Non-purulent meningoencephalomyelitis of a Pacific striped dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens). The first evidence of morbillivirus infection in a dolphin at the Pacific Ocean around Japan. (1/26)

On March 22, 1998, a mature, male, hyposthenic Pacific striped dolphin (Lagenorhynchus obliquidens) was stranded at Aoshima Beach in Miyazaki prefecture, Japan. A necropsy performed 14 hr after death revealed mild diffuse congestion and edema of the leptomeninges and mild pulmonary atelectasis. Histopathologically, non-purulent inflammatory were observed throughout the cerebrum, thalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, and spinal cord. Hematoxylin and eosin stain revealed no viral inclusion bodies. Immunohistochemistry using a monoclonal antibody against nucleoprotein of canine distemper virus (CDV-NP) revealed a number of CDV-NP-positive granular deposits in the cytoplasm and cell processes of the degenerating or intact neurons. The present paper is a first report of spontaneously occurred morbillivirus infection in a dolphin at the Pacific Ocean around Japan.  (+info)

Dermatitis with invasive ciliated protozoa in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphin morbilliviral epizootic. (2/26)

Dermatitis with intradermal cilated protozoa was identified in 18 of 95 (19%) Atlantic Bottlenose Dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) that died during the 1987-1988 Atlantic-dolphin morbillivirus epizootic. The lesions were characterized by focally extensive suppurative and histiocytic dermatitis and cellulitis with ulceration and variable numbers of dermal and hypodermal ciliates. Vasculitis, thrombosis, and/or intravascular ciliates were rarely present. In one dolphin, there was an associated lymphadenitis with ciliates, and in another, bronchopneumonia with rare intrabronchiolar ciliates. Ten of the dolphins were female, and eight were male. The animals ranged in length from 148 to 260 cm. Eleven were from Virginia, four were from New Jersey, and three were from Florida. In 13 dolphins, results of immunohistochemical and/or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) tests were positive for morbillivirus infection. Results of immunohistochemical tests were negative in four dolphins that were not also tested with PCR. Results were also negative in one dolphin tested using both methods. Nine dolphins had concomitant bacterial, fungal, and/or other protozoal infections. Fourteen other dolphins with ciliate-associated dermatitis were identified from 414 Atlantic bottlenose dolphin cases (3%) archived at the Armed Forces Institute of Pathology. The incidence of dermatitis with invasive ciliates is much greater in dolphins that died during the 1987-1988 epizootic.  (+info)

A review of virus infections of cataceans and the potential impact of morbilliviruses, poxviruses and papillomaviruses on host population dynamics. (3/26)

Viruses belonging to 9 families have been detected in cetaceans. We critically review the clinical features, pathology and epidemiology of the diseases they cause. Cetacean morbillivirus (family Paramyxoviridae) induces a serious disease with a high mortality rate and persists in several populations. It may have long-term effects on the dynamics of cetacean populations either as enzootic infection or recurrent epizootics. The latter presumably have the more profound impact due to removal of sexually mature individuals. Members of the family Poxviridae infect several species of odontocetes, resulting in ring and tattoo skin lesions. Although poxviruses apparently do not induce a high mortality, circumstancial evidence suggests they may be lethal in young animals lacking protective immunity, and thus may negatively affect net recruitment. Papillomaviruses (family Papovaviridae) cause genital warts in at least 3 species of cetaceans. In 10% of male Burmeister's porpoises Phocoena spinipinnis from Peru, lesions were sufficiently severe to at least hamper, if not impede, copulation. Members of the families Herpesviridae, Orthomyxoviridae and Rhabdoviridae were demonstrated in cetaceans suffering serious illnesses, but with the exception of a 'porpoise herpesvirus' their causative role is still tentative. Herpes-like viruses and caliciviruses (Caliciviridae) give rise to cutaneous diseases in Monodontidae and Delphinidae. Antibodies to several serotypes of caliciviruses were found in odontocetes and mysticetes. An unrecognized Hepadnaviridae was detected by serology in a captive Pacific white-sided dolphin Lagenorhynchus obliquidens with chronic persistent hepatitis. Adenoviruses (Adenoviridae) were isolated from the intestinal tracts of mysticeti and a beluga Delphinapterus leucas but were not associated with any pathologies. We discuss the potential impact of Paramyxoviridae, Poxviridae and Papovaviridae on the dynamics of several odontocete populations.  (+info)

Molecular genetic evidence of a novel morbillivirus in a long-finned pilot whale (Globicephalus melas). (4/26)

A long-finned pilot whale with morbilliviral disease was stranded in New Jersey. An immunohistochemical stain demonstrated morbilliviral antigen. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction for morbillivirus P and N genes was positive. Novel sequences most closely related to, but distinct from, those of dolphin and porpoise morbilliviruses suggest that this virus may represent a third member of the cetacean morbillivirus group.  (+info)

Identification of a cytotoxic T-cell epitope on the recombinant nucleocapsid proteins of Rinderpest and Peste des petits ruminants viruses presented as assembled nucleocapsids. (5/26)

