A new tool for measuring the suckling stimulus during breastfeeding in humans: the orokinetogram and the Fourier series.
The Fourier series was used to analyse the oral movements recorded by the orokinetogram during breastfeeding in human babies. This is a new method that allows recording of oral movements without introducing any extrinsic element between the nipple and the mouth of the baby. The advantage of displaying suckling activity after fast Fourier transform (FFT) is that this algorithm allows storage, quantification and frequency analysis of the oral movements throughout a suckling bout, which enables the total oral activity to be measured. Two types of oral movements are found: slow high amplitude (SHA) and fast low amplitude (FLA). FLA movements may be derived from peristaltic movements of the tongue that result in tickling stimuli to the mechanoreceptors of the nipple and milk expression. The frequency bandwidth of oral movements is wider (0-8 Hz) than has been described previously (0-3 Hz) and this is due to the presence of the FLA oral movements. An indirect measurement of the energy of oral movements during suckling is obtained by the pattern of energy distribution used in each individual frequency band by oral movements. This pattern changes in relation to the periods of continuous and intermittent suckling activity. SHA and FLA oral movements are more intense during continuous suckling. Statistical analysis showed a correlation between the energy of SHA and FLA waves throughout the suckling bout, and also that the highest level of energy during suckling activity is displayed during the first 2 min. The novel tools described in this paper allow investigation of the role of suckling stimulus in reflex hormone release and other mother-infant interactions. (+info)
Fungal prophylaxis by reduction of fungal colonization by oral administration of bovine anti-Candida antibodies in bone marrow transplant recipients.
Candida overgrowth and invasion constitute a serious threat with a high mortality in BMT recipients. Currently available topical antifungal prophylaxis is largely ineffective, and as resistance to existing, absorbable drugs for systemic use is rapidly developing, new forms of therapy are needed. We investigated the effect of oral treatment of BMT recipients with a bovine immunoglobulin product derived from animals immunized against several Candida species. The natural Candida colonization was first followed in 19 patients to establish the colonization pattern. Half of the patients were found to be colonized prior to transplantation and altogether 72% were colonized at some point during follow-up. Those with a high pre-transplant concentration of Candida in saliva (>100 CFU/ml) remained colonized throughout the BMT treatment period. The therapeutic effect was monitored in two other patient groups. The first group consisted of nine patients, where, due to a low number of primary colonized patients, response in colonized patients was suggestive of a therapeutic effect. In the second group, 10 patients with a high level of colonization (>100 CFU/ml) were given 10 g daily of the product in three divided doses. The results suggest a treatment-related reduction in Candida colonization in a majority (7/10) of patients and one patient became completely negative. As no adverse effects were noted, our findings encourage additional studies in immunocompromised, transplant patients. (+info)
Humoral immunity to commensal oral bacteria in human infants: salivary secretory immunoglobulin A antibodies reactive with Streptococcus mitis biovar 1, Streptococcus oralis, Streptococcus mutans, and Enterococcus faecalis during the first two years of life.
Secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) antibodies reactive with the pioneer oral streptococci Streptococcus mitis biovar 1 and Streptococcus oralis, the late oral colonizer Streptococcus mutans, and the pioneer enteric bacterium Enterococcus faecalis in saliva samples from 10 human infants from birth to age 2 years were analyzed. Low levels of salivary SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with whole cells of all four species were detected within the first month after birth, even though S. mutans and E. faecalis were not recovered from the mouths of the infants during the study period. Although there was a fivefold increase in the concentration of SIgA between birth and age 2 years, there were no differences between the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with the four species over this time period. When the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with all four species were normalized to the concentrations of SIgA1 and SIgA2 in saliva, SIgA1 and SIgA2 antibodies reactive with these bacteria showed a significant decrease from birth to 2 years of age. Adsorption of each infant's saliva with cells of one species produced a dramatic reduction of antibodies recognizing the other three species. Sequential adsorption of saliva samples removed all SIgA antibody to the bacteria, indicating that the SIgA antibodies were directed to antigens shared by all four species. The induction by the host of a limited immune response to common antigens that are likely not involved in adherence may be among the mechanisms that commensal streptococci employ to persist in the oral cavity. (+info)
Inhalation exposure of animals.
Relative advantages and disadvantages and important design criteria for various exposure methods are presented. Five types of exposures are discussed: whole-body chambers, head-only exposures, nose or mouth-only methods, lung-only exposures, and partial-lung exposures. Design considerations covered include: air cleaning and conditioning; construction materials; losses of exposure materials; evenness of exposure; sampling biases; animal observation and care; noise and vibration control, safe exhausts, chamber loading, reliability, pressure fluctuations; neck seals, masks, animal restraint methods; and animal comfort. Ethical considerations in use of animals in inhalation experiments are also discussed. (+info)
Dopaminergic synapses mediate neuronal changes in an analogue of operant conditioning.
Feeding behavior in Aplysia can be modified by operant conditioning in which contingent reinforcement is conveyed by the esophageal nerve (E n.). A neuronal analogue of this conditioning in the isolated buccal ganglia was developed by using stimulation of E n. as an analogue of contingent reinforcement. Previous studies indicated that E n. may release dopamine. We used a dopamine antagonist (methylergonovine) to investigate whether dopamine mediated the enhancement of motor patterns in the analogue of operant conditioning. Methylergonovine blocked synaptic connections from the reinforcement pathway and the contingent-dependent enhancement of the reinforced pattern. These results suggest that dopamine mediates at least part of the neuronal modifications induced by contingent reinforcement. (+info)
Coaggregation of Candida dubliniensis with Fusobacterium nucleatum.
