A practical approach to determine cutoff concentrations for opiate testing with simultaneous detection of codeine, morphine, and 6-acetylmorphine in urine.
BACKGROUND: Both the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS) currently require two confirmation tests to verify use of heroin, one test for total morphine and a separate test for 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM). Our aim was to determine appropriate free-codeine, free-morphine, and 6-AM cutoff concentrations that could be substituted for total-morphine, total-codeine, and 6-AM cutoff concentrations and to develop a less labor-intensive method for measuring codeine, morphine, and 6-AM. METHODS: Urine samples containing opiates were extracted, derivatized, and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with selective ion monitoring. RESULTS: The limits of detection for codeine, morphine, and 6-AM were 6, 5, and 0.5 microg/L, respectively. Recoveries were >90%. Quantification was linear over the concentration range of 6-1000 microg/L for codeine, 5-5000 microg/L for morphine, and 0.5-800 microg/L for 6-AM. Cutoff concentrations for confirmation of opiates were 100, 100, and 10 microg/L for free codeine, free morphine, and 6-AM. CONCLUSION: The proposed cutoff concentrations for free morphine and 6-AM provide better detection windows for morphine and heroin use than the cutoff concentrations for total morphine and 6-AM used at present. Detection of free codeine, instead of total codeine, simplifies interpretation of codeine use. The single-extraction method enables simultaneous, less labor-intensive analysis of morphine, codeine, and 6-AM. (+info)
Pharmacokinetic modeling of M6G formation after oral administration of morphine in healthy volunteers.
BACKGROUND: Morphine is metabolized to two major metabolites, morphine-3-glucuronide and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G). Under the conditions of long-term oral morphine administration, the accumulation of M6G may contribute to the analgesic effects, but it may also cause respiratory depression. METHODS: Five healthy male volunteers (ages 25-34 yr) received 90 mg MST (morphine sulfate 5H2O sustained-released tablet, equivalent to 67.8 mg oral morphine). Multiple plasma and urine samples were taken for as long as 14 and 36 h, respectively. Individual pharmacokinetics after intravenous administration of morphine and M6G were available from a previous investigation. A new model that considers the M6G-plasma profile as a sum of the input from the first-pass metabolism of morphine and the input from systemically available morphine was applied to the plasma concentration versus time curves of M6G. The concentrations of M6G at the effect site after long-term morphine administration were simulated. RESULTS: The fraction of morphine absorbed from the gut was 82+/-14%. Of this, 42+/-8% passed through the liver, resulting in an oral bioavailability of morphine of 34+/-9%. Of the total amount of M6G, 71+/-7% was formed during the first-pass metabolism, and 29+/-7% was formed by metabolism of systemic morphine. After 36 h, the amounts of M6G and morphine excreted in the urine were 92+/-17% and 9+/-3%, respectively. Simulation of effect-site concentrations of M6G indicated that after multiple oral dosing of morphine in patients with normal liver and renal function, M6G might reach concentrations two times greater than that of morphine. CONCLUSIONS: M6G may contribute to the analgesic and side effects seen with long-term morphine treatment. The current model of morphine and M6G pharmacokinetics after oral administration of morphine may serve as a pharmacokinetic basis for experiments evaluating the analgesic contribution of M6G with long-term oral dosing of morphine. (+info)
Pharmacokinetics of morphine and its glucuronides following intravenous administration of morphine in patients undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis.
