(1/157) Cell cycle regulation of human CDC6 protein. Intracellular localization, interaction with the human mcm complex, and CDC2 kinase-mediated hyperphosphorylation.
The binding of mammalian MCM complexes to chromatin is cell cycle-regulated and under CDC2 kinase negative control. Here, we investigated the properties of mammalian CDC6 protein, a candidate regulator of MCM. The levels of CDC6 were relatively constant during the HeLa cell cycle. In asynchronous cells, CDC6 was mainly detected in the nuclei with immunostaining, but some CDC6 was not extractable with nonionic detergent. In contrast to the chromatin-bound MCM, this fraction of CDC6 was resistant to DNase I treatment, suggesting that it binds to the detergent- and nuclease-resistant nuclear structure. In S phase cells, CDC6 became detectable in the cytoplasm with immunostaining; however, the level of the bound CDC6 was unchanged. In G(2)/M phase cells, the level of the bound CDC6 was still maintained, which was hyperphosphorylated by CDC2 kinase. These data suggest that some CDC6 protein is associated with the specific nuclear structure throughout the cell cycle and that major binding sites on chromatin differ between MCM and CDC6. However, co-immunoprecipitation assays with chemical cross-linking indicated that a small part of the chromatin-bound MCM is present close to the bound CDC6. (+info)
(2/157) Minichromosome maintenance proteins as biological markers of dysplasia and malignancy.
Dysplasia, an intermediate stage in the progression from normal tissue to neoplasia, is defined morphologically by a loss of normal orientation between epithelial cells, with changes in cellular and nuclear shape and size. However, little is known about the functional properties of dysplastic cells, including their replicative state, largely due to a lack of available biological markers. We have used novel antibodies against minichromosome maintenance (MCM) proteins to examine the proliferative status of a range of histological lesions and to characterize dysplastic cells in functional terms. Immunoperoxidase staining was used to localize the MCM proteins, components of the prereplicative complex that is essential for initiating eukaryotic DNA replication. These proteins are down-regulated in cells undergoing differentiation or quiescence and, thus, serve as specific markers for proliferating cells. In normal and some reactive tissues, MCM expression was present only in restricted proliferative compartments, consistent with our published findings in the uterine cervix. In dysplastic and malignant tissues, in contrast, MCM proteins were expressed in the majority of cells, extending to surface layers of dysplastic stratified epithelia. In carcinomas, the frequency of expression of MCM proteins showed an inverse correlation with the degree of tumor differentiation. Thus, we suggest that dysplastic cells may be characterized in functional terms as remaining in cell cycle, due to deregulation of normal controls over cell proliferation. Antibodies against MCM proteins have potential clinical applications, for example, in the assessment of tumor prognosis in histological sections and the identification of proliferating cells in clinical samples using biochemical or cytological assays. (+info)
(3/157) Human CDC45 protein binds to minichromosome maintenance 7 protein and the p70 subunit of DNA polymerase alpha.
Budding yeast CDC45 encodes Cdc45p, an essential protein required to trigger initiation of DNA replication in late G1 phase. We cloned four and one species of the human Cdc45p homolog cDNA, resulting from different splicing patterns, from HeLa cell and human placenta cDNA libraries, respectively. A comparison of the cDNAs and the genomic sequence showed that the longest encoding a 610-amino acid protein was comprised of 20 exons. One species, which lacks exon 7 and contains the shorter of two exons 18, was identical with the previously reported CDC45L cDNA and constituted 24 out of 28 clones from HeLa cells. Splicing was different in HeLa cells and TIG-1 cells, a human diploid cell line. Human CDC45 protein was found to bind directly in vitro to human minichromosome maintenance 7 protein (hMCM7) and to the p70 subunit of DNA polymerase alpha. The data support a thesis that human CDC45 acts as a molecular tether to mediate loading of the DNA polymerase alpha on to the DNA replication complex through binding to hMCM7. (+info)
(4/157) Biochemical analysis of the intrinsic Mcm4-Mcm6-mcm7 DNA helicase activity.
Mcm proteins play an essential role in eukaryotic DNA replication, but their biochemical functions are poorly understood. Recently, we reported that a DNA helicase activity is associated with an Mcm4-Mcm6-Mcm7 (Mcm4,6,7) complex, suggesting that this complex is involved in the initiation of DNA replication as a DNA-unwinding enzyme. In this study, we have expressed and isolated the mouse Mcm2, 4,6,7 proteins from insect cells and characterized various mutant Mcm4,6,7 complexes in which the conserved ATPase motifs of the Mcm4 and Mcm6 proteins were mutated. The activities associated with such preparations demonstrated that the DNA helicase activity is intrinsically associated with the Mcm4,6,7 complex. Biochemical analyses of these mutant Mcm4,6,7 complexes indicated that the ATP binding activity of the Mcm6 protein in the complex is critical for DNA helicase activity and that the Mcm4 protein may play a role in the single-stranded DNA binding activity of the complex. The results also indicated that the two activities of DNA helicase and single-stranded DNA binding can be separated. (+info)
(5/157) DNA replication in quiescent cell nuclei: regulation by the nuclear envelope and chromatin structure.
