Home delivery of heat-stable vaccines in Indonesia: outreach immunization with a prefilled, single-use injection device.
Extending immunization coverage to underserved populations will require innovative immunization strategies. This study evaluated one such strategy: the use of a prefilled, single-use injection device for outreach immunization by village midwives. The device, UniJect, is designed to prevent refilling or reuse. Stored at ambient temperatures for up to 1 month in midwives' homes, vaccine-filled UniJect devices were immediately available for outreach. Between July 1995 and April 1996, 110 midwives on the Indonesia islands of Lombok and Bali visited the homes of newborn infants to deliver hepatitis B vaccine to the infants and tetanus toxoid to their mothers. Observations and interviews showed that the midwives used the device properly and safely to administer approximately 10,000 sterile injections in home settings. There were no problems with excessive heat exposure during the storage or delivery of vaccine. Injection recipients and midwives expressed a strong preference for the UniJect device over a standard syringe. Use of the prefilled device outside the cold chain simplified the logistics and facilitated the speed and efficiency of home visits, while the single-dose format minimized vaccine wastage. (+info)
A management information system for nurse/midwives.
The experiences of nurse/midwives with a simple management information system in the private sector are reported from four facilities in Nigeria. When such a system is being introduced, special attention should be given to strengthening the ability of health workers to record and collate data satisfactorily. (+info)
Lack of knowledge in health professionals: a barrier to providing information to patients?
OBJECTIVE: To assess obstetricians' and midwives' knowledge of routine prenatal screening tests for fetal abnormality and factors associated with such knowledge. DESIGN: Questionnaire assessment of antenatal clinic staff. SETTING: Six hospitals within the United Kingdom (four district general hospitals in London, one district general hospital in Wales, and one teaching hospital in Wales), offering routine prenatal screening tests. SUBJECTS: 29 obstetricians and 97 midwives were invited to participate, of whom 21 and 70 respectively responded to the questionnaire. MAIN MEASURES: Knowledge of prenatal tests, according to 19 item multiple choice questionnaire, reluctance to disclose uncertainty, and clinical experience. RESULTS: The overall response rate was 72% (91/126). In all, 43% of midwives and 14% of obstetricians obtained correct responses on fewer than half the items. Reluctance to disclose uncertainty to patients was associated in obstetricians with having less knowledge about prenatal testing (r = -0.50; p < 0.025, Pearson product moment correlation) and in midwives with more clinical experience (r = 0.43; p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: Lack of knowledge and greater clinical experience seem to be important barriers to providing patients with information about prenatal screening tests. (+info)
Factors affecting home delivery in the Kathmandu Valley, Nepal.
This nested case-control study compares the characteristics of mothers having home or institutional deliveries in Kathmandu, Nepal, and explores the reasons given by mothers for a home delivery. The delivery patterns of mothers were identified in a cross-sectional survey of two communities: an urban area of central Kathmandu (Kalimati) and a peri-urban area (Kirtipur and Panga) five kilometres from the city centre. 357 pregnant women were identified from a survey of 6130 households: 183 from 3663 households in Kirtipur and Panga, 174 from 2467 households in Kalimati. Methods involved a structured baseline household questionnaire and detailed follow-up of identified pregnant women with structured and semi-structured interviews in hospital and the community. The main outcome measures were social and economic household details of pregnant women; pregnancy and obstetric details; place of delivery; delivery attendant; and reasons given for home delivery. The delivery place of 334/357 (94%) of the pregnant women identified at the survey was determined. 272 (81%) had an institutional delivery and 62 (19%) delivered at home. In univariate analysis comparing home and institutional deliverers, maternal education, parity, and poverty indicators (income, size of house, ownership of house) were associated with place of delivery. After multivariate analysis, low maternal educational level (no education, OR 5.04 [95% CI 1.61-15.8], class 1-10, OR 3.36 [1.04-10.8] compared to those with higher education) and multiparity (OR 3.1 [1.63-5.74] compared to primiparity) were significant risk factors for a home delivery. Of home deliverers, only 24% used a traditional birth attendant, and over half were unplanned due to precipitate labour or lack of transport. We conclude that poor education and multiparity rather than poverty per se increase the risk of a home delivery in Kathmandu. Training TBAs in this setting would probably not be cost-effective. Community-based midwife-run delivery units could reduce the incidence of unplanned home deliveries. (+info)
Quality of midwifery led care: assessing the effects of different models of continuity for women's satisfaction.
BACKGROUND: Changing Childbirth (1993), a report on the future of maternity services in the United Kingdom, endorsed the development of a primarily community based midwifery led service for normal pregnancy, with priority given to the provision of "woman centred care". This has led to the development of local schemes emphasising continuity of midwifery care and increased choice and control for women. AIMS: To compare two models of midwifery group practices (shared caseload and personal caseload) in terms of: (a) the extent to which women see the same midwife antenatally and know the delivery midwife, and (b) women's preference for continuity and satisfaction with their care. METHODS: A review of maternity case notes and survey of a cohort of women at 36 weeks of gestation and 2 weeks postpartum who attended the two midwifery group practices. Questionnaires were completed by 247 women antenatally (72% response) and 222 (68%) postnatally. Outcome measures were the level of continuity experienced during antenatal, intrapartum, and postnatal care, women's preferences for continuity of carer, and ratings of satisfaction with care. RESULTS: The higher level of antenatal continuity of carer with personal caseload midwifery was associated with a lower percentage having previously met their main delivery midwife (60% v 74%). Women's preferences for antenatal continuity were significantly associated with their experiences. Postnatal rating of knowing the delivery midwife as "very important indeed" was associated with both previous antenatal ratings of its importance, and women's actual experiences. Personal continuity of carer was not a clear predictor of women's satisfaction with care. Of greater importance were women's expectations, their relations with midwives, communication, and involvement in decision making. CONCLUSIONS: Midwifery led schemes based on both shared and personal caseloads are acceptable to women. More important determinants of quality and women's satisfaction are the ethos of care consistency of care, good communication, and participation in decisions. (+info)
Effect of clinical guidelines in nursing, midwifery, and the therapies: a systematic review of evaluations.
