(1/9) Hormone replacement therapy and risk of epithelial ovarian cancer.

It has been suggested that oestrogen replacement therapy is associated with risk of epithelial ovarian cancer of the endometrioid type. Using data from an Australian population-based case-control study, the relation between unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy and epithelial ovarian cancer, both overall and according to histological type, was examined. A total of 793 eligible incident cases of epithelial ovarian cancer diagnosed from 1990 to 1993 among women living in Queensland, New South Wales and Victoria were identified. These were compared with 855 eligible female controls selected at random from the electoral roll, stratified by age and geographic region. Trained interviewers administered standard questionnaires to obtain detailed reproductive and contraceptive histories, as well as details about hormone replacement therapy and pelvic operations. No clear associations were observed between use of hormone replacement therapy overall and risk of ovarian cancer. Unopposed oestrogen replacement therapy was, however, associated with a significant increase in risk of endometrioid or clear cell epithelial ovarian tumours (odds ratio (OR) 2.56; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-4.94). In addition, the risk associated with oestrogen replacement therapy was much larger in women with an intact genital tract (OR 3.00; 95% CI 1.54-5.85) than in those with a history of either hysterectomy or tubal ligation. Post-menopausal oestrogen replacement therapy may, therefore, be a risk factor associated with endometrioid and clear cell tumours in particular. Additionally, the risk may be increased predominantly in women with an intact genital tract. These associations could reflect a possible role of endometriosis in the development of endometrioid or clear cell ovarian tumours.  (+info)

(2/9) Endometrial mesodermal mixed tumor occurring after tamoxifen treatment: report on a new case and review of the literature.

BACKGROUND: Anti oestrogenic treatment is widely used for breast cancer treatment and prevention of recurrence. Because of concomitant estrogenic effects, tamoxifen exerts carcinogenic properties on the endometrium. Although secondary endometrial cancers usually present as pure adenocarcinomas, other types of rare tumors have also been reported. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Herein we describe the clinical, pathological as well as therapeutic aspects of a new case of endometrial mesodermal mixed tumor occurring after long-term tamoxifen therapy. RESULTS: The present case occured five years after cessation of a five years tamoxifen treatment. The patient failed to respond to doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide when combined to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), but she reached complete response when the same two drugs were used with carboplatin, suggesting the potential usefullness of platinum derivatives. CONCLUSIONS: A longer latency period might be observed for endometrial mesodermal mixed tumors as compared to adenocarcinomas and could justify a prolonged clinical and ultrasonographic follow-up of patients during and after tamoxifen treatment. When indicated, chemotherapy might require the use of platinum derivatives in this particular type of secondary tumor.  (+info)

(3/9) Simultaneous bilateral occurrence of a mixed mesodermal tumor and cystadenocarcinoma in the ovary.

The mixed mesodermal tumor is a very uncommon malignancy. The aggressiveness of this lesion is illustrated by extremely poor prospects for afflicted patients: postoperative survival is usually shorter than 24 months. According to the literature, malignant mixed tumor of the ovary is rather rare and its occurrence with other malignancy is exceptional. We report here a case of a 62-years old woman with serous cystadenocarcinoma in the right ovary and a heterologous malignant mixed mesodermal tumor in the left one. Both tumors expressed cytokeratins, while only the mesodermal tumor expressed S-100 and focal NSE.  (+info)

(4/9) Tamoxifen treatment for breast cancer and risk of endometrial cancer: a case-control study.

BACKGROUND: Tamoxifen treatment of breast cancer is associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer, but tamoxifen-related risks of endometrial cancer are unclear in premenopausal women, in long-term users of tamoxifen, and in women for whom several years have passed since ending treatment. We conducted a case-control study in Britain to investigate these risks. METHODS: We compared treatment information on 813 case patients who had endometrial cancer after their diagnosis for breast cancer and 1067 control patients who had breast cancer but not subsequent endometrial cancer. We assessed risk by conditional logistic regression analysis. All statistical tests were two-sided. RESULTS: Overall, tamoxifen treatment, compared with no treatment, was associated with an increased risk of endometrial cancer (odds ratio [OR] = 2.4; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.8 to 3.0). Risk increased statistically significantly (P(trend)<.001) with duration of treatment (for > or =5 years of treatment compared with no treatment, OR = 3.6, 95% CI = 2.6 to 4.8). As an indication of background levels of treatment, 16% of control patients received 5 years or more of treatment. Risk of endometrial cancer adjusted for treatment duration did not diminish in follow-up to at least 5 years after the last treatment ended. Risk of endometrial cancer was not associated with the daily dose of tamoxifen and was comparable in pre- and postmenopausal women. Ever treatment with tamoxifen was associated with a much greater risk of Mullerian and mesodermal mixed endometrial tumors (OR = 13.5, 95% CI = 4.1 to 44.5) than of adenocarcinoma (OR = 2.1, 95% CI = 1.6 to 2.7) or clear cell and papillary serous tumors (OR = 3.1, 95% CI = 0.8 to 17.9). CONCLUSIONS: There is an increasing risk of endometrial cancer associated with longer tamoxifen treatment, extending well beyond 5 years. The increased risk of endometrial cancer associated with tamoxifen treatment should be considered clinically for both premenopausal and postmenopausal women during treatment and for at least 5 years after the last treatment.  (+info)

