Bovine mastitis in Ontario due to Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis.
Bovine mastitis caused by Mycoplasma agalactiae subsp. bovis was first diagnosed in 16 of 55 cows in an Ontario herd in Feburary 1972. A total of 182 of 598 (30.4%) cows from 33 of 64 (51.5%) farms in widely separated areas of the province were culturally positive. Herd incidence varied from 15 to 40% with one closed herd having an incidence of 61%. Four herds were investigated culturally and serologically by the growth inhibition test for 15 months. In the acute phase the organism was present in the milk in extremely high numbers and could still be isolated from a few cows after eight to 12 months. The sera from 89.5% of the animals with clinical mycoplasma mastitis produced a zone of surface "film" and/or colony inhibition and some cows remained positive for six to 12 months. The disease was experimentally reproduced with a pure culture of the organism isolated from the milk of a cow from one of the herds. (+info)
Human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-beta): mammary gland specific expression and production in transgenic rabbits.
Transgenic rabbits carrying gene constructs encoding human nerve growth factor beta (hNGF-beta) cDNA were generated. Expression of hNGF-beta mRNA was restricted to the mammary gland of lactating rabbits. Western Blot analysis revealed a polypeptide of 13.2 kDa in the milk of transgenic animals. hNGF-beta was purified from the milk by a two-step chromatographic procedure. Electrospray mass spectroscopy analysis of purified hNGF-beta depicted a molecular weight of 13,261 Da per subunit. The biological activity of the hNGF-beta was tested using PC12W2 cells and cultures of dorsal root ganglion neurons from chicken embryos. Crude defatted milk from transgenic animals and purified hNGF-beta demonstrated full biological activity when compared to commercial recombinant hNGF-beta. (+info)
A high-Mr glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk potent in inhibiting replication of human rotavirus in vitro.
Rotavirus is the major cause of infectious diarrhea in infants and young children all over the world. We have found that a high-M(r) glycoprotein fraction from cow's milk is potent in inhibiting replication of human rotaviruses in vitro. Since the activity seems to be unique and specific, this fraction may be useful as a novel agent for treatment or prevention of rotavirus diarrhea. (+info)
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone improves reproductive performance of dairy cows with slow involution of the reproductive tract.
Eighty multiparous Holstein cows were assigned randomly at calving to receive either 100 microg of GnRH or saline 13 or 14 d postpartum (PP). From 4 to 28 d PP the cows' reproductive organs were palpated weekly per rectum, and cows were subclassified within each group as undergoing slow (delayed) cervical and uterine involution (abnormal) or as normal cows. Last milk obtained after removing the milking machine was assayed for progesterone 3 times a week for 120 d PP. Fourteen of the 80 cows were removed from the experiment because of culling or various veterinary treatments of pathologic conditions that could confound analysis of the GnRH treatment effects. As expected, the treatment of normal cows with GnRH had no significant effects on the first estrus or the first estrous cycle PP, on services per conception, days open, or any other reproductive trait measured. However, in the abnormal group of cows receiving saline, first rebreeding after calving was delayed (81 vs. 67 d), fewer were pregnant by 105 d PP (23 vs. 64%), and number of days open was greater (121 vs. 87 d) compared with those receiving GnRH; all were significant (P<.05). Treated abnormal cows were equivalent to the control normal cows. Thus, GnRH given 13 to 14 d PP to cows characterized as undergoing slow involution of the reproductive system, but with no other clinical problems, seems to assist in promoting rapid normal reproductive function. Subsequent losses due to culling were greatly reduced. (+info)
The effect of bovine somatotropin treatment on production of lactating angora does with kids.