BACKGROUND: Although nursing, midwifery, and professions allied to medicine are increasingly using clinical guidelines to reduce inappropriate variations in practice and ensure higher quality care, there have been no rigorous overviews of their effectiveness, 18 evaluations of guidelines were identified that meet Cochrane criteria for scientific rigor. METHODS: Guideline evaluations conducted since 1975 which used a randomised controlled trial, controlled before and after, or interrupted time series design were identified through a combination of database and hand searching. RESULTS: 18 studies met the inclusion criteria. Three studies evaluated guideline dissemination or implementation strategies, nine compared use of a guideline with a no guideline state; six studies examined skill substitution: performance of nurses operating according to a guideline were compared with standard care, generally provided by a physician. Significant changes in the process of care were found in six out of eight studies measuring process and in which guidelines were expected to have a positive impact on performance. In seven of the nine studies measuring outcomes of care, significant differences in favour of the intervention group were found. Skill substitution studies generally supported the hypothesis of no difference between protocol driven by nurses and care by a physician. Only one study included a formal economic evaluation, with equivocal findings. CONCLUSIONS: Findings from the review provide some evidence that care driven by a guideline can be effective in changing the process and outcome of care. However, many studies fell short of the criteria of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care Group (EPOC) for methodological quality. (+info)
Comparison of midwife top-ups, continuous infusion and patient-controlled epidural analgesia for maintaining mobility after a low-dose combined spinal-epidural.
We studied 133 women given a combined spinal-epidural for analgesia in labour. The initial intrathecal dose contained bupivacaine 2.5 mg with fentanyl 25 micrograms. When the mothers were comfortable, they were allocated randomly to one of three groups: continuous infusion (group Cl, n = 46), midwife top-ups (group MW, n = 43) or patient-controlled epidural analgesia (group PCEA, n = 44), to maintain analgesia throughout labour. All epidural solutions contained 0.1% bupivacaine and fentanyl 2 micrograms ml-1. Motor block was assessed by the mother's ability to straight leg raise (SLR). Four hours after combined spinal-epidural analgesia, 88.1% of women could SLR in group MW, 83.7% in group PCEA and 57.8% in group Cl (P = 0.002). Total use of bupivacaine was highest in group Cl (mean 11.3 (SD 3.3) mg h-1) compared with group MW (7.5 (3.1) mg h-1) and group PCEA (9.1 (2.1) mg h-1) (P < 0.001). Analgesia was similar between groups and overall satisfaction was equally high. (+info)
Going the distance: the influence of practice location on the Ontario Maternal Serum Screening Program.
BACKGROUND: The Ontario Maternal Serum Screening (MSS) Program was introduced by the Ontario Ministry of Health as a province-wide pilot project in 1993. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of practice location on Ontario health care providers' use of and opinions regarding MSS, access to follow-up services and recommendations about the program. METHODS: A questionnaire was mailed to a random sample of 2000 family physicians, all 565 obstetricians and all 62 registered midwives in Ontario between November 1994 and March 1995. RESULTS: Among providers who were eligible (those providing antenatal care or attending births) the response rates were 91.4% (778/851), 76.0% (273/359) and 78.0% (46/59) respectively. Fewer respondents in the Northwest region (71.4%) and in rural areas (81.9%) stated that they routinely offer MSS to all pregnant women in their practices compared with respondents in other regions (84.4%-91.5%) and urban centres (90.1%). Fewer respondents in the northern regions (Northeast 49.2%, Northwest 25.0%) than in the Central East region (includes Toronto) (76.6%) felt that follow-up services were readily available. Respondents in the northern regions had less favourable opinions of MSS than those in the other regions in terms of its complexity, cost, the time involved in counselling and the high false-positive rate. More respondents in the Central East region (64.6%) and in urban centres (52.9%) recommended not changing the MSS program than did those in the Northwest (7.1%) and rural areas (39.8%). After provider characteristics were controlled for in a logistic regression analysis, practice location was not the most important factor. Instead, the model showed that respondents who cared for 50 or more pregnant women in the previous year were more likely to offer MSS routinely (OR 2.00, 95% CI 1.21-3.27) and that those who felt that patient characteristics affect the offering of MSS (OR 0.42, 95% CI 0.26-0.67) or that follow-up services were not readily available (OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.20-0.55) were less likely to offer it. INTERPRETATION: Health care providers in northern and rural Ontario were less likely to offer MSS routinely than those in other regions and were more likely to recommend changing or eliminating the program. Providers' concerns about the social and cultural sensitivity of MSS and the availability of follow-up services affected use. (+info)