A survey of helminthic infections in the residents of rural areas near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
A total of 738 samples was collected to survey the helminthic infections of residents in two rural areas near Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia for 2 weeks from July 23 to August 2, 1998. Among 391 scotch-taped slides of anal swabs of children and of young teenagers. Enterobius vermicularis eggs were detected in 138 cases (35.3%). With the fecal samples of 206 Kato-Katz thick smear slides from adults, the eggs of E. vermicularis were observed in 9 cases and Taenia sp. in one case, respectively. And by ELISA on 141 blood samples absorbed to blood sampling paper, 12 cases (8.5%) were found to be positive against the hydatid cyst antigen. Enterobiasis and hydatidosis are two major endemic diseases which are related closely to the life style of Mongolian. (+info)
Detection of gonioscopically occludable angles and primary angle closure glaucoma by estimation of limbal chamber depth in Asians: modified grading scheme.
AIM: To evaluate the performance of limbal chamber depth estimation as a means of detecting occludable drainage angles and primary angle closure, with or without glaucoma, in an east Asian population, and determine whether an augmented grading scheme would enhance test performance. METHOD: A two phase, cross sectional, community based study was conducted on rural and urban areas of Hovsgol and Omnogobi provinces, Mongolia. 1800 subjects aged 40 to 93 years were selected and 1717 (95%) of these were examined. Depth of the anterior chamber at the temporal limbus was graded as a percentage fraction of peripheral corneal thickness. An "occludable" angle was one in which the trabecular meshwork was seen in less than 90 degrees of the angle circumference by gonioscopy. Primary angle closure (PAC) was diagnosed in subjects with an occludable angle and either raised pressure or peripheral anterior synechiae. PAC with glaucoma (PACG) was diagnosed in cases with an occludable angle combined with glaucomatous optic neuropathy and consistent visual morbidity. RESULTS: Occludable angles were identified in 140 subjects, 28 of these had PACG. The 15% grade (equivalent to the traditional "grade 1") yielded sensitivity and specificity of 84% and 86% respectively for the detection of occludable angles. The 5% grade gave sensitivity of 91% and specificity of 93% for the detection of PACG. The interobserver agreement for this augmented grading scheme was good (weighted kappa 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: The traditional limbal chamber depth grading scheme offers good performance for detecting occludable drainage angles in this population. The augmented scheme gives enhanced performance in detection of established PACG. The augmented scheme has potential for good interobserver agreement. (+info)
YAG laser iridotomy treatment for primary angle closure in east Asian eyes.
AIM: To assess the efficacy of Nd:YAG laser iridotomy as initial treatment for primary angle closure in a community setting in rural Mongolia. METHODS: Subjects with occludable drainage angles in two glaucoma prevalence surveys in Mongolia (carried out in 1995 and 1997) were treated with YAG laser iridotomy at the time of diagnosis. These patients were re-examined in 1998. Patency of iridotomy, intraocular pressure (IOP), visual acuity, and gonioscopic findings were recorded. Iridotomy was classified unsuccessful in eyes where further surgical intervention was required or in which there was a loss of visual acuity to <3/60 from glaucomatous optic neuropathy. RESULTS: 164 eyes of 98 subjects were examined. Patent peripheral iridotomies were found in 98.1% (157/160) of eyes that had not undergone surgery. Median angle width increased by two Shaffer grades following iridotomy. Iridotomy alone failed in 3% eyes with narrow drainage angles and either peripheral anterior synechiae or raised IOP, but normal optic discs and visual fields. However, in eyes with established glaucomatous optic neuropathy at diagnosis iridotomy failed in 47%. None of the eyes with occludable angles that were normal in all other respects, and underwent iridotomy, developed glaucomatous optic neuropathy or symptomatic angle closure within the follow up period. CONCLUSIONS: Nd: YAG laser iridotomy is effective in widening the drainage angle and reducing elevated IOP in east Asian people with primary angle closure. This suggests that pupil block is a significant mechanism causing closure of the angle in this population. Once glaucomatous optic neuropathy associated with synechial angle closure has occurred, iridotomy alone is less effective at controlling IOP. (+info)
Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, Trichomonas vaginalis and human papillomavirus) in female attendees of a sexually transmitted diseases clinic in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia.
