Are WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF-recommended replacement milks for infants of HIV-infected mothers appropriate in the South African context?
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about the nutritional adequacy and feasibility of breastmilk replacement options recommended by WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF. The study aim was to explore suitability of the 2001 feeding recommendations for infants of HIV-infected mothers for a rural region in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa specifically with respect to adequacy of micronutrients and essential fatty acids, cost, and preparation times of replacement milks. METHODS: Nutritional adequacy, cost, and preparation time of home-prepared replacement milks containing powdered full cream milk (PM) and fresh full cream milk (FM) and different micronutrient supplements (2 g UNICEF micronutrient sachet, government supplement routinely available in district public health clinics, and best available liquid paediatric supplement found in local pharmacies) were compared. Costs of locally available ingredients for replacement milk were used to calculate monthly costs for infants aged one, three, and six months. Total monthly costs of ingredients of commercial and home-prepared replacement milks were compared with each other and the average monthly income of domestic or shop workers. Time needed to prepare one feed of replacement milk was simulated. FINDINGS: When mixed with water, sugar, and each micronutrient supplement, PM and FM provided <50% of estimated required amounts for vitamins E and C, folic acid, iodine, and selenium and <75% for zinc and pantothenic acid. PM and FM made with UNICEF micronutrient sachets provided 30% adequate intake for niacin. FM prepared with any micronutrient supplement provided no more than 32% vitamin D. All PMs provided more than adequate amounts of vitamin D. Compared with the commercial formula, PM and FM provided 8-60% of vitamins A, E, and C, folic acid, manganese, zinc, and iodine. Preparations of PM and FM provided 11% minimum recommended linoleic acid and 67% minimum recommended alpha-linolenic acid per 450 ml mixture. It took 21-25 minutes to optimally prepare 120 ml of replacement feed from PM or commercial infant formula and 30-35 minutes for the fresh milk preparation. PM or FM cost approximately 20% of monthly income averaged over the first six months of life; commercial formula cost approximately 32%. CONCLUSION: No home-prepared replacement milks in South Africa meet all estimated micronutrient and essential fatty acid requirements of infants aged <6 months. Commercial infant formula is the only replacement milk that meets all nutritional needs. Revisions of WHO/UNAIDS/UNICEF HIV and infant feeding course replacement milk options are needed. If replacement milks are to provide total nutrition, preparations should include vegetable oils, such as soybean oil, as a source of linoleic and alpha-linolenic acids, and additional vitamins and minerals. (+info)
Effect of sodium butyrate on the small intestine development in neonatal piglets fed [correction of feed] by artificial sow.
Feeding of neonates with artificial milk formulas delays the maturation of the gastrointestinal mucosa. Na-butyrate has a complex trophic effect on the gastrointestinal epithelium in adults. The present study aimed to determine the effect of milk formula supplementation with Na-butyrate on the gut mucosa in neonatal piglets. Sixteen 3 day old piglets were randomly divided into two groups: control (C, n = 8), and Na-butyrate (B, n = 8). Animals were feed for 7 days with artificial milk formula alone (C) or supplemented with Na-butyrate (B). At the 10(th) day of life the piglets were sacrificed and whole thickness samples of the upper gut were taken for analyses. Administration of Na-butyrate led to significant increase in daily body weight gain as compared to control. In the duodenum, the villi length and mucosa thickness were reduced, however, in the distal jejunum and ileum, the crypt depth, villi length and mucosa thickness were increased in Na-butyrate supplemented piglets as compared to control. Supplementation with Na-butyrate did not affect the intestinal brush border enzyme activities but increased plasma pancreatic polypeptide and cholecystokinin concentrations. These results suggest that supplementation with Na-butyrate may enhance the development of jejunal and ileal mucosa in formula-fed piglets. (+info)
A chemically derived milk substitute that is compatible with mouse milk for artificial rearing of mouse pups.
