Up-regulation of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), endothelial leucocyte adhesion molecule-1 (ELAM-1) and class II MHC molecules on pulmonary artery endothelial cells by antibodies against U1-ribonucleoprotein.
In order to elucidate the pathogenic role(s) of autoantibodies in connective tissue disease (CTD), we examined whether autoantibodies against U1-ribonucleoprotein (RNP) and double-stranded (ds) DNA can up-regulate ICAM-1, ELAM-1 and class I and II MHC molecule expression on pulmonary artery endothelial cells (HPAEC). ICAM-1, ELAM-1 and class II MHC molecule expression on HPAEC cultured in the presence of anti-U1-RNP-containing and anti-dsDNA-containing IgG from CTD patients was up-regulated significantly in comparison with that on HPAEC cultured with IgG from normal healthy volunteers. Affinity chromatographic enrichment and depletion of the anti-U1-RNP antibody content of anti-U1-RNP-containing IgG confirmed that the anti-U1-RNP antibody did up-regulate ICAM-1, ELAM-1 and class II MHC molecule expression. The finding that an IgG F(ab')2-purified anti-U1-RNP antibody also up-regulated expression of these molecules may indicate that mechanisms other than Fc receptor-mediated stimulation are involved. These in vitro findings suggest that autoantibodies against U1-RNP and dsDNA play important roles in the immunopathological processes leading to the proliferative pulmonary arterial vasculopathy observed in CTD patients with pulmonary hypertension by up-regulating adhesion and class II MHC molecule expression on endothelial cells. (+info)
Long-term outcome in mixed connective tissue disease: longitudinal clinical and serologic findings.
OBJECTIVE: To determine the long-term clinical and immunologic outcomes in a well-characterized cohort of 47 patients with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), including reactivity with U small nuclear RNP (snRNP) polypeptides. METHODS: Patients were followed up over a period of 3-29 years with immunogenetic and systematic clinical and serologic analysis. Sera were analyzed for reactivity with snRNP polypeptides U1-70 kd, A, C, B/B', and D, for anti-U1 RNA, and for anticardiolipin antibodies (aCL). RESULTS: The typical core clinical features of MCTD tended to develop over time; features of inflammation as well as Raynaud's phenomenon and esophageal hypomotility diminished, while pulmonary hypertension, pulmonary dysfunction, and central nervous system disease persisted, following treatment. A favorable outcome was observed in 62% of patients; 38% had continued active disease or had died, with death associated with pulmonary hypertension and aCL. All patients had autoantibodies to the U1-70 kd polypeptide of snRNP, and most were positive for anti-U1 RNA. An orderly progression of intramolecular spreading of autoantibody reactivity against snRNP polypeptides was observed, as was the novel finding of "epitope contraction" followed by disappearance of anti-snRNP autoantibodies during prolonged remission. CONCLUSION: These patients demonstrated the typical immunogenetic, clinical, and serologic findings of MCTD, and the condition rarely evolved into systemic lupus erythematosus or systemic sclerosis. The majority of patients had favorable outcomes, with pulmonary hypertension being the most frequent disease-associated cause of death. Intramolecular spreading of autoantibody reactivity against snRNP polypeptides was observed, followed by "epitope contraction" and ultimate disappearance of anti-snRNP autoantibodies during prolonged disease remission. (+info)
Mixed connective tissue disease: a disease entity?
OBJECTIVE: To explicate whether mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD) is a distinct disease and evaluate the reliability of three different diagnostic criteria proposed by Sharp, Alarcon-Segovia and Kasukawa respectively. METHODS: Clinical follow-up of 50 MCTD patients lasted 2-8 years (80% > 5 years). HLA-A, -B as well as -DR typing was performed by complemently dependent cytotocity assay. Autoantibody profile was detected by counterimmune electrophoresis (CIE). RESULTS: Thirteen (26.0%) of the 50 MCTD patients subsequently developed other connective tissue disease (OCTD), including 7 systemic lupus erythematosis (SLE), and 6 progressive systemic scleroderma (PSS). Among 23 of the MCTD patients fulfilling Sharp's criteria, 1 (4.3%) developed PSS, but among 23 of the patients fulfilling Kasukawa's, not Sharp's, 7 (30.4%) developed OCTD and among 27 of the patients fulfilling Alarcon-Segovia's, not Sharp's, 12 (44.4%) developed OCTD. In the frequencies of DR4 and DR5, there were significant differences between patients fulfilling Sharp's (60.9%, 56.5%) and controls (24.3%, P < 0.005, RR = 4.7 and 21.4%, P < 0.005, RR = 4.6%), but there were no significant differences between the patients not fulfilling Sharp's and normal control (P > 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: MCTD is a distict rheumatic disease. Sharp's criteria is the most reliable for diagnosis of MCTD. (+info)
Autoantibodies to the extracellular matrix microfibrillar protein, fibrillin-1, in patients with scleroderma and other connective tissue diseases.
