Molecular distinction amongst varieties of mulberry using RAPD and DAMD profiles.
BACKGROUND: Mulberry trees are the most important host for rearing mulberry silkworms in sericulture. Improved varieties of mulberry tree have been developed through traditional breeding procedures. Not much work, however, has been carried out on the molecular characterization of these varieties. Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and Directed Amplification of Minisatellite DNA (DAMD) methods based on Polymerase Chain Reaction are important tools to analyze genetic diversity of mulberries. These have been used to determine variation amongst nine varieties of Morus spp. maintained at Banthra Research Station of National Botanical Research Institute, Lucknow. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The varieties were analyzed using 23 arbitrary sequence decamer primers for RAPD, and 3 minisatellite core sequence primers for DAMD reactions. The RAPD and DAMD band data, (a total of 200 bands), were used to determine the pair wise distances according to Jaccard's algorithm. From these distance values Neighbour Joining (NJ) analyses were carried out separately for the RAPD and the DAMD data. The triploid varieties were found to be most similar to each other using RAPD analysis, while the varieties S13 and S34 were more similar using DAMD analysis. Nearly 85% of the RAPD bands and 91% of the DAMD bands were polymorphic across the nine varieties. CONCLUSIONS: The mulberry varieties could be distinguished by their RAPD and DAMD profiles. As many as five RAPD primers and one DAMD primer generated profiles that can together differentiate all the nine varieties in terms of unique bands. (+info)
Inhibitory effect and mechanism of action of sanggenon C on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte adhesion to human synovial cells.
AIM: To examine the effect of sanggenon C on human polymorphonuclear leukocyte (PMN) adhesion to human synovial cell(HSC), and explore its mechanism. METHODS: Adhesion of PMN to HSC was measured by MTT colorimetry. Cell-ELISA and RT-PCR methods were used to examine the expression of adhesion molecules ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Activation of nuclear factor-kappa B(NF-kappaB) was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assays(EMSA) method. RESULTS: Sanggenon C effectively inhibited TNF-alpha (50 kU/L for 12 h) and IL-1beta (50 kU/L for 12 h) induced adhesion of PMN to HSC (IC50 27.29 nmol/L and 54.45 nmol/L, respectively) in a concentration-dependent manner. Adhesion molecule VCAM-1 surface protein and mRNA expression induced by TNF-alpha 50 kU/L were significantly inhibited by sanggenon C, nevertheless, for ICAM-1 only surface protein expression being inhibited. The activation of NF-kappaB was also extensively inhibited by sanggenon C. CONCLUSION: Sanggenon C inhibited TNF-alpha -stimulated PMN-HSC adhesion and expression of VCAM-1 by suppressing the activation of NF-kappaB. (+info)
Mulberroside F isolated from the leaves of Morus alba inhibits melanin biosynthesis.
The current study was carried out to investigate the in vitro effects of an 85% methanol extract of dried Morus alba leaves on melanin biosynthesis, which is closely related to hyperpigmentation. These extracts inhibited the tyrosinase activity that converts dopa to dopachrome in the biosynthetic process of melanin. Mulberroside F (moracin M-6, 3'-di-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside), which was obtained after the bioactivity-guided fractionation of the extracts, showed inhibitory effects on tyrosinase activity and on the melanin formation of melan-a cells. This compound also exhibited superoxide scavenging activity that is involved in the protection against auto-oxidation. But its activity was low and was weaker than of kojic acid. These results suggest that mulberroside F isolated from mulberry leaves might be used as a skin whitening agent. (+info)
Two distinct jacalin-related lectins with a different specificity and subcellular location are major vegetative storage proteins in the bark of the black mulberry tree.