The object of this study was to prepare a chemically derived milk substitute that is compatible with mouse-milk. Milk was independently collected from ICR, BALB/c, and FVB/N mice, and analyzed for the protein, fat, and mineral contents to formulate a milk substitute. Thereafter, ICR mouse pups were artificially reared on the milk substitute to evaluate the rate of increase of their body weights. A gastric cannula tube was placed through the esophageal way into 8-day-old ICR pups, and the mice were fed with the milk substitute by computer-regulated infusion pumping by the pup-in-a-cup method. The analytical mean values of total protein and total fat in milk from ICR, BALB/c, and FVB/N mice were 10.23 +/- 0.49% and 21.34 +/- 1.31%, respectively. The milk substitute was constituted from purified bovine casein and whey proteins, five edible oils, including MCT oil, minerals, and vitamins. After 8 days of artificial rearing with the new milk substitute, 36 of the 42 pups had survived, and the growth rate of these mice was not significantly different from that of maternally reared littermate pups. In conclusion, we have succeeded in the preparation of a chemically derived milk substitute for mice pups which is available for clarifying the roles of dietary components such as milk-bone substance during the suckling period in mice pups including those of knockout and transgenic mice. (+info)
Analysis of fluoride concentration in mother's milk substitutes.
The aim of the present study was to determine the fluoride concentration in some brands of mother's milk substitutes and evaluate the possibility of developing dental fluorosis by consuming these products. The products, all powdered, were divided into 3 groups: infant formulae (group I, n = 7), milk-based (group M, n = 8) and soy-based (group S, n = 3). Samples from 3 cans of different batches of each brand were reconstituted in deionized water and analyzed using the specific electrode method, after hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS) facilitated diffusion. The fluoride content (mg F/L) of the products ranged from 0.044 to 0.326 (I), 0.014 to 0.045 (M) and 0.253 to 0.702 (S). There was significant difference in the fluoride content of cans from distinct batches (p < 0.05) in most of the brands. The reconstitution of all products in water with optimal fluoride concentration for consumption during the mineralization phase of the primary teeth could result in daily fluoride intake above 0.07 mg F/kg body weight/day. Therefore, the consumption of these products, especially when reconstituted with optimally fluoridated water, could increase the risk of developing dental fluorosis. (+info)
Exocrine pancreatic secretion in pigs fed sow's milk and milk replacer, and its relationship to growth performance.
The objective of this study was to quantify and compare the effects of sow's milk and 2 milk replacer diets (containing clotting or non-clotting protein sources) on exocrine pancreatic secretion, plasma cholecystokinin, and immunoreactive cationic trypsin in pigs. In addition, the relationship between exocrine pancreatic secretion and growth in milk-fed pigs was studied. In a changeover experiment, 9 chronically catheterized pigs of 6.6 +/- 0.19 kg of BW were studied for 3 wk. Pigs were assigned to each of 3 diets. Exocrine pancreatic secretion was measured from the third to the seventh day on each diet. The protein content and trypsin activity of the pancreatic juice were measured. Blood samples were taken at 10 min before and after milk ingestion and were analyzed for cholecystokinin and immunoreactive cationic trypsin. Pancreatic protein and trypsin secretion did not differ between pigs fed sow's milk and those fed milk replacer, but the volume secreted was less for the pigs fed sow's milk (0.75 vs. 1.03 mL x kg(-1) x h(-1); P < 0.01). A postprandial response to milk intake was not observed. The 2 milk replacer diets did not affect exocrine pancreatic secretion differently. The average exocrine pancreatic secretion (volume, 0.94 mL x kg(-1) x h(-1); protein, 4.28 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1); trypsin, 1.65 U x kg(-1) x h(-1)) was intermediate between literature values for suckling and weaned pigs. Plasma cholecystokinin was elevated (approximately 18 pmol x L(-1)) and showed low correlations with the pancreatic secretion traits. Plasma immunoreactive cationic trypsin was not significantly related to any of the pancreatic secretion traits and should therefore not be used as an indicator for exocrine pancreatic function in milk-fed pigs. Exocrine pancreatic secretion varied substantially among individual pigs (protein, 0.22 to 13.98 mg x kg(-1) x h(-1)). Pancreatic protein and trypsin secretion showed a positive, nonlinear relationship with performance traits. It was concluded that neither specific sow's milk ingredients nor the protein source are responsible for a low pancreatic protein secretion in suckling pigs. Exocrine pancreatic secretion was positively correlated with ADG in pigs at an identical milk intake. (+info)
Comparisons of a chicken-based formula with soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy.
