A locus for migraine without aura maps on chromosome 14q21.2-q22.3.
Migraine is a common and disabling neurological disease of unknown origin characterized by a remarkable clinical variability. It shows strong familial aggregation, suggesting that genetic factors are involved in its pathogenesis. Different approaches have been used to elucidate this hereditary component, but a unique transmission model and causative gene(s) have not yet been identified. We report clinical and molecular data from a large Italian pedigree in which migraine without aura (MO) segregates as an autosomal dominant trait. After exclusion of any association between MO and the known familial hemiplegic migraine and migraine with aura loci, we performed a genomewide linkage analysis using 482 polymorphic microsatellite markers. We obtained significant evidence of linkage between the MO phenotype and the marker D14S978 on 14q22.1 (maximum two-point LOD score of 3.70, at a recombination fraction of 0.01). Multipoint parametric analysis (maximum LOD score of 5.25 between markers D14S976 and D14S978) and haplotype construction showed strong evidence of linkage in a region of 10 cM flanked by markers D14S1027 and D14S980 on chromosome 14q21.2-q22.3. These results indicate the first evidence of a genetic locus associated with MO on chromosome 14. (+info)
Reversible, strokelike migraine attacks in patients with previous radiation therapy.
We report 2 adults with a past history of radiation therapy to the head for malignancy (one with primary B-cell lymphoma confined to the skull and the other with multiple hemangioendotheliomas) who developed episodes consistent with migraine with and without aura. In addition to more typical migraine attacks and beginning many years after their radiation therapy, both patients have experienced infrequent, stereotyped, prolonged, reversible neurologic deficits associated with headache, occasional seizures, and striking, transient, cortical gadolinium enhancement of the posterior cerebral gyri on MRI. Interictal MRI brain scans show stable abnormalities consistent with the patients' previous radiation therapy. The neurologic deficits often progressed over a few days, sometimes lasted weeks, and completely resolved. Electroencephalograms did not show epileptiform activity. Thorough investigation showed no residual or recurrent tumor and no recognized cause for the patients' attacks. We postulate a causal relationship between the patients' remote radiation therapy and their prolonged, strokelike migraine attacks. Radiation-induced vascular changes could provoke the episodes, with or without an underlying migraine diathesis. Recognition of this syndrome can help avoid invasive testing. (+info)
Localization of a gene for migraine without aura to chromosome 4q21.
Migraine is a common form of headache and has a significant genetic component. Here, we report linkage results from a study in Iceland of migraine without aura (MO). The study group comprised patients with migraine recruited by neurologists and from the registry of the Icelandic Migraine Society, as well as through the use of a questionnaire sent to a random sample of 20,000 Icelanders. Migraine diagnoses were made and confirmed using diagnostic criteria established by the International Headache Society. A genome-wide scan with multipoint allele-sharing methods was performed on 289 patients suffering from MO. Linkage was observed to a locus on chromosome 4q21 (LOD=2.05; P=.001). The locus reported here overlaps a locus (MGR1) reported elsewhere for patients with migraine with aura (MA) in the Finnish population. This replication of the MGR1 locus in families with MO indicates that the gene we have mapped may contribute to both MA and MO. Further analysis indicates that the linkage evidence improves for affected females and, especially, with a slightly relaxed definition of MO (LOD=4.08; P=7.2 x 10(-6)). (+info)
Decreased visual field sensitivity measured 1 day, then 1 week, after migraine.
PURPOSE: To determine whether perimetric performance is worse the day after a migraine than prior interictal measurements, and if so, to determine whether differences have resolved by 1 week after migraine. METHODS: Twenty-two nonheadache control subjects (aged 18-45 years) and 22 migraineurs (aged 18-45 years: 10 migraine with visual aura, 12 migraine without aura) participated. Standard automated perimetry (SAP) and temporal modulation perimetry (TMP) were measured by perimeter (model M-700; Medmont, Pty Ltd., Camberwell, Victoria, Australia). Control subjects attended two test visits: baseline and retest. Migraineurs attended three times: baseline (>or=4 days after migraine), the day after the offset of the next migraine, and 7 days later. Groups were compared using the global indices of the perimeter: Average Defect (AD) and Pattern Defect (PD), in addition to point-wise comparisons. RESULTS: Group migraineur TMP performance was significantly worse the day after a migraine, showing decreased general sensitivity and increased localized loss. Performance measured 7 days later was not significantly different from that measured the day after a migraine. Group migraineur SAP performance was not significantly worse after migraine; however, a subgroup of six eyes from five patients had 10 or more visual field locations with decreases in sensitivity greater than control test-retest 95% confidence limits. CONCLUSIONS: Decreased visual field performance was present after migraine, as well as greater test-retest variability in the migraine group compared with control subjects. As migraineurs constitute 10% to 15% of the general population, the presence of this subgroup of patients with periodic prolonged decreased visual field sensitivity after migraine has implications for differential clinical diagnosis, and for clinical research using perimetry. (+info)
Somatosensory evoked high-frequency oscillations reflecting thalamo-cortical activity are decreased in migraine patients between attacks.
