Effects of hyper- and hypoventilation on gastric and sublingual PCO(2).
We investigated the effects of hyper- and hypoventilation on gastric (Pg(CO(2))) and sublingual (Psl(CO(2))) tissue PCO(2) before, during, and after reversal of hemorrhagic shock. Pg(CO(2)) was measured with ion-sensitive field-effect transistor sensor and Psl(CO(2)) with a CO(2) microelectrode. Under physiological conditions and during hemorrhagic shock, decreases in arterial (Pa(CO(2))) and end-tidal (PET(CO(2))) PCO(2) induced by hyperventilation produced corresponding decreases in Pg(CO(2)) and Psl(CO(2)). Hypoventilation produced corresponding increases in Pa(CO(2)), PET(CO(2)), Pg(CO(2)), and Psl(CO(2)). Accordingly, acute decreases and increases in Pa(CO(2)) and PET(CO(2)) produced statistically similar decreases and increases in Pg(CO(2)) and Psl(CO(2)). No significant changes in the tissue PCO(2)-Pa(CO(2)) gradients were observed during hemorrhagic shock in the absence or in the presence of hyper- or hypoventilation. Acute changes in Pg(CO(2)) and Psl(CO(2)) should, therefore, be interpreted in relationship with concurrent changes in Pa(CO(2)) and/or PET(CO(2)). (+info)
Tobacco-associated lesions of the oral cavity: Part II. Malignant lesions.
Nonmalignant tobacco-associated lesions of the oral cavity were discussed in the first part of this two-part article. Here, we describe malignant lesions associated with tobacco use, basic biopsy principles for such lesions and intervention strategies that dental professionals may use to reduce the chances of their patients developing precancerous lesions or primary malignancies. (+info)
Depression of sublingual temperature by cold saliva.
Sublingual and oesophageal temperatures were compared at various air temperatures in 16 subjects. In warm air (25-44 degrees C) sublingual temperatures stabilized within plus or minus 0-45 degrees C of oesophageal temperatures, but in air at room temperature (18-24 degrees C) they were sometimes as much as 1-1 degrees C below and in cold air (5-10 degrees C) as much as 4-4 degrees C below oesophageal readings. The sublingual-oesophageal temperature difference in cold air was greatly reduced by keeping the face warm, but it was not reduced in two patients breathing through tracheostomies and thereby eliminating cold air flow from the nose and pharynx. Parotid saliva temperature was low and saliva flow high during exposure, and cold saliva seemed to be mainly responsible for the erratic depression of sublingual temperature in the cold. These results indicate hazards in the casual use of sublingual temperatures, and indicate that external heat may have to be supplied to enable them to give reliable clinical assessments of body temperature. (+info)
Quantitative real-time PCR identifies a critical region of deletion on 22q13 related to prognosis in oral cancer.
Quantitative real time PCR was performed on genomic DNA from 40 primary oral carcinomas and the normal adjacent tissues. The target genes ECGFB, DIA1, BIK, and PDGFB and the microsatellite markers D22S274 and D22S277, mapped on 22q13, were selected according to our previous loss of heterozygosity findings in head and neck tumors. Quantitative PCR relies on the comparison of the amount of product generated from a target gene and that generated from a disomic reference gene (GAPDH-housekeeping gene). Reactions have been performed with normal control in triplicates, using the 7700 Sequence Detection System (PE Applied Biosystems). Losses in the sequences D22S274 (22q13.31) and in the DIA1 (22q13.2-13.31) gene were detected in 10 out of 40 cases (25%) each. Statistically significant correlations were observed for patients with relative copy number loss of the marker D22S274 and stages T3-T4 of disease (P=0.025), family history of cancer (P=0.001), and death (P=0.021). Relative copy number loss involving the DIA1 gene was correlated to family history of cancer (P<0.001), death (P=0.002), and consumption of alcohol (P=0.026). Log-rank test revealed a significant decrease in survival (P=0.0018) for patients with DIA1 gene loss. Relative copy number losses detected in these sequences may be related to disease progression and a worse prognosis in patients with oral cancer. (+info)
Dermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth.
Dermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth are rare lesions thought to be caused by entrapment of germinal epithelium during the closure of the mandibular and hyoid branchial arches. They usually present as a nonpainful swelling. This type of lesion occurs more frequently in patients between 15 and 35 years, but can be seen in all age ranges. Histologically, all dermoids are lined by epidermis. The contents of the cyst lining determine the histological categories of the cyst: epidermoid, if epidermis is lining the cyst; dermoid, if skin annexes exist; or teratoid, if there are tissues derivated from the three germinal layers. Anatomical classification is useful for surgical approach choice, intra- or extraorally. This report presents a case of a dermoid cyst of the floor of the mouth in a 12-year-old patient, and a review of all steps necessary for its diagnosis and treatment was made. (+info)
Oral lichen planus: a clinical and morphometric study of oral lesions in relation to clinical presentation.
Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease with different clinical presentations that can be classified as reticular or atrophic-erosive. Sixty-two OLP patients were studied to evaluate the clinical-pathologic characteristics of their OLP lesions and to investigate possible differences in their biological behavior. The most common clinical presentation was the reticular type (62.9% vs 37.1%). Atrophic-erosive presentations showed significantly longer evolution (chi square=4.454; p=0.049), more extensive lesions (chi square=16.211; p=0.000) and more sites affected than reticular ones (chi square=10.048; p=0.002). Atrophic-erosive OLP was more frequently found on the tongue, gingiva and floor of the mouth. No statistically significant differences could be identified between reticular and atrophic-erosive clinical presentations in terms of age, sex, tobacco habit, plasma cortisol level and depth of inflammatory infiltrate. We concluded that the classification of OLP lesions as reticular vs atrophic-erosive is a simple, easy to use classification that can identify clinical presentations with different biological behavior. (+info)
Difficulties in diagnosing lesions in the floor of the mouth--report of two rare cases.
This article highlights 2 contrasting lesions of the floor of the mouth, the first being a benign lipoma growth and the latter, an adenoid cystic carcinoma. Both of these lesions appear clinically similar, presenting as a swelling with normal overlying mucosa and otherwise asymptomatic at the time of clinical examination. As the swelling for Case 1 is small and fluctuant, no special investigation was ordered, whereas a computed tomographic scan was ordered for the larger expansile lesion in Case 2. The lesions were excised under local and general anaesthesia respectively and a histology henceforth. Recovery for both cases were uneventful and no recurrence or complication was noted to date when this article was written. The two extreme natures of the lesions manifested in the region serve as a cautionary note to clinicians. (+info)
Case report of a dermoid cyst at the floor of the mouth.
The growth of dermoid cysts at the floor of the mouth is considered a rare condition. Typically, intra-oral dermoid cysts present as non-tender, slow growing masses at the sublingual, submental and submandibular region. We report a case of a young adult male who presented at our hospital with a sublingual cyst superimposed with acute infection and failed antibiotic treatment. The cyst was excised and confirmed histopathologically as a dermoid cyst with overlying acute inflammation. Clinical progress was uneventful and postoperative recovery excellent with no recurrence. (+info)