BACKGROUND: Conjugation with glucuronic acid represents the major route of biotransformation of morphine. The glucuronides morphine-3-glucuronide (M3G) and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) are eliminated via the kidneys. Therefore, chronic renal failure should affect the disposition of M3G and M6G. Numerous patients undergoing long-term continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) require pain treatment with morphine. There are only limited data available about the disposition of morphine and its active metabolites M6G and M3G in patients on CAPD. We therefore investigated the pharmacokinetics of morphine and its metabolites in CAPD patients. METHODS: This was a single intravenous dose pharmacokinetic study in 10 CAPD patients (1 female, 9 male, age 31-69 years). Morphine-hydrochloride (Mo) (10 mg) was administered intravenously. Serum, urine, and dialysate samples were collected during 24 h. GC-MS-MS and HPLC-MS methods were used to quantify respectively morphine and morphine glucuronides. RESULTS: While systemic clearance of morphine (1246+/-240 ml/min) was in the range observed in patients with normal kidney function, both M3G and M6G showed substantial accumulation. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio of M3G:Mo (33.4+/-7.1) and of M6G:Mo (12.2+/-3.2) was 5.5 and 13.5 times higher than in patients with normal kidney function. Renal clearances of morphine, M3G, and M6G (morphine 3.0+/-2.5 ml/min; M3G 3.9+/-2.2 ml/min; M6G 3.6+/-2.2 ml/min) and dialysate clearances (morphine 4.1+/-1.3 ml/min; M3G 3.2+/-0.7 ml/min; M6G 3.0+/-0.8 ml/min) were extremely low. Therefore the accumulation of M6G and M3G is readily explained by kidney failure which is not compensated by CAPD. CONCLUSION: Accumulation of M3G and M6G is due to the substantially lowered clearance by residual renal function and peritoneal dialysis. In view of the accumulation of potential active metabolites, subsequent investigations have to assess the frequency of side-effects in patients on CAPD. (+info)
Detection of 6-acetylmorphine in vitreous humor and cerebrospinal fluid--comparison with urinary analysis for proving heroin administration in opiate fatalities.
The concentrations of morphine and 6-acetylmorphine (6-AM) in urine, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and vitreous humor (VH) and the morphine concentrations in blood were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for 29 fatalities after abuse of heroin either alone or in combination with alcohol and other drugs. 6-AM was found above a quantitation limit of 1 ng/mL in urine in 89% of the cases, in CSF in 68% of the cases, and in VH in 75% of the cases. The 6-AM concentrations in CSF (mean, 10 ng/mL) and VH (mean, 17 ng/mL) were in general much smaller than in urine (mean, 170 ng/mL); therefore, the different pharmacokinetic behavior of the fluids is discussed. There is no uniformity between the three fluids with respect to the presence or absence of 6-AM. Therefore, CSF or VH may be used as complementary or alternative materials to urine in order to prove heroin uptake in opiate fatalities. (+info)
GC-MS confirmation of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone in urine.
A procedure for the simultaneous confirmation of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, and oxymorphone in urine specimens by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) is described. After the addition of nalorphine and naltrexone as the two internal standards, the urine is hydrolyzed overnight with beta-glucuronidase from E. coli. The urine is adjusted to pH 9 and extracted with 8% trifluoroethanol in methylene dichloride. After evaporating the organic, the residue is sequentially derivatized with 2% methoxyamine in pyridine, then with propionic anhydride. The ketone groups on hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone, oxymorphone, and naltrexone are converted to their respective methoximes. Available hydroxyl groups on the O3 and O6 positions are converted to propionic esters. After a brief purification step, the extracts are analyzed by GC-MS using full scan electron impact ionization. Nalorphine is used as the internal standard for codeine, morphine, and 6-acetylmorphine; naltrexone is used as the internal standard for the 6-keto-opioids. The method is linear to 2000 ng/mL for the 6-keto-opioids and to 5000 ng/mL for the others. The limit of quantitation is 25 ng/mL in hydrolyzed urine. Day-to-day precision at 300 and 1500 ng/mL ranged between 6 and 10.9%. The coefficients of variation for 6-acetylmorphine were 12% at both 30 and 150 ng/mL. A list of 38 other basic drugs or metabolites detected by this method is tabulated. (+info)
Topical opioids in mice: analgesia and reversal of tolerance by a topical N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist.
