Immunological and structural properties of a pectic polymer from Glinus oppositifolius.
The aim of this paper was to further elucidate the structure and the immunomodulating properties of the pectic polymer GOA2, previously isolated from Glinus oppositifolius. Enzymatic treatment of GOA2 by endo-alpha-d-(1 --> 4)-polygalacturonase led to the isolation of three pectic subunits, GOA2-I, GOA2-II, and GOA2-III, in addition to oligogalacturonides. GOA2-I was shown to consist of 1,2-linked Rhap and 1,4-linked GalpA in an approximately 1:1 ratio, and NMR-analysis showed that the monomers were linked together in a strictly alternating manner. The galactose units in GOA2-I were found as terminal-, 1,3-, 1,6-, 1,4-, 1,3,4-, and 1,3,6-linked residues, while the arabinofuranosyl existed mainly as terminal- and 1,5-linked units. A rhamnogalacturonan-I type structure was suggested being the predominant part of GOA2-I. According to linkage analysis GOA2-II and GOA2-III contained glycosidic linkages characteristic for rhamnogalacturonan-II type structures. GOA2 was shown by sedimentation velocity in the analytical ultracentrifuge, to have a broad degree of polydispersity with a mode s(20,w) value of approximately 1.9 S, results reinforced by atomic force microscopy measurements. The polydispersity, as manifested by the proportion of material with s(20,w) > 3 S, decreased significantly with enzyme treatment. The abilities of GOA2, GOA2-I, GOA2-II, and GOA2-III to induce the proliferation of B cells, and to exhibit complement fixing activities were tested. In both test systems, GOA2-I showed significantly greater effects compared to its native pectin GOA2. GOA2-I was in addition shown to exhibit a more potent intestinal immune stimulating activity compared to GOA2. The ability of GOA2 to induce secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was examined. Marked upregulations in mRNA for IL-1beta from rat macrophages and IFN-gamma from NK cells were found. (+info)
Granulation by roller compaction and enteric coated tablet formulation of the extract of the seeds of Glinus lotoides loaded on Aeroperl 300 Pharma.
Antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of Jeju medicinal plants against acne-inducing bacteria.
Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis are pus-forming bacteria that trigger inflammation in acne. The present study was conducted to evaluate the antimicrobial activities of Jeju medicinal plants against these etiologic agents of acne vulgaris. Ethanol extracts of Jeju plants were tested for antimicrobial activities by disc diffusion and broth dilution methods. The results from the disc diffusion assays revealed that four medicinal plants, Mollugo pentaphylla, Angelica anomala, Matteuccia orientalis, and Orixa japonica inhibited the growth of both pathogens. Among these, A. anomala had strong inhibitory effects. Its MIC values were 15.6 microg/ml and 125 microg/ml against P. acnes and S. epidermidis, respectively. The cytotoxic effects of the four extracts were determined by colorimetric MTT assays using two animal cell lines: human dermal fibroblasts and HaCaT cells. Although the M. orientalis root extract had moderate cytotoxicity in HaCaT cells at 200 microg/ml, most extracts exhibited low cytotoxicity at 200 microg/ml in both cell lines. In addition, the extracts reduced the P. acnes-induced secretion of interleukin-8 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) in THP-1 cells, an indication of their anti-inflammatory effects. Based on these results, we suggest that M. pentaphylla, A. anomala, M. orientalis, and O. japonica are attractive acne-mitigating candidates for topical application. (+info)
L-(-)-(N-trans-cinnamoyl)-arginine, an acylamino acid from Glinus oppositifolius (L.) Aug. DC.
Anticancer activity and nutritional value of extracts of the seed of Glinus lotoides.
The purpose of this study is to determine the anticancer activity and the nutritional values of the seeds of Glinus lotoides, a plant used as a dietary vegetable and medicinal plant in Asia and Africa. To achieve this goal, the seeds were extracted in soxhlet using solvents, namely n-hexane, dichloromethane, methanol and water. The methanol and n-hexane extracts showed differential growth inhibitory responses in carcinoma cell lines (Calu-3 IC(50)=29.7 and 79.8 microg/mL and Caco-2 IC(50)=69.7 and 74.6 microg/mL, respectively) as compared to normal cell lines (MDCK IC(50)=106.1 and 131.1 microg/mL and IEC-6 IC(50)=134.0 and 128.5 microg/mL, respectively). In addition, these extracts induced significant apoptosis in the cancer cells (p<0.05) at 100 microg/mL. The seeds of G. lotoides were found to contain nutritional compounds of well-established chemopreventive activity, including vitamin E, folic acid, selenium and calcium. The hydrophilic oxygen radical absorption capacity (ORAC) value was found to be 123 microM Trolox Equiv./g, indicating the antioxidant activity of the plant. These data suggest that the seeds of G. lotoides could potentially be used in the diet in chemoprevention of cancer and warrant further confirmatory preclinical and clinical studies. The amount of protein, carbohydrate, fat, ash, moisture, sugar profile and fatty acids further support the nutritional value of the seeds. (+info)
Repeated origin of three-dimensional leaf venation releases constraints on the evolution of succulence in plants.