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(1/44) Hormone replacement therapy and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

It has been suggested that oestrogen replacement therapy is associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer of the endometrioid type. Using data from an Australian population-based case-control study, the relation between unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy and epithelial ovarian cancer, both overall and according to histological type, was examined. A total of 793 eligible incident cases of epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 1993 among women living in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria were identified. These were compared with 855 eligible female controls selected at random from the electoral roll, stratified by age and geographic region. Trained interviewers administered standard questionnaires to obtain detailed reproductive and contraceptive histories, as well as details about hormone replacement therapy and pelvic operations. No clear associations were observed between use of hormone replacement therapy overall and risk of ovarian cancer. Unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy was, however, associated with a significant increase in risk of endometrioid or clear cell epithelial ovarian tumours (odds ratio (OR) 2.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.94). In addition, the risk associated with oestrogen replacement therapy was much larger in women with an intact genital tract (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.54-5.85) than in those with a history of either hysterectomy or tubal ligation. Post-menopausal oestrogen replacement therapy may, therefore, be a risk factor associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumours in particular. Additionally, the risk may be increased predominantly in women with an intact genital tract. These associations could reflect a possible role of endometriosis in the development of endometrioid or clear cell ovarian tumours.  (+info)

(2/44) Primary mesenteric malignant mixed mesodermal (mullerian) tumor with neuroendocrine differentiation.

Extragenital malignant mixed mesodermal (mullerian) tumors (MMMT) are rare neoplasms, with but 24 well documented cases in the literature. Neuroendocrine differentiation in mixed mullerian neoplasms has been mentioned only anecdotally. We report on the clinical, pathological, and immunohistochemical features of a hitherto-undescribed extragenital MMMT with prominent neuroendocrine differentiation arising from the jejunal mesentery. This lesion was composed of a poorly differentiated epithelial component and a spindle cell component with heterologous (rhabdomyoblastic) differentiation. The bulk of the tumor consisted of small cell neuroendocrine carcinoma, which exhibited strong immunoreactivity for NSE, LEU-7, chromogranin A and synaptophysin. Electronmicroscopy confirmed the presence of neurosecretory dense-core granules. The primary mesenteric origin of the tumor was established at autopsy. Along with a brief review of previously reported extragenital MMMT some histogenetic concepts relevant to this case are discussed.  (+info)

(3/44) Well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinomas and poorly differentiated mixed mullerian tumors have altered ER and PR isoform expression.

Both the estrogen receptor (ER) and the progesterone receptor (PR) have two subtypes: ER-alpha and beta, and PR-A and -B, respectively. These subtypes differ in function and expression, and recent reports have correlated changes in the normal proportions of these isoforms with neoplastic states. We investigated ER and PR isoform expression in normal pre- and post-menopausal endometrium, well-differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma, and poorly differentiated malignant mixed mullerian tumors (MMMTs). Semi-quantitative RT-PCR and immunoblotting were used to measure receptor mRNA and protein expression. Estrogen receptor-alpha/beta mRNA ratios were significantly higher in postmenopausal (27.3) compared to premenopausal endometrium (4.9) mainly as a result of lower ER-beta expression in the former. Compared to age-matched postmenopausal controls, the ER-alpha/beta ratio was reduced in both grade I adenocarcinoma and MMMT specimens (3.3 and 6.8, respectively), due to a selective loss of ER-alpha. The relative abundance of PR-A and PR-B mRNA remained unchanged between all tissue subtypes. Total PR protein, however, was significantly reduced in MMMTs compared to all other groups. Thus, sex steroid receptor expression is significantly and differentially altered in well-differentiated and poorly-differentiated endometrial cancers. Both cancers exhibit decreased ER-alpha expression and the MMMTs also demonstrate a significant loss of PR protein.  (+info)

(4/44) A phase I dose-finding study of a combination of pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (Doxil), carboplatin and paclitaxel in ovarian cancer.

Standard chemotherapy for advanced epithelial ovarian cancer is a combination of platinum-paclitaxel. One strategy to improve the outcome for patients is to add other agents to standard therapy. Doxil is active in relapsed disease and has a response rate of 25% in platinum-resistant relapsed disease. A dose finding study of doxil-carboplatin-paclitaxel was therefore undertaken in women receiving first-line therapy. Thirty-one women with epithelial ovarian cancer or mixed Mullerian tumours of the ovary were enrolled. The doses of carboplatin, paclitaxel and doxil were as follows: carboplatin AUC 5 and 6; paclitaxel, 135 and 175 mg m(-2); doxil 20, 30, 40 and 50 mg m(-2). Schedules examined included treatment cycles of 21 and 28 days, and an alternating schedule of carboplatin-paclitaxel (q 21) with doxil being administered every other course (q 42). The dose-limiting toxicities were found to be neutropenia, stomatitis and palmar plantar syndrome and the maximum tolerated dose was defined as; carboplatin AUC 5, paclitaxel 175 mg m(-2) and doxil 30 mg m(-2) q 21. Reducing the paclitaxel dose to 135 mg m(-2) did not allow the doxil dose to be increased. Delivering doxil on alternate cycles at doses of 40 and 50 mg m(-2) also resulted in dose-limiting toxicities. The recommended doses for phase II/III trials are carboplatin AUC 6, paclitaxel 175 mg m(-2), doxil 30 mg m(-2) q 28 or carboplatin AUC 5, paclitaxel 175 mg m(-2), doxil 20 mg m(-2) q 21. Grade 3/4 haematologic toxicity was common at the recommended phase II doses but was short lived and not clinically important and non-haematologic toxicities were generally mild and consisted of nausea, paraesthesiae, stomatitis and palmar plantar syndrome.  (+info)

(5/44) Mullerian adenosarcoma of the uterine cervix.

