(1/151) Enhanced exercise-induced hyperkalemia in patients with syndrome X.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether patients with syndrome X have altered potassium metabolism. BACKGROUND: Patients with syndrome X have angina pectoris and exercise induced ST segment depression on the electrocardiogram despite normal coronary angiograms. Increasing evidence suggests that myocardial ischemia is uncommon in these patients. Altered potassium metabolism causing interstitial potassium accumulation in the myocardium may be an alternative mechanism for chest pain and ST segment depression in syndrome X. METHODS: We compared the magnitude of exercise-induced hyperkalemia in 16 patients with syndrome X (12 female and four male, mean +/- SD age 53 +/- 6 years) and 15 matched healthy control subjects. The participants underwent a bicycle test at a fixed load of 75 W for 10 min, and blood samples were taken for analysis of potassium, catecholamines and lactate before, during and in the recovery period after exercise. In five patients with syndrome X, the test was repeated during alpha1 adrenoceptor blockade. RESULTS: Baseline concentrations of serum potassium, plasma catecholamines and plasma lactate were similar in patients and control subjects. The rate of exercise-induced increment of serum potassium was increased in the patients (70 +/- 29 vs. 30 +/- 21 micromol/liter/min in control subjects, p < 0.001). Six patients, who stopped before 10 min of exercise, showed very rapid increments in serum potassium concentration. Compared to the control subjects, patients also demonstrated larger increments in rate-pressure product, plasma norepinephrine and lactate concentrations during exercise. The rate of serum potassium increment correlated with the rate of plasma norepinephrine increment in the patients (r = 0.63, p < 0.02), but not in the control subjects (r = 0.01, p = 0.97). Blockade of alpha1 adrenoceptors decreased systolic blood pressure at baseline, but did not influence the increment of serum potassium, plasma catecholamines and lactate. CONCLUSIONS: Patients with syndrome X have enhanced exercise induced hyperkalemia in parallel with augmented increases of circulating norepinephrine and lactate. The prevailing mechanisms behind the abnormal potassium handling comprise sources distinct from alpha1-adrenoceptor activation.  (+info)

(2/151) Endothelium-dependent and -independent perfusion reserve and the effect of L-arginine on myocardial perfusion in patients with syndrome X.

BACKGROUND: Impaired vasodilatation capacity in patients with angina pectoris and a normal coronary arteriogram (syndrome X [SX]) has been reported. Most studies report on the response in epicardial vessels. This does not necessarily reflect compromised myocardial microcirculation. Lack of the NO precursor L-arginine has been suggested as a possible cause. METHODS AND RESULTS: Myocardial blood flow (MBF) was measured, using PET, at rest (MBF-rest) and during intravenous dipyridamole (MBF-DIP) in 25 women (mean age 53+/-7 years) with SX. Thirty healthy volunteers served as controls. One group (A) consisted of 15 age-matched female volunteers (54+/-10 years). The other control group consisted of 15 young healthy women (B; 24+/-5 years). In 12 SX patients, MBF-rest and MBF during cold pressor testing were also measured after infusion of L-arginine (6.7 g/min for 45 minutes). The increase in MBF after cold pressor testing was similar in the SX group compared with controls. L-arginine did not affect MBF-rest (0.83+/-0.14 versus 0.89+/-0.13 mL. g-1. min-1) or MBF after cold pressor test (0.95+/-0.10 versus 1. 03+/-0.17 mL. g-1min-1). In contrast, the hyperemic response to DIP was blunted compared with the group A controls (1.68+/-0.49 versus 2. 34+/-0.45 mL. g-1. min-1, P<0.05); this resulted in a significant reduction of the coronary flow reserve in SX patients relative to controls (2.03+/-0.53 versus 2.96+/-0.63 mL. g-1. min-1, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: In patients with SX, the microcirculatory response to cold, reflecting the endothelium function, is normal and unaltered by intravenous L-arginine. This suggests preserved microcirculatory endothelial function. However, a markedly attenuated hyperemic flow and flow reserve after DIP suggest a dysfunction of the adenosine-mediated endothelium-independent vasodilatation at the microcirculatory level in these patients.  (+info)

(3/151) Elevated endothelin concentrations are associated with reduced coronary vasomotor responses in patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms.

OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between arterial and coronary sinus endothelin (ET) concentrations and coronary vasomotor responses during rapid atrial pacing in patients with chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms (CPNA). BACKGROUND: Plasma ET concentrations are significantly higher in CPNA patients than in healthy control subjects. METHODS: We investigated 19 carefully characterized CPNA patients (14 women; mean age 53 +/- 9 years) of whom 10 had positive electrocardiographic responses to exercise. The percentage fall in coronary vascular resistance (%d.CVR) after 10 min of rapid atrial pacing was determined using a thermodilution pacing catheter. Plasma ET concentrations were measured by radioimmunoassay on simultaneously drawn arterial and coronary sinus samples. RESULTS: No significant differences in ET concentrations were observed between men and women, but a strong statistical trend suggested that %d.CVR was lower in women than men (27[23 to 31]% vs. 34[29 to 45]%--median[interquartile range]; p = 0.07). Simple regression analysis including only the women (n = 14) suggested a significant relationship between baseline arterial ET concentrations and %d.CVR (R2 = 0.34; p = 0.06). Furthermore, stepwise multivariate regression analysis of the group as a whole indicated that both gender (p = 0.03) and baseline arterial ET concentration (p = 0.02) were independently predictive of %d.CVR (R2 = 0.44; overall p = 0.02); this relationship predicts that women with high ET levels would have the lowest %d.CVR during pacing. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that elevated ET activity may be associated with reduced coronary flow responses during rapid atrial pacing in CPNA patients.  (+info)

(4/151) Endothelial and metabolic characteristics of patients with angina and angiographically normal coronary arteries: comparison with subjects with insulin resistance syndrome and normal controls.

OBJECTIVES: This study was performed to characterize the endothelial and metabolic alterations of patients with angina and angiographically normal coronary arteries ("cardiac" syndrome X [CSX]) compared with subjects with insulin resistance syndrome ("metabolic" syndrome X [MSX]) and normal controls. BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found high endothelin-1 levels, impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation and insulin resistance in patients with angina pectoris and angiographically normal coronary arteries. On the other hand, subjects with insulin resistance syndrome have shown high endothelin-1 levels. METHODS: Thirty-five subjects were studied: 13 patients with angina pectoris and angiographically normal coronary arteries (CSX group); 9 subjects with insulin resistance syndrome (MSX group) and 13 normal controls. All subjects received an acute intravenous bolus of insulin (0.1 U/kg) combined with a euglycemic clamp and forearm indirect calorimetry. Endothelin-1 levels, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) levels, end products of nitric oxide metabolism, glucose infusion rates (index of insulin sensitivity) and their incremental areas (deltaAUCs [area under curves]) were measured during this period. RESULTS: Basal endothelin-1 levels were higher in CSX and MSX groups than in normal controls (8.19 +/- 0.46 and 6.97 +/- 0.88 vs. 3.67 +/- 0.99 pg/ml; p < 0.01), while basal NOx levels were significantly higher in MSX group than in CSX and normal controls (36.5 +/- 4.0 vs. 24.2 +/- 3.3 and 26.8 +/- 3.2 mol/liter, p < 0.05). After insulin administration, the deltaAUCs of NOx (p < 0.05) were lower in CSX group than in MSX and normal controls, and the deltaAUCs of endothelin-1 were lower in group CSX than in normal controls. Glucose infusion rate was significantly lower in CSX and MSx groups than in normal controls (p < 0.01), suggesting that in both CSX and MSX groups insulin resistance is present. A positive correlation was found between the deltaAUCs of nitric oxide and the AUCs of glucose infusion rate. CONCLUSIONS: Blunted nitric oxide and endothelin responsiveness to intravenously infused insulin is a typical feature of patients with angina pectoris and angiographically normal coronary arteries and may contribute to the microvascular dysfunction observed in these subjects.  (+info)

(5/151) Pseudoxanthoma elasticum with dipyridamole-induced coronary artery spasm: a case report.

In patients with pseudoxanthoma elasticum, severe organic coronary artery stenosis often occurs without coronary risk factors. However, this report presents the case of a 49-year-old woman with pseudoxanthoma elasticum who had coronary artery spasm with an angiographically normal coronary artery. In addition, coronary artery spasm was provoked with dipyridamole thallium-201 cardiac imaging.  (+info)

(6/151) Analgesic effects of adenosine in syndrome X are counteracted by theophylline: a double-blind placebo-controlled study.

