities in separate test sessions. Relative to the quinine treatment, chlorhexidine was found to decrease the salty taste of NaCl, KCl and NH4Cl, and not to significantly affect the tastes of sucrose, monosodium glutamate (MSG), citric acid, HCl and the taste of water. The bitter taste of urea, sucrose octa-acetate and quinine were suppressed after chlorhexidine rinses relative to water rinses, but were only marginally suppressed relative to quinine rinses. Potential mechanisms are discussed. (+info)
The effect of swallowing or rinsing alcohol solution on the mouth alcohol effect and slope detection of the intoxilyzer 5000.
Nine female and 21 male alcohol-free subjects introduced 10 mL of diluted gin (20% v/v alcohol) into their mouths under two conditions. The subjects either rinsed the alcohol for 10 s and then expectorated or immediately swallowed. They then provided breath samples into an Intoxilyzer 5000 at 5 and 10 min postadministration for both conditions. The mean Intoxilyzer results plus or minus one standard deviation (n = 30) were 0.091+/-0.051; 0.036+/-0.027; 0.014+/-0.011, and 0.004+/-0.006 g/210 L for 5 min after rinsing, 5 min after swallowing, 10 min after rinsing, and 10 min after swallowing, respectively. The percentages of times that mouth alcohol was correctly detected by the Intoxilyzer 5000 were 90%, 66%, 62% and 30% for these conditions, respectively. Ten minutes after the introduction of alcohol into the mouth, 63% of the Intoxilyzer results were > 0.010 g/210L after rinsing compared with only 7% after swallowing. The mouth alcohol effect is greater for rinsing than for swallowing alcohol. (+info)