Cancer mortality in agricultural regions of Minnesota.
Because of its unique geology, Minnesota can be divided into four agricultural regions: south-central region one (corn, soybeans); west-central region two (wheat, corn, soybeans); northwest region three (wheat, sugar beets, potatoes); and northeast region four (forested and urban in character). Cancer mortality (1980-1989) in agricultural regions one, two, and three was compared to region four. Using data compiled by the National Center for Health Statistics, cancer mortality was summarized by 5-year age groups, sex, race, and county. Age-standardized mortality rate ratios were calculated for white males and females for all ages combined, and for children aged 0-14. Increased mortality rate ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were observed for the following cancer sites: region one--lip (men), standardized rate ratio (SRR) = 2.70 (CI, 1.08-6.71); nasopharynx (women), SRR = 3.35 (CI, 1.20-9.31); region two--non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (women), SRR = 1.35 (CI, 1.09-1.66); and region three--prostate (men), SRR = 1.12 (CI, 1.00-1.26); thyroid (men), SRR = 2.95 (CI, 1.35-6.44); bone (men), SRR = 2.09 (CI, 1. 00-4.34); eye (women), SRR = 5.77 (CI, 1.90-17.50). Deficits of smoking-related cancers were noted. Excess cancers reported are consistent with earlier reports of agriculturally related cancers in the midwestern United States. However, reports on thyroid and bone cancer in association with agricultural pesticides are few in number. The highest use of fungicides occurs in region three. Ethylenebisdithiocarbamates, whose metabolite is a known cause of thyroid cancer in rats, are frequently applied. This report provides a rationale for evaluation of the carcinogenic potential of this suspect agent in humans. (+info)
Adverse events associated with ingestion of gamma-butyrolactone--Minnesota, New Mexico, and Texas, 1998-1999.
Products containing gamma-butyrolactone (GBL) are marketed for many claimed purposes, including to induce sleep, release growth hormone, enhance sexual activity and athletic performance, relieve depression, and prolong life. GBL is converted by the body into gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB), a drug banned outside of clinical trials approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Recognized manifestations of GHB toxicity include bradycardia, hypothermia, central nervous system depression, and uncontrolled movements. This report describes seven cases of GBL toxicity involving the product "Revivarant," which is labeled as containing 1.82 g of GBL per fluid ounce, reported from two hospital emergency departments (EDs) in Minnesota during October-December 1998 and summarizes an additional 34 cases of GBL toxicity reported to poison centers in New Mexico and Texas during October 1998-January 1999. (+info)
Genome-wide linkage analyses of systolic blood pressure using highly discordant siblings.
BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure is a risk factor for cardiovascular, cerebrovascular, and renal diseases. Complex mechanisms of blood pressure regulation pose a challenge to identifying genetic factors that influence interindividual blood pressure variation in the population at large. METHODS AND RESULTS: We performed a genome-wide linkage analysis of systolic blood pressure in humans using an efficient, highly discordant, full-sibling design. We identified 4 regions of the human genome that show statistical significant linkage to genes that influence interindividual systolic blood pressure variation (2p22.1 to 2p21, 5q33.3 to 5q34, 6q23.1 to 6q24.1, and 15q25.1 to 15q26.1). These regions contain a number of candidate genes that are involved in physiological mechanisms of blood pressure regulation. CONCLUSIONS: These results provide both novel information about genome regions in humans that influence interindividual blood pressure variation and a basis for identifying the contributing genes. Identification of the functional mutations in these genes may uncover novel mechanisms for blood pressure regulation and suggest new therapies and prevention strategies. (+info)
Relation of weight and rate of increase in weight during childhood and adolescence to body size, blood pressure, fasting insulin, and lipids in young adults. The Minneapolis Children's Blood Pressure Study.
BACKGROUND: Weight gain is of concern during early development because adult obesity and its cardiovascular consequences appear to have their origins during childhood. Insulin resistance is known to be related to obesity. Thus, weight gain beginning in childhood may influence the development of insulin-induced cardiovascular risk during adulthood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We monitored 679 individuals from 7.7+/-0.1 years of age with repeated measures of height, weight, and systolic blood pressure (SBP) until 23.6+/-0.2 years of age, when blood samples were obtained for measurements of insulin and lipids. Initial childhood weight, body mass index (BMI), and height were significantly correlated with young adult weight, BMI, and height and with fasting insulin, lipids, and SBP. The increases in weight and BMI but not height during childhood were significantly related to the young adult levels of insulin, lipids, and SBP. CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that weight gain in excess of normal growth during childhood is a determinant of adult cardiovascular risk. The finding in multiple linear regression analysis that weight gain during childhood rather than the childhood weight at 7.7 years of age is significantly related to young adult risk factors suggests that a reduction in weight gain could reduce subsequent levels of cardiovascular risk. (+info)
The epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis in Rochester, Minnesota, 1955-1985.
