In vitro and in vivo activities of Syn2190, a novel beta-lactamase inhibitor.
Syn2190, a monobactam derivative containing 1,5-dihydroxy-4-pyridone as the C-3 side chain, is a potent inhibitor of group 1 beta-lactamase. The concentrations of inhibitor needed to reduce the initial rate of hydrolysis of substrate by 50% for Syn2190 against these enzymes were in the range of 0.002 to 0.01 microM. These values were 220- to 850-fold lower than those of tazobactam. Syn2190 showed in vitro synergy with ceftazidime and cefpirome. This synergy was dependent on the concentration of the inhibitor against group 1 beta-lactamase-producing strains, such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, Citrobacter freundii, and Morganella morganii. However, against beta-lactamase-derepressed mutants of P. aeruginosa, the MICs of ceftazidime plus Syn2190 were not affected by the amount of beta-lactamase, and the values were the same for the parent strains. The MICs at which 50% of isolates are inhibited (MIC(50)s) of ceftazidime plus Syn2190 were 2- to 16-fold lower than those of ceftazidime alone for ceftazidime-resistant, clinically isolated gram-negative bacteria. Similarly, the MIC(50)s of cefpirome plus Syn2190 were two- to eightfold lower for cefpirome-resistant clinical isolates. The synergies of Syn2190 plus ceftazidime or cefpirome observed in vitro were also reflected in vivo. Syn2190 improved the efficacies of both cephalosporins in both a murine systemic infection model with cephalosporin-resistant rods and urinary tract infection models with cephalosporin-resistant P. aeruginosa. (+info
Effects of antibiotic therapy on Pseudomonas aeruginosa-induced lung injury in a rat model.
The effect of antibiotics on the acute lung injury induced by virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA103 was quantitatively analyzed in a rat model. Lung injury was induced by the instillation of PA103 directly into the right lower lobes of the lungs of anesthetized rats. The alveolar epithelial injury, extravascular lung water, and total plasma equivalents were measured as separate, independent parameters of acute lung injury. Four hours after the instillation of PA103, all the parameters were increased linearly depending on the dose of P. aeruginosa. Next, we examined the effects of intravenously administered antibiotics on the parameters of acute lung injury in D-galactosamine-sensitized rats. One hour after the rats received 10(7) CFU of PA103, an intravenous bolus injection of aztreonam (60 mg/kg) or imipenem-cilastatin (30 mg/kg) was administered. Despite an MIC indicating resistance, imipenem-cilastatin improved all the measurements of lung injury; in contrast, aztreonam, which had an MIC indicating sensitivity, did not improve any of the lung injury parameters. The antibiotics did not generate different quantities of plasma endotoxin; therefore, endotoxin did not appear to explain the differences in lung injury. This in vivo model is useful to quantitatively compare the efficacies of parenteral antibiotic administration on Pseudomonas airspace infections. (+info
Effect of conalbumin on the activity of Syn 2190, a 1,5 dihydroxy-4-pyridon monobactam inhibitor of AmpC beta-lactamases.
Syn 2190, a 1,5 dihydroxy-4-pyridon monobactam inhibitor of AmpC enzymes, was tested against beta-lactamase-producing bacteria with piperacillin, piperacillin-tazobactam and ceftazidime as partner drugs. In the presence of conalbumin as an iron chelator, Syn 2190 potentiated these drugs against most AmpC producers, although Klebsiella spp. with plasmidic AmpC enzymes were an exception. Potentiation was much weaker without conalbumin, suggesting that Syn 2190 exploits a ferric uptake pathway, as do catecholic cephalosporins. Syn 2190 had little ability to potentiate partner drugs against strains with other beta-lactamase types but, with conalbumin, increased the activity of piperacillin-tazobactam against Escherichia coli transconjugants producing various class A or D enzymes. (+info
ampR gene mutations that greatly increase class C beta-lactamase activity in Enterobacter cloacae.
The ampC and ampR genes of Enterobacter cloacae GN7471 were cloned into pMW218 to yield pKU403. Four mutant plasmids derived from pKU403 (pKU404, pKU405, pKU406, and pKU407) were isolated in an AmpD mutant of Escherichia coli ML4953 by selection with ceftazidime or aztreonam. The beta-lactamase activities expressed by pKU404, pKU405, pKU406, and pKU407 were about 450, 75, 160, and 160 times higher, respectively, than that expressed by the original plasmid, pKU403. These mutant plasmids all carried point mutations in the ampR gene. In pKU404 and pKU405, Asp-135 was changed to Asn and Val, respectively. In both pKU406 and pKU407, Arg-86 was changed to Cys. The ease of selection of AmpR mutations at a frequency of about 10(-6) in this study strongly suggests that derepressed strains, such as AmpD or AmpR mutants, could frequently emerge in the clinical setting. (+info
Penicillin binding protein 5 affects cell diameter, contour, and morphology of Escherichia coli.