Sarcomas in the uterine cervix are rare, the incidence being 0.5% to 1% of all cervical malignancies. This is a report of cervical mullerian adenosarcoma, which was encountered in a hysterectomy performed for prolapse. The tumor was composed of benign glandular elements and malignant stromal component, thus justifying its nomenclature. We wish to emphasize the distinctive morphological features of this rare cervical tumor.  (+info)

(6/44) Uterine malignant mixed Mullerian tumor (Metaplasic carcinoma) in the cat: clinicopathologic features and proliferation indices.

A homologous malignant mixed Mullerian tumor of the uterus occurring in an 8-year-old Persian cat was described with regard to its clinical and pathologic features. A polypoid multinodular mass of the right uterine horn was shown by an ultrasound examination. Grossly, the right uterine horn was enlarged because of a vegetative and infiltrating tumor, grayish-white in color, that penetrated the uterine wall to the level of the perimetrium. Many metastatic nodules were found in abdominal and thoracic cavities. Histologically, the neoplasm had both carcinomatous and sarcomatous components and was diagnosed as an uterine malignant mixed Mullerian tumor. This is the fourth case reported in cats. The histologic features and proliferation rate of this tumor were similar to the corresponding human neoplasms, which occur mainly in postmenopausal women. The possible hormone dependence of the tumor is briefly discussed.  (+info)

(7/44) Expression of CD10 in malignant mullerian mixed tumors and adenosarcomas: an immunohistochemical study.

CD10 has been demonstrated to be positive in endometrial stromal sarcoma (ESS) and thus is useful in establishing the diagnosis, but its expression in malignant mullerian mixed tumor (MMMT) and mullerian adenosarcoma remains to be clarified. In this study, 12 cases of MMMT (9 uterine, 2 tubal, and 1 metastatic), 6 cases of mullerian adenosarcoma (three corporeal, two cervical, and one tubal), and 7 cases of primary uterine sarcomas had their tissues examined immunohistochemically for expression of CD10, desmin, myoglobin, alpha-smooth muscle actin (SMA), and cytokeratin. Of the primary uterine sarcomas, two were primary rhabdomyosarcomas (one cervical and one corporeal), two were ESSs, two were high-grade leiomyosarcomas, and one was a high-grade endometrial sarcoma. Sarcomatous components in all cases of MMMT and mullerian adenosarcoma, as well as all uterine sarcomas, were positive for CD10, showing moderate to marked staining intensity with varying distribution except in one MMMT, which showed weak and very focal staining. In four MMMTs, three adenosarcomas, and one rhabdomyosarcoma, myoglobin- and/or desmin-positive rhabdomyoblastic cells were positive for CD10. The immunoreactivity for CD10 showed the same distribution for alpha-SMA and myoglobin in three and two MMMTs, respectively. In five cases of MMMT, carcinomatous components were focally positive for CD10, and in two cases small populations of round or short spindle cells in sarcomatous components were positive for CD10, alpha-SMA, and cytokeratin (CAM5.2). These results indicate that CD10 expression is not restricted to ESS but can be positive in MMMT and mullerian adenosarcoma as well as in a variety of uterine tumors including high-grade leiomyosarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. CD10 expression might be one of the characteristics of mullerian system-derived neoplastic mesenchymal cells.  (+info)

(8/44) Establishment and characterization of cancer cell cultures and xenografts derived from primary or metastatic Mullerian cancers.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterize cell cultures and xenografts derived from patients with ovarian cancer. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Ninety specimens from 67 patients were plated in RPMI 1640 or inoculated in nude mice. Growth characteristics of cell cultures and xenografts were determined. Expression of receptors for estrogen, progesterone, androgen, epithelial growth factor, fibroblast growth factor, HER-2/erbB-2/c-neu proto-oncogene, and the P53 expression were characterized by immunocytochemistry in 28 cell cultures. RESULTS: Forty-nine percent of samples were cultured successfully in vitro. Ascitic and pleural effusion specimens were more likely to produce a cell culture or a xenograft than solid tissue specimens (P < 0.005). All of the cell cultures had an epithelial morphology, and 89% were aneuploid with a mean DNA index of 1.6 (range, 0.9-3.0). Of 54 and 61 specimens inoculated into nude mice i.p. and s.c., 15 (28%) and 18 (30%) produced a xenograft, respectively, with two-thirds of these xenografts being reproducibly tumorigenic. The median time to first passage was 21 weeks for cell cultures and 8-12 weeks for xenografts. Expression of epithelial growth factor receptor, HER-2/erbB-2/c-neu proto-oncogene, fibroblast growth factor receptor, estrogen, progesterone, and androgen was seen in 24, 21, 31, 17, 43, and 18%, respectively. P53 was overexpressed in 62% of cell cultures analyzed. CONCLUSIONS: Ovarian cancer cells collected from effusions are easier to grow in vitro than in vivo. The only characteristic that may be associated with tumorigenicity was abnormal P53 expression. This panel of ovarian cancer materials provides useful models for biological or therapeutical studies.  (+info)