OBJECTIVE: To describe trends in the epidemiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) over a period of 30 years in a population-based cohort. METHODS: An inception cohort of Rochester, Minnesota residents who were > or =35 years of age and had RA (as defined by the 1987 American College of Rheumatology criteria for RA) first diagnosed between January 1, 1955 and January 1, 1985 was assembled and followed up until January 1, 1995. Incidence rates were age- and sex-adjusted to the 1970 US white population. Prevalence of RA in this cohort was estimated on January 1, 1985. A birth-cohort analysis was performed by calculating and comparing incidence rates in each of 16 birth cohorts. RESULTS: Of the 425 Rochester residents who fulfilled the inclusion criteria, there were 113 men (26.6%) and 312 women (73.4%), with a mean age at diagnosis of 60.2 years. The mean followup time was 15.1 years. The overall age- and sex-adjusted annual incidence of RA among Rochester, Minnesota residents > or =35 years of age (1955-1985) was 75.3 per 100,000 population (95% confidence interval 68.0-82.5). This incidence was approximately double in women compared with that in men and increased steadily with age, until age 85, after which the incidence of RA decreased. Secular trends in the incidence of RA over the entire study period were demonstrated. The overall prevalence of RA on January 1, 1985 was approximately 1%. The birth-cohort analysis showed peak incidence rates in the 1880-1895 birth cohorts. CONCLUSION: The epidemiology of RA is dynamic. The findings in this study lend further support to the hypothesis of a host-environment interaction in the pathogenesis of RA. (+info)
Prevalence and correlates of the insulin resistance syndrome among Native Americans. The Inter-Tribal Heart Project.
OBJECTIVE: The clustering of factors characterizing the insulin resistance syndrome has not been assessed among Native Americans, a population at high risk for diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We examined the distribution and correlates of the insulin resistance syndrome among individuals in three Chippewa and Menominee communities in Wisconsin and Minnesota. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Cross-sectional data from 488 men and 822 women ages > or = 25 years in the Inter-Tribal Heart Project (1992-1994) were included. The clustering of each individual trait (hypertension, diabetes, high triglycerides, and low HDL cholesterol) with the other traits and the association of the number of traits with measures of adiposity and insulin levels were examined. RESULTS: Among the men, 40.4, 32.6, 17.4, and 9.6% had none, one, two, or at least three of the four traits, respectively; among the women, the respective percentages were 53.2, 25.6, 15.3, and 6.0%. The percentage of individuals with each particular trait significantly increased (P < 0.01) among those with none, one, or at least two other syndrome traits. Having more syndrome traits was significantly related (P < 0.001) to higher BMI, conicity index, waist circumference, and waist-to-hip and waist-to-thigh ratios. Among individuals with normal glucose levels, having more syndrome traits was significantly related (P < or = 0.05) to higher fasting insulin levels after adjusting for age and measures of adiposity, although associations were attenuated with adjustment for either BMI or waist circumference. CONCLUSIONS: Traits characterizing the insulin resistance syndrome were found to be clustered to a significant degree among Native Americans in this study. Comprehensive public health efforts are needed to reduce adverse levels of these risk factors in this high-risk population. (+info)
Psychosocial correlates of health compromising behaviors among adolescents.
The objective of the present study was to examine psychosocial correlates of diverse health-compromising behaviors among adolescents of different ages. The study population included 123,132 adolescents in sixth, ninth and 12th grades. Psychosocial correlates of substance abuse, delinquency, suicide risk, sexual activity and unhealthy weight loss behaviors were examined. Risk-taking disposition was significantly associated with nearly every behavior across age and gender groups. Other consistent correlates included sexual abuse and family connectedness. Correlates of health-compromising behaviors tended to be consistent across age groups. However, stronger associations were noted between sexual abuse and substance use for younger adolescents, and risk-taking disposition and school achievement were stronger correlates for older youth. The results suggest the presence of both common and unique etiological factors for different health-compromising behaviors among youth. The results emphasize the importance of focusing on positive 'risk-taking' experiences for youth in prevention programs; being sensitive to possible sexual abuse experiences among both female and male adolescents in health-care consultations; integrating strategies for improved family connectedness into health promotion efforts; and making school relevant for all adolescents. (+info)
The impact of a simulated immunization registry on perceived childhood immunization status.
We developed a simulated immunization registry to assess the impact on the perceived immunization status in a population-based sample of 2-year-olds living in Olmsted County, MN, in 1995. We compiled records of all immunizations by abstracting immunization data from all medical care facilities in the county. The data collected from each facility were analyzed separately to provide the immunization rate as perceived by each facility. This perceived rate was compared to the rate obtained by combining all recorded immunizations from all facilities (simulated registry). Information on children not receiving any carefrom facilities in Olmsted County was compiled from birth certificate data and community school lists. Data from the simulated registry indicated that 69.1% of all children in Olmsted County with medical records were up-to-date on their immunizations by 20 months of age. By 24 months, this increased to 74.2%. The immunization rate of 24-month-old children recorded at individual healthcare facilities in Olmsted County ranged from 24.3% to 79.5%. The addition of data from the simulated registry increased the immunization rate at each site: a 27.7% relative increase in the site with the lowest recorded immunization rate, a 14.0% increase in the site with the intermediate immunization rate, and a 6.9% increase in the site with the highest internally perceived immunization rate. The registry also identified excess immunizations in 5% of the county's 2-year-olds. Each healthcare facility in this community gained an immediate benefit from the development of a simulated immunization registry. This immediate improvement in one quality-of-care measure (up-to-date immunization rate) should be factored into the cost/benefit assessment of immunization registries. (+info)