(5/9) Microsatellite instability in gynecological sarcomas and in hMSH2 mutant uterine sarcoma cell lines defective in mismatch repair activity.

We have examined a panel of gynecological sarcomas for microsatellite instability. The genomic DNA from 11 of 44 sarcomas contained somatic alterations in the lengths of one or more di-, tri-, tetra-, or pentanucleotide microsatellite sequence markers, and 6 of these cases had alterations in two or more markers. In addition, di-, tri-, and tetranucleotide microsatellites were found to be highly unstable in single cell clones of two cell lines derived from a uterine mixed mesodermal tumor. Since such instability is characteristic of cells defective in postreplication mismatch repair, we examined mismatch repair activity in extracts made from these lines. Both extracts were repair deficient, while an extract of another gynecological sarcoma cell line not exhibiting microsatellite instability was repair proficient. The repair deficiency was complemented by a colon tumor cell extract that was defective in the hMLH1 protein but not by an extract defective in hMSH2 protein. This suggested that the defect in the uterine sarcoma line could be in hMSH2. Subsequent analysis of the gene revealed a 2-bp deletion in exon 14, leading to premature truncation of the hMSH2 protein at codon 796 and no detectable wild-type gene present. These data suggest that the microsatellite instability observed in these cell lines, and possibly in a significant number of gynecological sarcomas, is due to defective postreplication mismatch repair. There was no apparent correlation with microsatellite instability and clinical outcome.  (+info)

(6/9) Chromosome 11 allele imbalance and clinicopathological correlates in ovarian tumours.

Allele imbalance on chromosome 11 loci in ovarian cancer is a frequent event, suggesting the presence of tumour-suppressor genes for ovarian carcinogenesis on this chromosome. Ten highly polymorphic (CA) repeat microsatellites were used to determine allele imbalance in 60 primary ovarian tumours, including 47 epithelial ovarian cancers (EOCs). Forty EOCs (85%) showed allele imbalance at one or more loci, and in 39 of these (83%) the data suggested subchromosomal deletions: eight of 11p only; six of 11q only; and 25 of both 11p and 11q. Three consensus regions of deletion were indicated at 11p15.5-p15.3, 11q12-q22 and 11q23.3-q24.1. Allele imbalance at the 11q subtelomeric region (D11S912) correlated significantly with adverse survival, while imbalance at 11q14.3 and retention of heterozygosity at 11q22 (close to the site of the progesterone receptor gene) were associated with favourable clinicopathological features. The findings allow development of a preliminary model for the molecular evolution of epithelial ovarian cancer.  (+info)

(7/9) Histological evaluation of mixed mesodermal tumor of the ovary.

Mixed mesodermal tumor (MMT) arising from the ovary is very rare, but we recently encountered two cases of this tumor. The tumors were examined histologically using hematoxylin-eosin, alcian blue, periodic acid-Schiff (PAS), and toluidine blue staining, as well as immunohistochemical staining for S-100 protein. The two patients were postmenopausal women aged 68 and 58 years, respectively. The carcinomatous region of the mixed tumor was endometrioid carcinoma in Patient 1 and serous cystadenocarcinoma in Patient 2, while the sarcomatous region was chondrosarcoma in both patients. The chondrosarcoma tissue was positive for PAS, alcian blue, toluidine blue, and S-100 protein.  (+info)

(8/9) Clinical and pathological investigation of endometrial mixed mesodermal tumor.

Four cases of mixed mesodermal tumor (MMT) of uterine origin were histologically and cytologically studied. In the case of occurrence of rhabdomyosarcoma, the cells in the aspiration smear appeared independently and sporadically and were relatively large in size and polyhedral in shape. The cell margins were not clearly distinguishable, and the cytoplasm was non-uniformly and heavily stained light green in general except for some pale red eosinophilic areas. The swollen and elliptical nuclei had a high N/C ratio. The chromatin showed a densely stained coarse granular pattern, and the nuclear margin was expanded. On the imprint smear, the cells contained abundant cytoplasm with amoeboid protrusions. The cytoplasm was light green in general, was filled with granules of various sizes which were non-uniformly and heavily stained. The chromatin showed coarse granulation, and a large nucleolus was observed.  (+info)