Although general physiological functions have been ascribed to the high-molecular-weight penicillin binding proteins (PBPs) of Escherichia coli, the low-molecular-weight PBPs have no well-defined biological roles. When we examined the morphology of a set of E. coli mutants lacking multiple PBPs, we observed that strains expressing active PBP 5 produced cells of normal shape, while mutants lacking PBP 5 produced cells with altered diameters, contours, and topological features. These morphological effects were visible in untreated cells, but the defects were exacerbated in cells forced to filament by inactivation of PBP 3 or FtsZ. After filamentation, cellular diameter varied erratically along the length of individual filaments and many filaments exhibited extensive branching. Also, in general, the mean diameter of cells lacking PBP 5 was significantly increased compared to that of cells from isogenic strains expressing active PBP 5. Expression of cloned PBP 5 reversed the effects observed in DeltadacA mutants. Although deletion of PBP 5 was required for these phenotypes, the absence of additional PBPs magnified the effects. The greatest morphological alterations required that at least three PBPs in addition to PBP 5 be deleted from a single strain. In the extreme cases in which six or seven PBPs were deleted from a single mutant, cells and cell filaments expressing PBP 5 retained a normal morphology but cells and filaments lacking PBP 5 were aberrant. In no case did mutation of another PBP produce the same drastic morphological effects. We conclude that among the low-molecular-weight PBPs, PBP 5 plays a principle role in determining cell diameter, surface uniformity, and overall topology of the peptidoglycan sacculus. (+info
Linezolid (PNU-100766) versus vancomycin in the treatment of hospitalized patients with nosocomial pneumonia: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter study.
Linezolid, the first oxazolidinone, is active against gram-positive bacteria, including multidrug-resistant strains. This multinational, randomized, double-blind, controlled trial compared the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of linezolid with vancomycin in the treatment of nosocomial pneumonia. A total of 203 patients received intravenous linezolid, 600 mg twice daily, plus aztreonam, and 193 patients received vancomycin, 1 g intravenously twice daily, plus aztreonam for 7-21 days. Clinical and microbiological outcomes were evaluated at test of cure 12-28 days after treatment. Clinical cure rates (71 [66.4%] of 107 for linezolid vs. 62 [68.1%] of 91 for vancomycin) and microbiological success rates (36 [67.9%] of 53 vs. 28 [71.8%] of 39, respectively) for evaluable patients were equivalent between treatment groups. Eradication rates of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and safety evaluations were similar between treatment groups. Resistance to either treatment was not detected. Linezolid is a well-tolerated, effective treatment for adults with gram-positive nosocomial pneumonia. (+info
Improved detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus using phenyl mannitol broth containing aztreonam and ceftizoxime.
We tested a phenyl mannitol broth containing ceftizoxime and aztreonam (PHMB(+)) for detection of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) with reference MRSA strains and, subsequently, with clinical samples (n = 1,098). All reference MRSA strains induced color change in PHMB(+) after 24 to 72 h of incubation. In a clinical setting, 40 MRSA strains were detected with PHMB(+), compared with only 23 detected with a routine method. Thus, this selective broth significantly (P < 0.001) improved the rate of MRSA detection. (+info
Effects of anti-tumour necrosis factor, interleukin-10 and antibiotic therapy in the indometacin-induced bowel inflammation rat model.
BACKGROUND: The administration of indometacin to rats increases intestinal permeability and induces inflammatory pathology of the small bowel. This represents a potential model for Crohn's disease. AIMS: To analyse the pathogenic role of T cells, tumour necrosis factor and bacterial flora in indometacin-induced changes in small bowel permeability and inflammation. METHODS: Rats were given indometacin, 13 mg/kg, on day 1 and day 2. The effects of antibiotic (metronidazole, aztreonam and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid), anti- tumour necrosis factor and interleukin-10 therapy were evaluated. The parameters used were weight change, serum haemoglobin, chromium-51 ethylenediaminetetra-acetate permeability and macro-and microscopic score on day 5. Results in conventionally harboured rats were compared with those in T-cell-free rats. Additional in vitro experiments were carried out to test the effect of metronidazole on tumour necrosis factor production. RESULTS: Indometacin administration resulted in small bowel ulcers and inflammation, independently of T cells. Metronidazole was more potent than amoxicillin/clavulanic acid and anti-tumour necrosis factor in improving the indometacin-induced small bowel inflammation. Only part of the efficacy was through improvement of increased intestinal permeability. Aztreonam and interleukin-10 had no effect. Metronidazole also suppressed in vitro lipopolysaccharide-induced tumour necrosis factor production, suggesting a therapeutic effect of this drug through the inhibition of tumour necrosis factor. CONCLUSIONS: These data implicate anaerobic bacteria and tumour necrosis factor production, but not T cells, as essential elements of the pathogenesis of indometacin-induced small bowel inflammation. Tumour necrosis factor is also involved in the change in intestinal permeability. Metronidazole was the most efficacious drug in this model, probably because it suppressed anaerobic bacteria and directly inhibited tumour necrosis factor production. (+info