The significance of tetramerization in promoter recruitment by Stat5.
Stat5a and Stat5b are rapidly activated by a wide range of cytokines and growth factors, including interleukin-2 (IL-2). We have previously shown that these signal transducers and activators of transcription (STAT proteins) are key regulatory proteins that bind to two tandem gamma interferon-activated site (GAS) motifs within an IL-2 response element (positive regulatory region III [PRRIII]) in the human IL-2Ralpha promoter. In this study, we demonstrate cooperative binding of Stat5 to PRRIII and explore the molecular basis underlying this cooperativity. We demonstrate that formation of a tetrameric Stat5 complex is essential for the IL-2-inducible activation of PRRIII. Stable tetramer formation of Stat5 is mediated through protein-protein interactions involving a tryptophan residue conserved in all STATs and a lysine residue in the Stat5 N-terminal domain (N domain). The functional importance of tetramer formation is shown by the decreased levels of transcriptional activation associated with mutations in these residues. Moreover, the requirement for STAT protein-protein interactions for gene activation from a promoter with tandemly linked GAS motifs can be relieved by strengthening the avidity of protein-DNA interactions for the individual binding sites. Taken together, these studies demonstrate that a dimeric but tetramerization-deficient Stat5 protein can activate only a subset of target sites. For functional activity on a wider range of potential recognition sites, N-domain-mediated oligomerization is essential. (+info)
Similarities and differences in RANTES- and (AOP)-RANTES-triggered signals: implications for chemotaxis.
Chemokines are a family of proinflammatory cytokines that attract and activate specific types of leukocytes. Chemokines mediate their effects via interaction with seven transmembrane G protein-coupled receptors (GPCR). Using CCR5-transfected HEK-293 cells, we show that both the CCR5 ligand, RANTES, as well as its derivative, aminooxypentane (AOP)- RANTES, trigger immediate responses such as Ca2+ influx, receptor dimerization, tyrosine phosphorylation, and Galphai as well as JAK/STAT association to the receptor. In contrast to RANTES, (AOP)-RANTES is unable to trigger late responses, as measured by the association of focal adhesion kinase (FAK) to the chemokine receptor complex, impaired cell polarization required for migration, or chemotaxis. The results are discussed in the context of the dissociation of the late signals, provoked by the chemokines required for cell migration, from early signals. (+info)
Growth hormone induces insulin-like growth factor-I gene transcription by a synergistic action of STAT5 and HNF-1alpha.
Salmon insulin-like growth factor-I (sIGF-I) expression is, as in mammals, induced by growth hormone (GH). To elucidate the mechanism by which GH stimulates the transcription of the IGF-I gene, we transiently transfected Hep3B cells expressing the rat GH receptor with a sIGF-I promoter-luciferase reporter construct. Activation of the construct by GH added to the medium of the transfected cells was observed when two specific transcription factors, STAT5 and HNF-1alpha, were simultaneously overexpressed in these cells. This finding demonstrates for the first time a GH-dependent activation of an IGF-I promoter construct in an immortalized laboratory cell line. (+info)
Binding of c-Rel to STAT5 target sequences in HTLV-I-transformed T cells.
The type I human T-cell leukemia virus (HTLV-I) induces abnormal growth and subsequent transformation of T cells, which is associated with the development of an acute T-cell malignancy termed adult T-cell leukemia. A characteristic of HTLV-I-transformed T cells is the constitutive nuclear expression of NF-kappaB/Rel family of transcription factors, which appears to be essential for the growth of these transformed cells. Although NF-kappaB/Rel factors are known to induce the expression of T-cell growth factor interleukin (IL)-2, it is unclear how they participate in the IL-2-independent growth of HTLV-I-transformed cells. In this study, we show that certain NF-kappaB/Rel members, predominantly c-Rel, interact with enhancer sequences for STAT5, a key transcription factor mediating IL-2-induced T-cell proliferation. Reporter gene assays reveal that the binding of c-Rel to the STAT5 site present in the Fc gammaR1 gene leads to potent transactivation of this enhancer. Binding of c-Rel to the Fc gammaR1 STAT site also occurs in human peripheral blood T cells immortalized with HTLV-I in vitro and is correlated with enhanced levels of proliferation of these cells. These results raise the possibility that NF-kappaB/Rel may participate in the growth control of HTLV-I-transformed T cells by regulating genes driven by both kappaB and certain STAT enhancers. (+info)
Thrombopoietin-induced conformational change in p53 lies downstream of the p44/p42 mitogen activated protein kinase cascade in the human growth factor-dependent cell line M07e.
