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(1/158) Post-translational phosphorylation affects the IgE binding capacity of caseins.

IgE response specific to those molecular regions of casein that contain a major phosphorylation site was analyzed using native and modified caseins and derived peptides. This study included (i) the naturally occurring common variants A1 and A from beta- and alphas2-caseins, respectively, which were purified in the native form and then dephosphorylated, (ii) a purified rare variant D of alphas2-casein which lacks one major phosphorylation site, and (iii) the native and dephosphorylated tryptic fragment f(1-25) from beta-casein. Direct and indirect ELISA using sera from patients allergic to milk showed that the IgE response to caseins is affected by modifying or eliminating the major phosphorylation site.  (+info)

(2/158) Proctocolitis in breast fed infants: a contribution to differential diagnosis of haematochezia in early childhood.

Dietary protein induced proctocolitis in exclusively breast fed infants is rarely taken into consideration as a cause of rectal bleeding or blood streaked stool in the neonatal period and early infancy. Eleven babies are presented in whom it is believed that bleeding through the rectum was due to proctocolitis as a result of allergy triggered by cows' milk protein transferred to the infants via the breast milk. Colonoscopy was performed in five infants, revealing benign eosinophilic proctocolitis. Standard treatment was the exclusion of the allergen from the mother's diet. Resolution of visible rectal bleeding took place within 72 to 96 hours after elimination of the offending protein from the mother's diet.  (+info)

(3/158) Severe cow's milk protein allergy in a Chinese neonate.

Cow's milk protein allergy is a growing problem in developed countries. We report the case of a Chinese infant, born at term, who presented on day 28 with severe growth failure, chronic diarrhoea, and metabolic acidosis. Investigations supported a diagnosis of cow's milk protein allergy. This was confirmed by withdrawing and reintroducing the relevant infant formula under controlled clinical conditions. Both acidosis and diarrhoea were seen to resolve, and 'catch-up' growth was evident after introduction of an elemental infant formula. Early recognition of this problem leads to a rapid 'cure', as seen in this case. However, later presentation with other atopic conditions has been reported.  (+info)

(4/158) Upregulated eotaxin expression and T cell infiltration in the basal and papillary epithelium in cows' milk associated reflux oesophagitis.

BACKGROUND: Cows' milk sensitive reflux oesophagitis is an emerging clinical entity in children, normally indistinguishable from primary gastro-oesophageal reflux (GOR) apart from the response to dietary antigen exclusion. It is conjectural whether a tendency towards mucosal eosinophilia distinguishes this group from primary GOR. AIMS: To determine whether there may be differences in the mucosal lesion within the oesophagus in those children with reflux in association with cows' milk induced small bowel pathology, particularly in relation to the eosinophil chemokine eotaxin. METHODS: A total of 29 children underwent endoscopic assessment, including nine with cows' milk sensitive enteropathy (CMSE) and associated GOR, seven histologically normal controls, six with primary GOR, and seven disease controls. Oesophageal biopsy specimens were examined immunohistochemically for the chemokines eotaxin and MCP-2, and T cell lineage and activation markers. RESULTS: Strong upregulation of eotaxin expression, limited to basal and papillary epithelium, occurred in all CMSE patients. By contrast, weak expression was seen in a minority of controls and in 50% of primary GOR patients. Infiltration of CD3, CD4, and CD8 lymphocytes occurred in similar distribution in CMSE patients, significantly increased above controls. Significant upregulation of activation markers (CD25, HLA-DR) was also seen in the CMSE group within basal and papillary epithelium compared to controls and primary GOR. CONCLUSION: Basal and papillary epithelial eotaxin expression, with focal lymphocyte activation, was seen in infants with CMSE associated GOR. This preliminary study provides early evidence to suggest a pathogenesis distinct from primary GOR, in which specific recruitment of T cells and eosinophils may contribute to oesophageal dysmotility.  (+info)

(5/158) Food hypersensitivity and allergic diseases.