In addition to its central actions, morphine has important peripheral effects. To examine peripheral analgesic mechanisms, we developed a topical opioid paradigm in which the tail was immersed in a dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solution containing various drugs. Alone, DMSO was inactive in the tail-flick assay in mice. DMSO solutions containing morphine and peptides such as [D-Ala2,MePhe4, Gly(ol)5]enkephalin (DAMGO) produced a potent, dose-dependent analgesia with the radiant heat tail-flick assay. The actions of the drugs were local. Analgesia was observed only in regions of the tail exposed to the solution and not in more proximal unexposed portions of the tail. Immersion of the tail in a solution containing either 125I-labeled morphine or 125I-labeled DAMGO revealed no detectable uptake of radioactivity into the brain, spinal cord, or blood. In the tail, radioactivity was limited only to the regions actually immersed in the solutions. The topical drugs potentiated systemic agents, similar to the previously established synergy between peripheral and central sites of action. Local tolerance was rapidly produced by repeated daily exposure of the tail to morphine. Topical morphine tolerance was effectively blocked by the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist MK801 given either systemically or topically but not intrathecally. The ability of a topical NMDA antagonist to block local morphine tolerance suggests that peripheral NMDA receptors mediate topical morphine tolerance. Morphine was cross-tolerant to DAMGO, but not to morphine-6beta-glucuronide, implying different mechanisms of action. These observations are significant in the design and use of opioids clinically. (+info)
kappa-Opioid receptor effects of butorphanol in rhesus monkeys.
Butorphanol and nalbuphine have substantial affinity for mu and kappa-opioid receptor sites, yet their behavioral effects in monkeys are largely consistent with a mu receptor mechanism of action. Using ethylketocyclazocine (EKC) discrimination and diuresis assays in rhesus monkeys (Macaca mulatta), the purpose of the current investigation was to characterize the in vivo kappa-opioid activity of these compounds through the use of an insurmountable mu-opioid receptor antagonist, clocinnamox. Alone, butorphanol (0.001-0.032 mg/kg i.m.) failed to generalize to EKC, and pretreatment with the competitive opioid receptor antagonist quadazocine (0.1 or 0.32 mg/kg i.m.) did not alter this generalization. At 24 h after clocinnamox (0.1 mg/kg i.m.) administration, butorphanol fully generalized to EKC, and this generalization was maintained in two of three monkeys at 72 h. Parallel results were observed in diuresis: butorphanol alone and in the presence of quadazocine (1 mg/kg i.m.) did not alter urine output, and a marked diuretic effect was demonstrated 24 h to 2 weeks after clocinnamox administration. Clocinnamox did not alter the discriminative stimulus or diuretic effects of nalbuphine or of the kappa-opioid receptor agonists EKC or U69593. These results are consistent with an in vivo agonist activity of butorphanol at kappa-opioid receptors that can only be demonstrated when an insurmountable antagonist has substantially eliminated the dominant receptor population through which it exerts its action. (+info)
Morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children.
AIMS: To measure morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid of children following a single intravenous dose of morphine. METHODS: Twenty-nine paired samples of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma were collected from children with leukaemia undergoing therapeutic lumbar puncture. An intravenous dose of morphine was administered at selected intervals before the procedure. Concentrations of morphine and morphine-6-glucuronide (M6G) were measured in each sample. Morphine was measured using a specific radioimmunoassay (r.i.a.) and M6G was measured using a novel enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). RESULTS: The ELISA for measuring M6G was highly sensitive. The intra-and interassay variations were less than 15%. Using a two-compartment model for plasma morphine, the area under the curve to infinity (AUC, 7143 ng ml-1 min), volume of distribution (3.6 l kg-1 ) and elimination half-life (88 min) were comparable with those reported in adults. Clearance (35 ml min-1 ) was higher than that in adults. Morphine-6-glucuronide was readily synthesized by the children in this study. The elimination half-life (321 min) and AUC (35507 ng ml-1 min) of plasma M6G were much greater than those of morphine. CONCLUSIONS: Extensive metabolism of morphine to M6G in children with cancer has been demonstrated. These data provide further evidence to support the importance of M6G accumulation after multiple doses. There was no evidence that morphine passed more easily into the CSF of children than adults. (+info)