Quiescent nuclei from differentiated somatic cells can reacquire pluripotence, the capacity to replicate, and reinitiate a program of differentiation after transplantation into amphibian eggs. The replication of quiescent nuclei is recapitulated in extracts derived from activated Xenopus eggs; therefore, we have exploited this cell-free system to explore the mechanisms that regulate initiation of replication in nuclei from terminally differentiated Xenopus erythrocytes. We find that these nuclei lack many, if not all, pre-replication complex (pre-RC) proteins. Pre-RC proteins from the extract form a stable association with the chromatin of permeable nuclei, which replicate in this system, but not with the chromatin of intact nuclei, which do not replicate, even though these proteins cross an intact nuclear envelope. During extract incubation, the linker histones H1 and H1(0) are removed from erythrocyte chromatin by nucleoplasmin. We show that H1 removal facilitates the replication of permeable nuclei by increasing the frequency of initiation most likely by promoting the assembly of pre-RCs on chromatin. These data indicate that initiation in erythrocyte nuclei requires the acquisition of pre-RC proteins from egg extract and that pre-RC assembly requires the loss of nuclear envelope integrity and is facilitated by the removal of linker histone H1 from chromatin. (+info)
(6/157) The single minichromosome maintenance protein of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH contains DNA helicase activity.
Previous studies have identified an ATP-dependent DNA helicase activity intrinsic to the human minichromosome maintenance (MCM) complex, composed of MCM subunits 4, 6, and 7 [Ishimi, Y. (1997) J. Biol. Chem. 272, 24508-24513]. In contrast to the presence of multiple MCM genes (at least six) in eukaryotes, the archaeon Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum DeltaH (mth) genome contains a single open reading frame coding for an MCM protein. In this study we report the isolation of the mthMCM protein overexpressed in Escherichia coli. The purified recombinant protein was found to exist in both multimeric ( approximately 10(3) kDa) and monomeric (76 kDa) forms. Both forms of the protein bind to single-stranded DNA, hydrolyze ATP in the presence of DNA, and possess 3'-to-5' ATP-dependent DNA helicase activities. Thus, a single mthMCM protein contains biochemical properties identical to those associated with the eukaryotic MCM4, -6, and -7 complex. These results suggest that the characterization of the mthMCM protein and its multiple forms may contribute to our understanding of the role of MCM helicase activity in eukaryotic chromosomal DNA replication. (+info)
(7/157) Cdk2-dependent and -independent pathways in E2F-mediated S phase induction.
The transcription factor E2F plays an important role in G(1) to S phase transition in the higher eukaryotic cell cycle. Although a number of E2F-inducible genes have been identified, the biochemical cascades from E2F to the S phase entry remain to be investigated. In this study, we generated stably transfected mouse NIH3T3 cells that express exogenous human E2F-1 under the control of a heavy metal-inducible metallothionein promoter and analyzed the molecular mechanism of the E2F-1-mediated initiation of chromosomal DNA replication. Ectopic E2F-1 expression in cells arrested in G(0)/G(1) by serum deprivation enabled them to progress through G(1) and to enter S phase. During the G(1) progression, mouse cyclin E, but little of cyclin D1, was induced to express, which subsequently activated Cdk2. Experiments using the Cdk inhibitory proteins p27, p18, and p19 proved that the activity of Cdk2, but not of Cdk4, was required for S phase entry mediated by E2F-1. Minichromosome maintenance proteins (MCM) 4 and 7, the components of the DNA-replication initiation complex (RC), were constitutively expressed during the cell cycle, although the MCM genes are well known E2F-inducible genes. However, tight association of these two proteins with chromatin depended upon ectopic E2F-1 expression. In contrast, the Cdc45 protein, another RC component, which turned out to be a transcriptional target of E2Fs, was induced to express and subsequently bound to chromatin in response to E2F-1. Experiments utilizing a chemical Cdk-specific inhibitor, butyrolactone I, revealed that Cdk2 activity was required only for chromatin binding of the Cdc45 proteins, and not for the expression of Cdc45 or chromatin binding of MCM4 and -7. These results indicate that at least two separate pathways function downstream of E2F to initiate S phase; one depends upon the activity of Cdk2 and the other does not. (+info)
(8/157) Clb/Cdc28 kinases promote nuclear export of the replication initiator proteins Mcm2-7.
BACKGROUND: In the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the cyclin-dependent kinases of the Clb/Cdc28 family restrict the initiation of DNA replication to once per cell cycle by preventing the re-assembly of pre-replicative complexes (pre-RCs) at replication origins that have already initiated replication. This assembly involves the Cdc6-dependent loading of six minichromosome maintenance (Mcm) proteins, Mcm2-7, onto origins. How Clb/Cdc28 kinases prevent pre-RC assembly is not understood. RESULTS: In living cells, the Mcm proteins were found to colocalize in a cell-cycle-regulated manner. Mcm2-4, 6 and 7 were concentrated in the nucleus in G1 phase, gradually exported to the cytoplasm during S phase, and excluded from the nucleus by G2 and M phase. Tagging any single Mcm protein with the SV40 nuclear localization signal made all Mcm proteins constitutively nuclear. In the absence of functional Cdc6, Clb/Cdc28 kinases were necessary and sufficient for efficient net nuclear export of a fusion protein between Mcm7 and the green fluorescent protein (Mcm7-GFP), whereas inactivation of these kinases at the end of mitosis coincided with the net nuclear import of Mcm7-GFP. In contrast, in the presence of functional Cdc6, which loads Mcm proteins onto chromatin, S-phase progression as well as Clb/Cdc28 kinases was required for Mcm-GFP export. CONCLUSIONS: We propose that Clb/Cdc28 kinases prevent pre-RC reassembly in part by promoting the net nuclear export of Mcm proteins. We further propose that Mcm proteins become refractory to this regulation when they load onto chromatin and must be dislodged by DNA replication before they can be exported. Such an arrangement could ensure that Mcm proteins complete their replication function before they are removed from the nucleus. (+info)