A duplication in the fibrillin-1 gene has been implicated as the cause of the tight skin 1 (tsk1) phenotype, an animal model of scleroderma or systemic sclerosis (SSc). In addition to the production of abnormal fibrillin-1 protein, the tsk1 mouse also produces autoantibodies to fibrillin-1. Among a population of Choctaw Native Americans with the highest prevalence of SSc yet described, a chromosome 15q haplotype containing the fibrillin-1 gene has been strongly associated with SSc. With a recombinant human fibrillin-1 protein, autoantibodies to fibrillin-1 were detected in the sera of Native American SSc patients that correlated significantly with disease. Abs to fibrillin-1 also were detected in sera from Japanese, Caucasian, and African-American SSc patients. Compared with other ethnic groups, Japanese and Native American SSc patients had significantly higher frequencies of anti-fibrillin-1 Abs. Sera from patients with diffuse SSc, calcinosis, Raynaud's, esophageal dysmotility, sclerodactyly, and telangiectasias syndrome and mixed connective tissue disease also had significantly higher frequencies of anti-fibrillin-1 Abs than sera from controls or patients with other non-SSc connective tissue diseases (lupus, rheumatoid arthritis, and Sjogren's syndrome). Ab specificity for fibrillin-1 was demonstrated by the lack of binding to a panel of other purified autoantigens. The results presented demonstrate for the first time the presence of high levels of anti-fibrillin-1 Abs in a significant portion of patients with SSc. (+info)
Mixed connective tissue disease.
Mixed connective tissue disease deserves to be a distinct disease entity due to the persistent citation of this disease in the literature since the original description by Sharp in 1972, in spite of the presence of several criticisms against the independency of this disease. The characteristic features of mixed connective tissue disease are: 1) the presence of anti-U1snRNP antibody with high titers in sera, 2) an increased frequency of HLA-DR4 in the leukocytes, and 3) death due to pulmonary hypertension. (+info)
A case of Graves' disease associated with autoimmune hepatitis and mixed connective tissue disease.
The patient was a woman of forty-eight. Liver dysfunction was pointed out at the age of forty-five. She was admitted to hospital because of her hyperthyroidism. Her palmar skin was wet and her fingers were swollen like sausages. She had a diffuse and elastic hard goiter with a rough surface. The serum levels of free T3 (9.6 pg/mL) and free T4 (3.76 ng/dL) were high and that of TSH (0.11 microU/mL) was low. The activity of TSH-binding inhibitory immunoglobulin (TBII) was 89%. The uptake rate of 123I to the thyroid was 55.1% and the uptake pattern was nearly diffuse. The goiter was proved to contain several nodules by ultrasonography, but aspiration cytology showed no malignant cells. She was diagnosed to have Graves' disease with adenomatous goiter. She also had high ALT (34 IU/L) and gamma-globulin (1.97 g/dL). She had positive antinuclear antibody (speckled type), positive anti-ribosomal nuclear protein antibody, and positive LE cell phenomenon. The liver biopsy revealed mononuclear cell infiltration with fibrosis in the portal area. These data indicated that she also had autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) and mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD). The analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) showed positive A11 which had been reported to relate to Graves' disease, and positive DR4 which had been reported to relate to AIH and MCTD. These results suggested that HLA would determine susceptibility to three distinct autoimmune diseases in this case. (+info)
Klinefelter's syndrome accompanied by mixed connective tissue disease and diabetes mellitus.
We report a rare case of Klinefelter's syndrome (KS) with mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), diabetes mellitus (DM) and several endocrine disorders. A 57-year-old man presented with polyarthritis and tapering fingers with Raynaud's phenomenon on admission. In addition to a karyotype of 47, XXY, a marked restrictive change in respiratory functional test, a myogenic pattern in electromyogram, the positive tests for anti-RNP antibody indicated that this was a case of KS complicated with MCTD. The patients also presented DM with insulin resistance, hyperprolactinemia, slight primary hypothyroidism and hypoadrenocorticism. The mechanism for these coincidences remains to be elucidated. (+info)
Presence of antinucleosome autoantibodies in a restricted set of connective tissue diseases: antinucleosome antibodies of the IgG3 subclass are markers of renal pathogenicity in systemic lupus erythematosus.
OBJECTIVE: To study the frequency and disease specificity of antinucleosome antibody reactivity in diverse connective tissue diseases (CTD), and to determine factors, such as antibody subclass, that may influence the pathogenicity of these antibodies in relation to disease activity. METHODS: IgG and IgM antinucleosome activities on nucleosome core particles from 496 patients with 13 different CTD and 100 patients with hepatitis C were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Of the patients with CTD, 120 had systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), 37 had scleroderma (systemic sclerosis; SSc), 20 had mixed connective tissue disease (MCTD), and 319 had other CTD, including Sjogren's syndrome, inflammatory myopathy, rheumatoid arthritis, primary antiphospholipid syndrome, Wegener's granulomatosis, Takayasu arteritis, giant cell arteritis, relapsing polychondritis, Behcet's syndrome, and sarcoidosis. Antinucleosome-positive sera were further analyzed, by isotype-specific ELISA, for antinucleosome and anti-double-stranded DNA (anti-dsDNA) IgG subclasses. RESULTS: SLE, SSc, and MCTD were the only 3 CTD in which antinucleosome IgG were detected (71.7%, 45.9%, and 45.0% of patients, respectively). Antinucleosomes of the IgG3 subclass were present at high levels in patients with active SLE and were virtually absent in those with SSc, MCTD, or inactive SLE, and their levels showed a positive correlation with SLE disease activity. Of note, an increase in levels of antinucleosome of the IgG3 isotype was observed during SLE flares, and this increase was found to be closely associated with active nephritis. Levels of antinucleosome of the IgG1 subclass showed a trend toward an inverse correlation with SLE disease activity. No significant fluctuation in the anti-dsDNA isotype profile was observed in relation to SLE severity or clinical signs. CONCLUSION: Our data suggest that IgG antinucleosome is a new marker that may help in the differential diagnosis of CTD; antinucleosome of the IgG3 isotype might constitute a selective biologic marker of active SLE, in particular, of lupus nephritis. (+info)