Using a combination of protein isolation/characterization and molecular cloning, we have demonstrated that the bark of the black mulberry tree (Morus nigra) accumulates large quantities of a galactose-specific (MornigaG) and a mannose (Man)-specific (MornigaM) jacalin-related lectin. MornigaG resembles jacalin with respect to its molecular structure, specificity, and co- and posttranslational processing indicating that it follows the secretory pathway and eventually accumulates in the vacuolar compartment. In contrast, MornigaM represents a novel type of highly active Man-specific jacalin-related lectin that is synthesized without signal peptide or other vacuolar targeting sequences, and accordingly, accumulates in the cytoplasm. The isolation and cloning, and immunocytochemical localization of MornigaG and MornigaM not only demonstrates that jacalin-related lectins act as vegetative storage proteins in bark, but also allows a detailed comparison of a vacuolar galactose-specific and a cytoplasmic Man-specific jacalin-related lectin from a single species. Moreover, the identification of MornigaM provides the first evidence, to our knowledge, that bark cells accumulate large quantities of a cytoplasmic storage protein. In addition, due to its high activity, abundance, and ease of preparation, MornigaM is of great potential value for practical applications as a tool and bioactive protein in biological and biomedical research. (+info)
Administration of Folium mori extract decreases nitric oxide synthase expression in the hypothalamus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Folium mori, the leaves of Morus alba L., has traditionally been used for the treatment of diabetic hyperglycemia. It has been shown to induce enhanced NOS expression in the hypothalamus of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes. In the present study, the effect of Folium mori on the expression of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the hypothalamus of STZ-induced diabetic rats was investigated via nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-diaphorase (NADPH-d) histochemistry. Enhanced NAPDH-d expression was detected in the paraventricular nucleus, ventromedial hypothalamic nucleus, and lateral hypothalamic area of the hypothalamus in the STZ-induced diabetes group. Administration of the aqueous extract of Folium mori to rats with STZ-induced diabetes resulted in decreased NADPH-d positivity. These results suggest that Folium mori treatment is effective in curbing the desire for food under diabetic conditions via modulation of NO expression in the hypothalamus. (+info)
Folium mori increases cell proliferation and neuropeptide Y expression in dentate gyrus of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
The possibility has been raised that Folium mori is clinically effective for the treatment and prevention of diabetes. In the present study, the effects of Folium mori on cell proliferation and expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the dentate gyrus of rats with streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes were investigated by 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) immunohistochemistry and NPY immunohistochemistry. In rats with STZ-induced diabetes, cell proliferation and NPY expression in the dentate gyrus were suppressed, and treatment with Folium mori was shown to increase new cell formation and NPY expression in the dentate gyrus in both normal rats and those with STZ-induced diabetes. In light of previous studies, this result appears to indicate that increased expression of NPY in the dentate gyrus induced by treatment with Folium mori is associated with the observed effect of Folium mori extract on cell proliferation. Based on the present results, it is suggested that Folium mori treatment may aid in the recovery from the central nervous system complications of diabetes mellitus. (+info)
Genetic diversity and relationships in mulberry (genus Morus) as revealed by RAPD and ISSR marker assays.
BACKGROUND: The genus Morus, known as mulberry, is a dioecious and cross-pollinating plant that is the sole food for the domesticated silkworm, Bombyx mori. Traditional methods using morphological traits for classification are largely unsuccessful in establishing the diversity and relationships among different mulberry species because of environmental influence on traits of interest. As a more robust alternative, PCR based marker assays including RAPD and ISSR were employed to study the genetic diversity and interrelationships among twelve domesticated and three wild mulberry species. RESULTS: RAPD analysis using 19 random primers generated 128 discrete markers ranging from 500-3000 bp in size. One-hundred-nineteen of these were polymorphic (92%), with an average of 6.26 markers per primer. Among these were a few putative species-specific amplification products which could be useful for germplasm classification and introgression studies. The ISSR analysis employed six anchored primers, 4 of which generated 93 polymorphic markers with an average of 23.25 markers per primer. Cluster analysis of RAPD and ISSR data using the WINBOOT package to calculate the Dice coefficient resulted into two clusters, one comprising polyploid wild species and the other with domesticated (mostly diploid) species. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that RAPD and ISSR markers are useful for mulberry genetic diversity analysis and germplasm characterization, and that putative species-specific markers may be obtained which can be converted to SCARs after further studies. (+info)
Chalcone dimethylallyltransferase from Morus nigra cell cultures. Substrate specificity studies.
A new prenyltransferase (PT) enzyme derived from the microsomal fractions of cell cultures of Morus nigra was shown to be able to prenylate exclusively chalcones with a 2',4'-dihydroxy substitution and the isoflavone genistein. Computational studies were performed to shed some light on the relationship between the structure of the substrate and the enzymatic activity. PT requires divalent cations, particularly Mg(2+), to be effective. The apparent K(m) values for gamma,gamma-dimethylallyldiphosphate and 2',4'-dihydroxychalcone were 63 and 142 microM, respectively. The maximum activity of the enzyme was expressed during the first 10 days of cell growth. (+info)