The binding of microorganisms to each other and oral surfaces contributes to the progression of microbial infections in the oral cavity. Candida dubliniensis, a newly characterized species, has been identified in human immunodeficiency virus-seropositive patients and other immunocompromised individuals. C. dubliniensis phenotypically resembles Candida albicans in many respects yet can be identified and differentiated as a unique Candida species by phenotypic and genetic profiles. The purpose of this study was to determine oral coaggregation (CoAg) partners of C. dubliniensis and to compare these findings with CoAg of C. albicans under the same environmental conditions. Fifteen isolates of C. dubliniensis and 40 isolates of C. albicans were tested for their ability to coaggregate with strains of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Peptostreptococcus micros, Peptostreptococcus magnus, Peptostreptococcus anaerobius, Porphyromonas gingivalis, and Prevotella intermedia. When C. dubliniensis and C. albicans strains were grown at 37 degrees C on Sabouraud dextrose agar, only C. dubliniensis strains coaggregated with F. nucleatum ATCC 49256 and no C. albicans strains showed CoAg. However, when the C. dubliniensis and C. albicans strains were grown at 25 or 45 degrees C, both C. dubliniensis and C. albicans strains demonstrated CoAg with F. nucleatum. Heating the C. albicans strains (grown at 37 degrees C) at 85 degrees C for 30 min or treating them with dithiothreitol allowed the C. albicans strains grown at 37 degrees C to coaggregate with F. nucleatum. CoAg at all growth temperatures was inhibited by mannose and alpha-methyl mannoside but not by EDTA or arginine. The CoAg reaction between F. nucleatum and the Candida species involved a heat-labile component on F. nucleatum and a mannan-containing heat-stable receptor on the Candida species. The CoAg reactions between F. nucleatum and the Candida species may be important in the colonization of the yeast in the oral cavity, and the CoAg of C. dubliniensis by F. nucleatum when grown at 37 degrees C provides a rapid, specific, and inexpensive means to differentiate C. dubliniensis from C. albicans isolates in the clinical laboratory. (+info)
Strains of Actinomyces naeslundii and Actinomyces viscosus exhibit structurally variant fimbrial subunit proteins and bind to different peptide motifs in salivary proteins.
Oral strains of Actinomyces spp. express type 1 fimbriae, which are composed of major FimP subunits, and bind preferentially to salivary acidic proline-rich proteins (APRPs) or to statherin. We have mapped genetic differences in the fimP subunit genes and the peptide recognition motifs within the host proteins associated with these differential binding specificities. The fimP genes were amplified by PCR from Actinomyces viscosus ATCC 19246, with preferential binding to statherin, and from Actinomyces naeslundii LY7, P-1-K, and B-1-K, with preferential binding to APRPs. The fimP gene from the statherin-binding strain 19246 is novel and has about 80% nucleotide and amino acid sequence identity to the highly conserved fimP genes of the APRP-binding strains (about 98 to 99% sequence identity). The novel FimP protein contains an amino-terminal signal peptide, randomly distributed single-amino-acid substitutions, and structurally different segments and ends with a cell wall-anchoring and a membrane-spanning region. When agarose beads with CNBr-linked host determinant-specific decapeptides were used, A. viscosus 19246 bound to the Thr42Phe43 terminus of statherin and A. naeslundii LY7 bound to the Pro149Gln150 termini of APRPs. Furthermore, while the APRP-binding A. naeslundii strains originate from the human mouth, A. viscosus strains isolated from the oral cavity of rat and hamster hosts showed preferential binding to statherin and contained the novel fimP gene. Thus, A. viscosus and A. naeslundii display structurally variant fimP genes whose protein products are likely to interact with different peptide motifs and to determine animal host tropism. (+info)
Bacterium-dependent induction of cytokines in mononuclear cells and their pathologic consequences in vivo.
Viridans streptococci are a heterogeneous group of gram-positive bacteria that are normal inhabitants of the mouth. These organisms are thought to contribute significantly to the etiology of infective endocarditis, although recently they have been implicated in serious infections in other settings. Another group of oral bacteria, gram-negative anaerobes, is associated with chronic dental infections, such as periodontal diseases or endodontic lesion formation. We evaluated the ability of the oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans and Porphyromonas endodontalis to induce a pathogenic response in vivo, with the goal of quantifying the inflammatory response in soft tissue by measuring leukocyte recruitment and hard tissues by measuring osteoclastogenesis. S. mutans induced a strong inflammatory response and was a potent inducer of osteoclast formation, while P. endodontalis was not. To further study the mechanisms by which P. endodontalis and S. mutans elicit significantly different levels of inflammatory responses in vivo, we tested the capacity of each to induce production of cytokines by mononuclear cells in vitro. S. mutans stimulated high levels of interleukin-12 (IL-12), gamma interferon (IFN-gamma), and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha), all of which are associated with inflammation, enhanced monocyte function, and generation of a Th1 response. In contrast, P. endodontalis stimulated production of IL-10 but not of TNF-alpha, IL-12, or IFN-gamma. These results demonstrate that oral pathogens differ dramatically in their abilities to induce inflammatory and immunoregulatory cytokines. Moreover, there is a high degree of correlation between the cytokine profile induced by these bacteria in vitro and their pathogenic capacity in vivo. (+info)