Thrombopoietin is a cytokine with potent megakaryocytopoietic and thrombopoietic activities in vivo. Wild-type p53 is a conformationally flexible, anti-oncogenic transcription factor that plays a principal role in mediating growth factor withdrawal-induced apoptosis in factor-dependent hematopoietic cells. We recently reported that Tpo induces a conformational change in and functional inactivation of p53, coincident with its anti-apoptotic effects, in the human factor-dependent cell line M07e. In an effort to identify potential signaling cascades through which Tpo illicits these effects on p53, we report here that treating M07e cells with MAPK kinase inhibitor PD98059 dramatically suppressed Tpo-induced conformational change in p53 as well as Tpo-enhanced viability in M07e cells in a p53-dependent manner. Furthermore, the expression of constitutively active Raf1 in M07e cells induced conformational change in p53 independent of Tpo stimulation. Inhibition of the JAK/STAT pathway revealed that JAK/STAT signaling plays an insignificant role in conformational modulation of p53 and apoptosis suppression. Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3 kinase did not have a significant effect on p53 conformation but did have a weak but significant effect on Tpo-enhanced viability. Cytokine-induced activation of the MAPK pathway and the subsequent functional neutralization of p53, may be an event by which apoptosis is commonly suppressed in hematopoiesis. (+info)
A high-Mr glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk potent in inhibiting replication of human rotavirus in vitro.
Rotavirus is the major cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children all over the world. We have found that a high-M(r) glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk is potent in inhibiting replication of human rotaviruses in vitro. Since the activity seems to be unique and specific, this fraction may be useful as a novel agent for treatment or prevention of rotavirus diarrhea. (+info)
Transcriptional regulation of the cyclin D1 promoter by STAT5: its involvement in cytokine-dependent growth of hematopoietic cells.
STAT5 is a member of a family of transcription factors that participate in the signal transduction pathways of many hormones and cytokines. Although STAT5 is suggested to play a crucial role in the biological effects of cytokines, its downstream target(s) associated with cell growth control is largely unknown. In a human interleukin-3 (IL-3)-dependent cell line F-36P-mpl, the induced expression of dominant-negative (dn)-STAT5 and of dn-ras led to inhibition of IL-3-dependent cell growth, accompanying the reduced expression of cyclin D1 mRNA. Also, both constitutively active forms of STAT5A (1*6-STAT5A) and ras (H-rasG12V) enabled F-36P-mpl cells to proliferate without added growth factors. In NIH 3T3 cells, 1*6-STAT5A and H-rasG12V individually and cooperatively transactivated the cyclin D1 promoter in luciferase assays. Both dn-STAT5 and dn-ras suppressed IL-3-induced cyclin D1 promoter activities in F-36P-mpl cells. Using a series of mutant cyclin D1 promoters, 1*6-STAT5A was found to transactivate the cyclin D1 promoter through the potential STAT-binding sequence at -481 bp. In electrophoretic mobility shift assays, STAT5 bound to the element in response to IL-3. Furthermore, the inhibitory effect of dn-STAT5 on IL-3-dependent growth was restored by expression of cyclin D1. Thus STAT5, in addition to ras signaling, appears to mediate transcriptional regulation of cyclin D1, thereby contributing to cytokine-dependent growth of hematopoietic cells. (+info)
Distinctive roles of STAT5a and STAT5b in sexual dimorphism of hepatic P450 gene expression. Impact of STAT5a gene disruption.
Stat5b gene disruption leads to an apparent growth hormone (GH) pulse insensitivity associated with loss of male-characteristic body growth rates and male-specific liver gene expression (Udy, G. B., Towers, R. P., Snell, R. G., Wilkins, R. J., Park, S. H., Ram, P. A., Waxman, D. J., and Davey, H. W. (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 94, 7239-7244). In the present study, disruption of the mouse Stat5a gene, whose coding sequence is approximately 90% identical to the Stat5b gene, resulted in no loss of expression in male mice of several sex-dependent, GH-regulated liver cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes. By contrast, the loss of STAT5b feminized the livers of males by decreasing expression of male-specific CYPs (CYP2D9 and testosterone 16alpha-hydroxylase) while increasing to female levels several female-predominant liver CYPs (CYP3A, CYP2B, and testosterone 6beta-hydroxylase). Since STAT5a is thus nonessential for these male GH responses, STAT5b homodimers, but not STAT5a-STAT5b heterodimers, probably mediate the sexually dimorphic effects of male GH pulses on liver CYP expression. In female mice, however, disruption of either Stat5a or Stat5b led to striking decreases in several liver CYP-catalyzed testosterone hydroxylase activities. Stat5a or Stat5b gene disruption also led to the loss of a female-specific, GH-regulated hepatic CYP2B enzyme. STAT5a, which is much less abundant in liver than STAT5b, and STAT5b are therefore both required for constitutive expression in female but not male mouse liver of certain GH-regulated CYP steroid hydroxylases, suggesting that STAT5 protein heterodimerization is an important determinant of the sex-dependent and gene-specific effects that GH has on the liver. (+info)