The nucleocapsid protein (N) of morbilliviruses is not only a major structural protein but also the most abundant protein made in infected cells. We overexpressed the N proteins of Rinderpest virus and Peste des petits ruminants virus in E. coli, which assemble into nucleocapsids in the absence of viral RNA that resemble nucleocapsids made in the virus-infected cells. Employing these assembled structures resembling subviral particles, we studied the induction of both the antibody response and the cytotoxic T-lymphocyte (CTL) response in a murine model (BALB/c). A single dose of the purified recombinant nucleocapsids of both viruses in the absence of an adjuvant induces a strong CTL response. The CTLs generated are antigen specific and cross-reactive with respect to each virus and, furthermore, this CTL response is MHC class I restricted. Based on the prediction for H-2(d)-restricted T-cell motifs we tested the lysis of transfected P815 (H-2(d)) cells expressing a nine amino acid potential CTL epitope, by splenic T cells in vitro restimulated with bacterially expressed RPV or PPRV N proteins. We extended our study to the bovine system both to analyze the immunogenicity of these recombinant proteins in the natural hosts and to show that PBMC from cattle vaccinated with Rinderpest vaccine proliferate in vitro, in response to restimulation with soluble nucleocapsid proteins. Furthermore, the murine CTL epitope functions in the bovine system as a cytotoxic T-cell epitope. This sequence, which is conserved in the N proteins of morbilliviruses, conforms well to the predicted algorithm for some of the most common BoLA CTL antigenic peptides.  (+info)

Monoclonal antibody-based competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for detection of morbillivirus antibody in marine mammal sera. (6/26)

A competitive enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (cELISA), using two monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), was developed and compared with the standard virus neutralization test (VNT) for detecting antibodies against canine distemper virus (CDV) and phocine distemper virus (PDV) in sera from dogs and various species of marine mammals. The test depends on the blocking of MAb binding to solid-phase antigen in the presence of positive serum. Test conditions were optimized by using control VNT-negative and -positive sera specific for CDV and PDV. A positive cutoff value of 30% inhibition, which represents the mean cutoff of a VNT-negative population (n = 623) plus 2 standard deviations, was adopted for the test. A total of 736 serum samples were tested by the new cELISA and by the VNT as the "gold standard." An unexpected but useful finding was the ability of this CDV- and PDV-specific cELISA to also detect antibodies against the related pair dolphin morbillivirus and porpoise morbillivirus. Based on a subpopulation of 625 sera used in statistical analyses, the overall sensitivity and specificity of cELISA relative to those of the VNT were 94.9 and 97.7%, respectively. Because the cELISA proved to be nearly as sensitive and specific as the VNT while being simpler and more rapid, it would be an adequate screening test for suspect CDV or PDV cases and would also be useful for epidemiological surveillance of morbilliviral infections in marine mammal populations.  (+info)

Pathogenesis of two strains of lion (Panthera leo) morbillivirus in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo). (7/26)

Canine distemper virus (CDV) was previously considered to have a host range restricted to the canid family. In 1994, the virus was associated with sporadic outbreaks of distemper in captive felids. However, after severe mortality occurred in the Serengeti lions (Panthera leo), attention became focused on the pathogenesis of the virus and a concerted effort was made to identify the virus as CDV or a closely related feline morbillivirus. The present study was designed to explore the susceptibility of ferrets to challenge with two morbilliviruses isolated from lions and the protective effects of a modified-live mink distemper vaccine. Because mortality in ferrets infected with pathogenic CDV approaches 100%, the ferret was selected as a test animal. Two strains of lion morbillivirus were used as a challenge, A92-27/20 (California lion isolate) and A94-11/13 (Serengeti lion isolate). The two strains of lion morbillivirus were antigenically related to CDV (Rockborn strain), and ferrets were susceptible to both of the viruses when inoculated intraperitoneally. The inoculated ferrets were anorectic at 5-6 days postinoculation (PI), exhibited oculonasal discharge at 9-12 days PI, and became moribund at 12-22 days PI. Severe bilateral conjunctivitis was the typical clinical sign. Inclusion bodies characteristic of morbillivirus (eosinophilic, intranuclear, and intracytoplasmic) were distributed in many epithelial cells, including those of the skin, conjunctiva, gallbladder, liver, pancreas, stomach, trachea, lung, urinary bladder, and kidney. Virus was reisolated from selected lung tissues collected at necropsy and identified by CDV-specific immunofluorescence. Ferrets vaccinated with the mink distemper vaccine (Onderstepoort strain) were protected from challenge with the two lion strains, adding further support to the premise that the viruses are closely related to CDV.  (+info)

Catastrophes after crossing species barriers. (8/26)

Probably the most tragic examples of virus infections that have caused the deaths of many millions of people in the past century were the influenza and AIDS pandemics. These events occurred as a direct result of the introduction of animal viruses into the human population. Similarly, mass mortalities among aquatic and terrestrial mammals were caused by the introduction of viruses into species in which they had not previously been present. It seems paradoxical that at a time when we have managed to control or even eradicate major human virus infections like polio and smallpox we are increasingly confronted with new or newly emerging virus infections of humans and animals. A complex mix of social, technological and ecological changes, and the ability of certain viruses to adapt rapidly to a changing environment, seems to be at the basis of this phenomenon. Extensive diagnostic and surveillance networks, as well as novel vaccine- and antiviral development strategies should provide us with the safeguards to limit its impact.  (+info)