OBJECTIVE: To determine whether chicken-based formula can replace soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Thirty-eight infants with cow's milk allergy, aged between 2-24 months of age were randomized to receive either chicken-based formula or soy-based formula for 14 days. RESULTS: In the group of soy-based formula, 12 out of 18 infants had evidence of intolerance and could not continue with the formula. However, only 4 out of 20 infants in the chicken-based formula group had evidence of clinical intolerance. All other 16 infants were fed the chicken-based formula with success. The number of infants who were intolerant to chicken formula was significantly lower than the number of those fed soy-based formula (p = 0.009). CONCLUSION: Chicken-based formula can be used more effectively than soy-based formula in infants with cow milk allergy. (+info)
Neonatal dietary cholesterol and alleles of cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase affect piglet cerebrum weight, cholesterol concentration, and behavior.
This experiment was designed to test the effect of polymorphism in the cholesterol 7-alpha hydroxylase (CYP7) gene locus and dietary cholesterol (C) on cerebrum C in neonatal pigs fed sow's milk formulas. Thirty-six pigs (18 male and 18 female) genetically selected for high (HG) or low (LG) plasma total C were weaned at 24-36 h after birth and assigned in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments with 2 diets (0 or 0.5% C), 2 sexes, and 2 genotypes (HG and LG). Individually housed pigs consumed diets ad libitum for 42 d. Open-field behavior was tested at wk 2 and 4. All pigs were killed at 42 d of age, the cerebrum was weighed, and C content and concentration measured. All data were analyzed by general linear model ANOVA. Cerebrum weight was greater in HG than LG pigs (P < 0.03) but was not affected by diet or sex. Pigs fed C tended to have a higher cerebrum C concentration than those deprived (P = 0.12). At 2 wk, LG pigs explored a novel open-field environment less often (P < 0.001) than did HG pigs. At 4 wk, some LG pigs explored the open field but fewer (P < 0.001) vs. HG pigs retreated back to the safe area. There were no genotype x diet, genotype x sex, or diet x sex interactions affecting cerebrum weight, or C content or concentration. Polymorphism in the CYP7 gene locus affected cerebrum weight and behavior and dietary C tended to increase cerebrum C concentration in neonatal pigs. These findings in neonatal pigs have considerable potential importance in human infant nutrition and behavioral development. (+info)
Gene expression ratio stability evaluation in prepubertal bovine mammary tissue from calves fed different milk replacers reveals novel internal controls for quantitative polymerase chain reaction.
Prepubertal mammary development can be affected by nutrition partly through alterations in gene network expression. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) remains the most accurate method to measure mRNA expression but is subject to analytical errors that introduce variation. Thus, qPCR data normalization through the use of internal control genes (ICG) is required. The objective of this study was to mine microarray data (> 10,000 genes) from prepubertal mammary parenchyma and stroma to identify the most suitable ICG for normalization of qPCR. Tissue for RNA extraction was obtained from calves ( approximately 63 d old; n = 5/diet) fed a control (200 g/kg crude protein, 210 g/kg crude fat, fed at 441 g/d dry matter) or a high-protein milk replacer (280 g/kg crude protein, 200 g/kg crude fat, fed at 951 g/d dry matter). ICG were selected based on both absence of expression variation across treatment and of coregulation (gene network analysis). Genes evaluated were ubiquitously expressed transcript, protein phosphatase 1 regulatory (inhibitor) subunit 11 (PPP1R11), matrix metallopeptidase 14 (MMP14), ClpB caseinolytic peptidase B, SAPS domain family member 1 (SAPS1), mitochondrial GTPase 1 (MTG1), mitochondrial ribosomal protein L39, ribosomal protein S15a (RPS15A), and actin beta (ACTB). Network analysis demonstrated that MMP14 and ACTB are coregulated by v-myc myelocytomatosis viral oncogene, tumor protein p53, and potentially insulin-like growth factor 1. Pairwise comparison of expression ratios showed that ACTB, MMP14, and SAPS1 had the lowest stability and were unsuitable as ICG. PPP1R11, RPS15A, and MTG1 were the most stable among ICG tested. We conclude that the geometric mean of PPP1R11, RPS15A, and MTG1 is ideal for normalization of qPCR data in prepubertal bovine mammary tissue. This study provides a list of candidate ICG that could be used by researchers working in bovine mammary development and allied fields. (+info)