BACKGROUND: Epidemiological data suggest that the prevalence of syphilis, gonorrhea and trichomoniasis has increased in both urban and rural areas of Mongolia. These data are primarily substantiated by notifications of cases of clinically apparent disease in both rural and urban areas, plus laboratory diagnoses from the AIDS/STD Reference Center, Ulaanbaatar. In the past 5 years, however, there has been a marked decline in the total number of patients being screened for sexually transmitted infections (STIs). An assessment of true prevalence of STIs in a female population attending an urban sexually transmitted diseases (STD) clinic was therefore commenced. METHODS: Consecutive women attending an STD clinic in Ulaanbaatar had genital samples collected by the insertion and immediate removal of a tampon, which was then tested for the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Chlamydia trachomatis, human papillomavirus (HPV) and Trichomonas vaginalis, using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification. RESULTS: A total of 110 women were studied (mean age 26.7 years). Overall, 58 (53%) patients had one or more pathogens identified; 43 (39%) had a single pathogen, while 15 (14%) had mixed pathogens. C. trachomatis was found in 15 (14%), N. gonorrhoeae in 12 (11%), T. vaginalis in nine (8%) and HPV in 39 (36%). Among the 39 HPV-positive patients, oncogenicgenotypes (16, 18, 31, 33, 35, 39, 45, 51, 52) were found in 17(44%) patients. CONCLUSIONS: Sexually transmitted infections as defined by PCR were common, and found in 53% of female attendees of an urban STD clinic in Mongolia. As infections with conventional STIs increase the risk of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission, it is imperative that strategies be introduced to reduce the prevalence of STIs. Furthermore, detection of oncogenic HPV was common, indicating that it is vital that a strategy to reduce cervical cancer such as a pre-cancer cervical cytology screening program also be introduced. (+info)
Five new peltogynoids from underground parts of Iris bungei: a Mongolian medicinal plant.
Five new peltogynoids, irisoids A-E (1-5), have been isolated from the underground parts of Iris bungei. The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic methods and were found to be 1,8,10-trihydroxy-9-methoxy-benzopyrano-[3,2-c]-benzopyran-7(5H)-one (1), 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-dimethoxy-benzopyrano-[3,2-c]-benzopyran-7(5H)-one (2), 1,10-dihydroxy-8,9-dimethoxy-benzopyrano-13,2-c]-benzopyran-7(5H)-one (3), 1,8-dihydroxy-9,10-methylenedioxy-benzopyrano-[3,2-c]-benzopyran-7(5H)-one (4), and 1,8,11-trihydroxy-9,10-methylenedioxy-benzopyrano-[3,2-c]-benzopyran-7(5H)- one (5). The structure of irisoid B (2) was established unambiguously by X-ray diffraction study. (+info)
Nutritional assessment of children after severe winter weather--Mongolia, June 2001.
During 1999-2001, Mongolia (2000 population: 2.7 million) experienced consecutive dzuds (i.e., a severe winter with extreme cold and heavy snowfall that causes mass debilitation and death of livestock and jeopardizes the lives of herders who depend on their animals for food, fuel, income, and transportation) that resulted in a loss of nearly six million of the country's 33 million livestock. As a result, severe psychological stress and increased school drop-out rates have been reported, and increased migration of rural herders into urban centers has placed a burden on water, sanitation, medical, and social services. This disaster threatened the health and food security of approximately 40% of the country's population. The Mongolian Ministry of Health asked the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) for assistance in assessing the nutritional effects of the 2000-2001 dzud on children aged 6-59 months. This report summarizes the results of that assessment, which indicated that affected districts had no excess nutritional wasting in any age group; however, excess growth stunting and anemia were common in both affected and unaffected districts. Expanded monitoring of this population is needed to determine the causes of malnutrition and to develop appropriate interventions. (+info)
New sesquiterpenes from Ferula ferulaeoides (Steud.) Korovin. VI. Isolation and identification of three new dihydrofuro[2,3-b]chromones.
Three novel 2-prenyl-dihydrofurochromone-type sesquiterpenoid derivatives, 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2S*,3R*-dimethyl-2-[4,8-dimethyl-3(E),7-nonadienyl]-furo[2, 3-b]chromone, 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2S*,3R*-dimethyl-2-[4-methyl-5-(4-methyl-2-furyl)-3(E),7-pe ntenyl]-furo[2,3-b]chromone, and 2,3-dihydro-7-hydroxy-2R*,3R*-dimethyl-2-[4-methyl-5-(4-methyl-2-furyl)-3(E),7-pe ntenyl]-furo[2,3-b]chromone, were isolated from the roots of Ferula ferulaeoides. The structures were established by comprehensive spectral analysis. The biosynthetic pathway leading to these 2-prenyl-dihydrofurochromone-type sesquiterpenoids is proposed based on their structures. (+info)
Genetic isolates in East Asia: a study of linkage disequilibrium in the X chromosome.
The background linkage disequilibrium (LD) in genetic isolates is of great interest in human genetics. Although many empirical studies have evaluated the background LD in European isolates, such as the Finnish and Sardinians, few data from other regions, such as Asia, have been reported. To evaluate the extent of background LD in East Asian genetic isolates, we analyzed the X chromosome in the Japanese population and in four Mongolian populations (Khalkh, Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin), the demographic histories of which are quite different from one another. Fisher's exact test revealed that the Japanese and Khalkh, which are the expanded populations, had the same or a relatively higher level of LD than did the Finnish, European American, and Sardinian populations. In contrast, the Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin populations, which have kept their population size constant, had a higher background LD. These results were consistent with previous genetic anthropological studies in European isolates and indicate that the Japanese and Khalkh populations could be utilized in the fine mapping of both complex and monogenic diseases, whereas the Khoton, Uriankhai, and Zakhchin populations could play an important role in the initial mapping of complex disease genes. (+info)