Fourteen Angora does (35+/-2 kg), each with a single kid and in the first month of lactation, were used to determine ongoing (Period 1) and residual (Period 2) effects of chronic bovine somatotropin (bST) treatment. Specifically, we sought to determine whether chronic bST treatment was capable of improving milk yield, and thus kid growth, and mohair production of nursing does. The experiment consisted of a 2-wk pretreatment period, 5 wk of weekly subcutaneous treatment of slow-release bST (n = 7; Period 1), and a 4-wk posttreatment period (Period 2). The weekly dose of bST was calculated to release 100 microg/(kg BW.d(-1)). To estimate milk production, kids were separated from the does daily for 5 h, and their BW was recorded before and after suckling. The difference in BW was taken as milk production for 5 h. Fiber growth was measured by shearing does at the start of the experiment and at the end of Periods 1 and 2. Dry matter intake and BW of does were not affected by bST (P>.05). Average daily gain of kids that were suckling bST-treated does was higher (P<.05) than for kids of untreated does during Period 1 (184 vs. 139 g/d) but not during Period 2 (140 vs. 136 g/d; P>.10). Treatment with bST did not affect (P>.10) milk composition or clean fleece production in either period. Injection of bST did not affect (P>.10) plasma concentrations of glucose (mean = 49.5 mg/dL), urea N (mean = 19 mg/dL), total protein (mean = 72.5 g/d), or NEFA (mean = 122 microEq/L). During the period of bST treatment, plasma concentrations of somatotropin and IGF-I were increased (P<.05), concentrations of thyroxine and cortisol were decreased (P<.10), and plasma insulin levels were unchanged (P>.10) by bST. In conclusion, treatment of Angora dams with bST did not change DMI or mohair growth, but it improved growth of their kids. (+info)
Protection against influenza virus infection of mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064.
Mice fed Bifidobacterium breve YIT4064 and immunized orally with influenza virus were more strongly protected against influenza virus infection of the lower respiratory tract than ones immunized with influenza virus only. The number of mice with enhanced anti-influenza virus immunoglobulin G (IgG) in serum upon oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 and oral immunization with influenza virus was significantly greater than that upon oral immunization with influenza virus only. These findings demonstrated that the oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 increased anti-influenza virus IgG antibodies in serum and protected against influenza virus infection. The oral administration of B. breve YIT4064 may enhance antigen-specific IgG against various pathogenic antigens taken orally and induce protection against various virus infections. (+info)
Iron supplemented formula milk related to reduction in psychomotor decline in infants from inner city areas: randomised study.
OBJECTIVE: To compare the effect of unmodified cows' milk and iron supplemented formula milk on psychomotor development in infants from inner city areas when used as the main milk source. DESIGN: Double blind, randomised intervention trial. SETTING: Birmingham health centre. SUBJECTS: 100 infants, mean age 7.8 months (range 5.7 to 8.6 months), whose mothers had already elected to use unmodified cows' milk as their infant's milk source. INTERVENTION: Changing to an iron supplemented formula milk from enrolment to 18 months of age, or continuing with unmodified cows' milk. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Developmental assessments using Griffiths scales at enrolment and at 18 and 24 months. RESULTS: 85 participants completed the trial. There were no significant differences in haemoglobin concentration between the two groups at enrolment, but by 18 months of age 33% of the unmodified cows' milk group, but only 2% of the iron supplemented group, were anaemic (P<0.001). The experimental groups had Griffiths general quotient scores that were not significantly different at enrolment, but the scores in both groups declined during the study. By 24 months the decrease in the mean scores in the unmodified cows' milk group was 14.7 whereas the decrease in the mean scores in the iron supplemented group was 9.3 (P<0.02, 95% confidence interval 0.4 to 10.4). Mean subquotient scores were considerably lower in the unmodified cows' milk group at 24 months; significantly so for personal and social scores (P<0.02, 1.2 to 16.8 [corrected]). CONCLUSION: Replacing unmodified cows' milk with an iron supplemented formula milk up to 18 months of age in infants from inner city areas prevents iron deficiency anaemia and reduces the decline in psychomotor development seen in such infants from the second half of the first year. (+info)
Identification of nonlipophilic corynebacteria isolated from dairy cows with mastitis.
Nonlipophilic corynebacteria associated with clinical and subclinical mastitis in dairy cows were found to belong to four species: Corynebacterium amycolatum, Corynebacterium ulcerans, Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis, and Corynebacterium minutissimum. These species may easily be confused. However, clear-cut differences between C. ulcerans and C. pseudotuberculosis were found in their acid production from maltotriose and ethylene glycol, susceptibility to vibriostatic agent O129, and alkaline phosphatase. Absence of growth at 20 degrees C and lack of alpha-glucosidase and 4MU-alpha-D-glycoside hydrolysis activity differentiated C. amycolatum from C. pseudotuberculosis and C. ulcerans. The mastitis C. pseudotuberculosis strains differed from the biovar equi and ovis reference strains and from caprine field strains in their colony morphologies and in their reduced inhibitory activity on staphylococcal beta-hemolysin. C. amycolatum was the most frequently isolated nonlipophilic corynebacterium. (+info)