A deficit of habituation in cortical information processing, including somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), is the most consistent neurophysiological abnormality in migraine patients between attacks. To explore further the mechanisms underlying this interictal neural dysfunction, we have studied the high-frequency oscillations (HFOs) embedded in SSEPs because they are thought to reflect spike activity in thalamo-cortical cholinergic fibres (early HFOs) and in cortical inhibitory GABAergic interneurons (late HFOs). Untreated migraine patients with (MA) and without (MO) aura were recorded during (n = 13: nine MO, four MA) and between attacks (n = 29: 14 MO, 15 MA) and compared with healthy volunteers. SSEPs were filtered off-line (digital band-pass between 450 and 750 Hz) to extract the two HFO bursts from the broad-band contralateral N20 somatosensory cortical response obtained by median nerve stimulation. In both migraine groups, amplitudes and latencies of conventional broad-band SSEPs recorded interictally from cervical and parietal active electrodes were not significantly different from those found in healthy volunteers. In contrast, maximum peak-to-peak amplitude and area under the rectified curve of the early HFO burst were significantly smaller in both MA and MO patients than in healthy volunteers. There was no significant difference in the later HFO burst between migraineurs and healthy volunteers. During attacks, all electrophysiological measurements in migraineurs were similar to those found in healthy volunteers. Thalamo-cortical activation, as reflected by the early SSEP HFO burst, may thus be reduced in migraine interictally, but normalizes during an attack, whereas intracortical inhibition, as indexed by the late HFO burst, is normal at any time. This supports the hypothesis that the habituation deficit in migraineurs is due to a reduced pre-activation level of sensory cortices and not to increased cortical excitability or reduced intracortical inhibition. (+info)
Prevalence and characteristics of migraine in women of reproductive age in Istanbul, Turkey: a population based survey.
Migraine is more common in female and onset of migraine is most commonly seen in the second and third decades of life. In this study, we aimed to estimate the prevalence and characteristics of migraine among women of ages between 15 to 45 years in Turkey. This is the first study to target this age group. The women were interviewed on a door-to-door basis, from early morning to late evening. Once responded positively to headache, an in-depth interview was performed questioning for migraine features. Diagnosis was made from a questionnaire by eight neurologists. One thousand eight hundred thirty five (1,835) out of 96,000 women living in Maltepe which is a town of Istanbul participated in this study. The prevalence of migraine in females aged 15-45 (reproductive ages) was 15.8% (95% CI, 0.142-0.176). This study showed that migraine onset occurred at a mean age of 22.7, 33% having family history, and with migraine with and without aura having near equal frequencies. The prevalence of migraine in women of reproductive ages in Istanbul as found in our study is lower than that reported in United States and Europe countries, but higher than that in Middle and Far Eastern countries. (+info)
Open label study of intranasal sumatriptan (Imigran) for footballer's headache.
OBJECTIVE: To study the efficacy and practicality of treating headache in professional footballers with intranasal sumatriptan. METHODS: An open label drug trial was performed in elite Australian footballers using intranasal sumatriptan (20 mg) treatment for acute headache. The main outcome measures were treatment response at 30 minutes, two hours, and 24 hours using two criteria: (a) initial severity moderate or severe to nil or mild; (b) stricter criteria of initial severity moderate to severe to subsequent nil headache. RESULTS: Thirty eight attacks were analysed. The two hour response showed that 86% of attacks of migraine with aura and all of the attacks of migraine without aura responded to treatment with sumatriptan nasal spray. Complete relief of headache at two hours was reported by 71% of players with migraine with aura and 90% of those without aura. Recurrence rates were generally low, with 0% of migraine headaches and 25% non-migraine attacks recurring at 24 hours. Minor side effects were reported in 28 attacks. CONCLUSIONS: This pilot open label trial suggests that sumatriptan nasal spray may be a valuable, effective, and convenient treatment of headache in professional sport. There are potential risks of this drug that need to be considered. (+info)
The linear behavior of the system middle cerebral artery flow velocity and blood pressure in patients with migraine: lack of autonomic control?
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Migraine is considered a disorder of the autonomic nervous system. We used the frequency analysis of dynamic cerebral autoregulation to assess whether blood flow regulation disturbances can be found at the frequencies at which sympathetic and parasympathetic activity is present. METHODS: We measured simultaneously mean arterial blood pressure (BP) and the mean blood velocity (V) in the middle cerebral artery using transcranial Doppler ultrasound in 33 healthy controls (mean age+/-SD; 36+/-13 years) and in 22 patients with migraine (mean age; 39+/-7 years). Apart from assessing spectral power density for BP and V, we calculated the transfer function parameters gain, phase, and coherence at the frequency range between 0.0 and 0.25 Hz. RESULTS: Compared with the controls, the spectral power density of BP and V exhibited a maximum magnitude of 10(26) in the migraine patients, whereas the maximum magnitude of BP and V in the controls was 10(-3). Coherence showed no difference between patients and controls. Gain between BP and V increased in the controls >0.01 Hz but was approximately 0 or negative in the migraine patients over the whole frequency range (P<0.01). The usually observed phase lead of V against BP was absent in the migraine patients in whom BP leaded V over nearly the whole frequency range (P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In terms of phase and gain, dynamic cerebral autoregulation is completely different in migraine patients compared with healthy subjects. Insofar, this can be interpreted as a lack of sympathetic and parasympathetic control of cerebral blood flow. (+info)