Ergonomic guidelines for using notebook personal computers. Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction, International Ergonomics Association.
In the 1980's, the visual display terminal (VDT) was introduced in workplaces of many countries. Soon thereafter, an upsurge in reported cases of related health problems, such as musculoskeletal disorders and eyestrain, was seen. Recently, the flat panel display or notebook personal computer (PC) became the most remarkable feature in modern workplaces with VDTs and even in homes. A proactive approach must be taken to avert foreseeable ergonomic and occupational health problems from the use of this new technology. Because of its distinct physical and optical characteristics, the ergonomic requirements for notebook PCs in terms of machine layout, workstation design, lighting conditions, among others, should be different from the CRT-based computers. The Japan Ergonomics Society (JES) technical committee came up with a set of guidelines for notebook PC use following exploratory discussions that dwelt on its ergonomic aspects. To keep in stride with this development, the Technical Committee on Human-Computer Interaction under the auspices of the International Ergonomics Association worked towards the international issuance of the guidelines. This paper unveils the result of this collaborative effort. (+info)
How the past teaches the future: ACMI distinguished lecture.
More than 30 years of experience in developing a computer-based patient record system, The Medical Record (TMR), in multiple settings, in multiple specialty groups, and at multiple sites has taught us many lessons. Lessons related to computer-based patient records include the importance of a data model in which input, storage, and planned use are independent; separation of patient-specific data from metadata; a modular design to localize the program code that deals with a set of data; redundant storage to optimize tasks and response time; and integration of decision support into work process. Lessons related to medical informatics include the importance of a clinical-technical partnership, control of tools at the leading edge, and rapid prototyping in the real world. Finally, changes in technology move the challenges but do not eliminate them. (+info)
Mechanisms of subendocardial dysfunction in response to exercise in dogs with severe left ventricular hypertrophy.
The effects of exercise on regional myocardial blood flow and function were examined in the presence and absence of beta-adrenergic receptor blockade in 10 adult conscious dogs with severe left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy induced by aortic banding in puppies, which increased the LV weight/body weight ratio by 87%. Exercise at the most intense level studied increased LV systolic (+87 +/- 8 mm Hg) and end-diastolic (+28 +/- 5 mm Hg) pressures, systolic (+85 +/- 12 g/cm2) and diastolic (+49 +/- 11 g/cm2) wall stresses, and subepicardial wall thickening (+0.18 +/- 0.05 mm) but reduced subendocardial wall thickening (-0.45 +/- 0.12 mm) and full wall thickening (-0.42 +/- 0.13 mm). This was associated with a fall in the subendocardial/subepicardial (endo/epi) blood flow ratio to 0.87 +/- 0.06 from 1.24 +/- 0.08. Subendocardial dysfunction persisted during recovery, at a time when transmural blood flow distribution returned to baseline, suggesting myocardial stunning. At the least intense level of exercise studied, the endo/epi blood flow ratio did not fall (1.27 +/- 0.14), but increases in heart rate (+73 +/- 8 beats per minute) and LV systolic (+35 +/- 8 g/cm2) and diastolic (+27 +/- 3 g/cm2) wall stresses were observed, and subendocardial wall thickening fell significantly (-0.21 +/- 0.08 mm, p less than 0.05). With anticipation of exercise, subendocardial wall thickening was not changed. However, subendocardial dysfunction was even evident after 10 beats, i.e., the first 3 seconds of exercise, at a time when LV pressures and stresses had not increased. After beta-adrenergic receptor blockade with propranolol, the most intense level of exercise was associated with lesser increases in systolic and diastolic LV wall stresses, heart rate, and LV dP/dt, and the endo/epi blood flow ratio was no longer reduced below unity (1.17 +/- 0.09). In addition, there were no decreases in subendocardial or full wall thickening, and myocardial stunning was no longer observed. Thus, the subendocardial hypoperfusion and depression in subendocardial wall thickening observed during exercise in dogs with LV hypertrophy was prevented by pretreatment with beta-adrenergic receptor blockade. Furthermore, the subendocardial dysfunction occurred rapidly, before alterations in LV systolic or diastolic wall stress or an alteration in the endo/epi blood flow ratio.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) (+info)
A head and neck cancer database for the 21st century.
A versatile, hand-held computerised database is described. Its use for general patient management, audit and as a tool for clinical governance is illustrated. (+info)
Isolated ventricular systolic interaction during transient reductions in left ventricular pressure.
The volume and pressure of one ventricle have been demonstrated to modulate the volume and pressure in the contralateral chamber during systole and diastole. To quantitate the isolated systolic effects of left ventricular (LV) pressure on right ventricular (RV) mechanics, we rapidly withdrew blood from the LV immediately after diastole via an apex cannula during a single cardiac cycle in eight open-chest, open-pericardium anesthetized pigs (45 kg) and studied the effects on the RV. Reductions in LV pressure of up to 75 mm Hg were achieved in midsystolic without changing LV or RV diastolic volume or pressure. Resultant changes in RV flow and pressure development during these single unloaded beats may therefore be considered to result from pure systolic interaction. The instantaneous left-to-right systolic pressure gain [G(t)] was determined as the ratio of RV pressure change to LV pressure change as a function of time during systole, and the mean LV-to-RV systolic pressure gain was determined as the ratio of changes in mean systolic RV pressure to changes in mean systolic LV pressure. During LV unloading, there was an average reduction of 62.6 +/- 12.3% in the mean systolic LV pressure, which resulted in decreases of 13.6 +/- 6.4% in mean RV systolic pressure, 17.9 +/- 10.4% in RV stroke volume, and 27.0 +/- 11.3% in RV stroke work. G(t) was found to vary significantly within systole, reaching a minimum of 0.042 +/- 0.014 mm Hg/mm Hg at normalized time 0.70 of the systolic duration and a maximum of 0.079 +/- 0.029 at the end of RV ejection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) (+info)
Information retrieval using a "digital book shelf".
WALT (Washington University's Approach to Lots of Text), is a prototype interface designed to support information retrieval research. The WALT interface serves as a "front end" to a wide array of retrieval engines including those based on Boolean retrieval, latent semantic indexing, term frequency--inverse document frequency, and Bayesian inference techniques. The WALT interface is composed of seven distinct components: a document examination component known as the Document Browsing Area; four navigation components called the Book Shelf, the Book Spine, the Table of Contents, and the Path Clipboard; a term-based information retrieval component called Control Panel; and a relevance feedback component known as the Reader Feedback Panel. WALT's most unique feature may be it's use of "book shelf" and "book spine" metaphors both to facilitate navigation and to provide a histogram-based display showing documents deemed appropriate for answering user queries. (+info)
A computerized medical record with direct data entry for community clinics in Israel.
CLINIC is a computerized medical record system currently being used in two primary care clinics in Israel. Clinic features direct coded data-entry by the medical personnel via a system based on categories of problems and complaints with common signs and symptoms. (+info)
Concurrent measurement of "real-world" stress and arousal in individuals with psychosis: assessing the feasibility and validity of a novel methodology.