Allergic disease is a common cause of morbidity, particularly in young children. The prevalence of allergic disease has increased in the last 20 y in most countries. The sequential order of occurrence of allergy is food hypersensitivity, gastrointestinal manifestations, atopic eczema, asthma and hay fever. A variety of factors increase the risk of allergic disease, for example hereditary predisposition, exposure to 'allergenic' foods and environmental triggers such as house dust mites and tobacco in early life. Prolonged breast feeding, the use of a partial whey hydrolysed formula, delayed introduction of certain 'allergenic foods', and avoidance of inhalant allergens reduces the incidence of eczema and asthma, especially in high-risk infants. These preventive measures are extremely cost-effective and should be adopted widely at the community level.  (+info)

(6/158) Induction of oral tolerance in mice by continuous feeding with beta-lactoglobulin and milk.

We examined the immune response of mice to beta-lactoglobulin (BLG), a potent milk allergen, after continuous feeding of a BLG solution or milk instead of drinking-water. Strong suppression of the anti-BLG antibody response and antigen-specific T cell response were observed in mice fed BLG and milk. Although the profile of the antibody specificity to BLG peptides in mice fed BLG or milk was different from the control, the dominant determinants were still recognized and a limited number of new recognition sites appeared by BLG or milk feeding. These findings suggest that continuous feeding with BLG or milk not only induced tolerance in the periphery, but also priming. In terms of the antigen-specific IgG subclass response, the production of both IgG1 and IgG2a was significantly reduced. The cytokine secretion of interleukin (IL)-2, IFN-gamma and IL-10 was also reduced in the culture supernatants of lymph node cells from the mice fed BLG. The results indicate that the continuous feeding of BLG or milk induces suppression of both Th1- and Th2-dependent responses. This may reflect a state of oral tolerance induced by food ingestion.  (+info)

(7/158) Detection and identification of a soy protein component that cross-reacts with caseins from cow's milk.

Soy-based formulas are the most employed cow's milk substitutes in the treatment of cow's milk allergy in our country. Since adverse reactions have been reported in allergic patients as a consequence of exposure to soy proteins, we have investigated the possible cross-reactivity between components from soybean and cow's milk. A cow's milk specific polyclonal antiserum and casein specific monoclonal antibodies were used in immunoblotting and competitive ELISA studies to identify a 30-kD component from soybean that cross-reacts with cow's milk caseins. Its IgE binding capacity was tested by EAST, employing sera from cow's milk allergic patients, not previously exposed to soy proteins. The 30 kD protein was isolated and partially sequenced. It is constituted by two polypeptides (A5 and B3) linked by a disulphide bond. The protein's capacity to bind to the different antibodies relies on the B3 poly-peptide. These results indicate that soy-based formula, which contains the A5-B3 glycinin molecule, could be involved in allergic reactions observed in cow's milk allergic patients exposed to soy-containing foods.  (+info)

(8/158) Safety of a new extensively hydrolysed formula in children with cow's milk protein allergy: a double blind crossover study.

BACKGROUND: Formulae for infants with cow's milk protein allergy (CMA) should be based on extensively hydrolysed protein. 'Extensively' however is not strictly defined. Differences in molecular weight and peptide chain length may affect its clinical outcome. We studied the safety of a new extensively hydrolysed casein based formula (Frisolac Allergycare: FAC) for children with IgE mediated CMA. METHODS: Thirty children, aged 1.5 - 14.8 years old (median 4.9 years) with persistent CMA were enrolled in this double-blind reference product (Nutramigen: NUT) controlled crossover study. All had positive skin prick tests (SPT) and IgE mediated allergy, showing immediate reactions after ingestion of small amounts of milk. Twenty-five children also had positive radio allergen sorbent tests (RAST) to cow's milk. Formulae provided consisted of 80% elementary formula in combination with 20% reference or test product. Crossover periods lasted for two weeks. From both products molecular weight (MALDI-TOF method and HPLC) and peptide chain length distribution (adapted Edman degradation) were determined. RESULTS: Maximum molecular weights of NUT and FAC are 2.1 and 2.56 kDa, respectively. The contribution of free amino acids and small peptides <0.5 kDa is 46% for FAC and 53% for NUT. About 50% of the protein fraction of both products consists of peptides longer than four amino acids. Three children did not complete the study. The other children all tolerated FAC very well; no adverse reactions were reported. CONCLUSIONS: The new extensively hydrolysed casein-based formula (FAC) can safely be used in children with IgE mediated cow's milk allergy.  (+info)