It has been proposed that adenosine mediates ischaemic pain in humans. Patients with cardiac Syndrome X are hypersensitive to potential pain stimuli, including adenosine. On the other hand, recent findings suggest that low-dose adenosine infusion may have analgesic effects. Our aim was to test two hypotheses: (1) that the analgesic effect of adenosine is peripheral in origin, and (2) that part of the hypersensitivity to pain of patients with cardiac Syndrome X results from a disturbed mechanism of adenosine analgesia. A total of 12 female Syndrome X patients and eight healthy age-matched female controls were studied in a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled study. Adenosine (70 microg/min) or placebo was infused into the forearm via an intra-arterial catheter. After 15 min of infusion, a tourniquet on the upper arm was inflated to 225 mmHg to ensure arterial occlusion. The patient then carried out dynamic handgrip work at 60 Hz. Pain or discomfort in the forearm was estimated continuously according to the Borg CR-10 scale. After the first test, theophylline was infused for 10 min intravenously at a dose of 5 mg/kg body weight. The ischaemic forearm test was then repeated. On a second occasion, the procedure was repeated with the opposite treatment (adenosine/placebo). Only six of 12 Syndrome X patients completed the protocol because of pain during the catheterization procedure or an inability to establish an intra-arterial line. The time to onset of pain in the working, ischaemic forearm was greater for subjects treated with adenosine than for those treated with placebo, both in those Syndrome X patients who tolerated catheterization (49+/-27 s compared with 32+/-18 s; P<0.03) and in healthy controls (40+/-19 s compared with 16+/-8 s; P<0.02). The time to maximum pain, limiting ischaemic work, was also greater with adenosine pretreatment both in Syndrome X patients (137+/-28 s compared with 106+/-28 s; P<0.03) and in healthy controls (109+/-31 compared with 82+/-18 s; P<0.01). After infusion of theophylline there was no difference between adenosine and placebo in either group. Intra-arterially infused adenosine had similar peripheral analgesic effects on experimentally induced muscular ischaemia in those female Syndrome X patients who tolerated intra-arterial catheterization and in healthy controls. Thus adenosine analgesia is counteracted by theophylline, suggesting that the effect is mediated by membrane-bound peripheral adenosine receptors.  (+info)

(7/151) Role of the vascular endothelium in patients with angina pectoris or acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries.

Chest pain with normal coronary angiograms is a relatively common syndrome. The mode of presentation of this syndrome includes patients with syndrome X and patients with an acute myocardial infarction and angiographically normal coronary arteries. Different mechanisms have been proposed to elucidate the exact cause and to explain the various clinical presentations in these patients. Abnormalities of pain perception and the presence of oesophageal dysmotility have all been reported in patients with syndrome X. In situ thrombosis or embolization with subsequent clot lysis and recanalization, coronary artery spasm, cocaine abuse, and viral myocarditis have been described as potential mechanisms responsible for an acute myocardial infarction in patients with angiographically normal coronary arteries. Recent data suggest that both microvascular and epicardial endothelial dysfunction may play an important role in the pathophysiological mechanism of the syndrome of stable angina or acute myocardial infarction with normal coronary arteries.  (+info)

(8/151) Negative stress echocardiographic responses in normotensive and hypertensive patients with angina pectoris, positive exercise stress testing, and normal coronary arteriograms.

OBJECTIVES: To systematically compare the results of dobutamine stress echocardiography in matched groups of hypertensive and normotensive patients with anginal chest pain and normal coronary arteriograms (CPNA). SETTING: University hospital. SUBJECTS: 33 patients with exertional anginal chest pain, a positive exercise stress ECG, and a completely normal coronary arteriogram; 17 had a history of systemic hypertension (14 women; mean (SD) age 57 (6) years), and 16 had no hypertensive history (12 women; age 54 (9) years). METHODS: Ambulatory ECG monitoring, dobutamine stress echocardiography, and thallium-201 single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) were performed in all subjects. RESULTS: All patients had normal left ventricular systolic function at rest and none fulfilled the criteria for ventricular hypertrophy. Eight normotensive patients and 10 hypertensive patients had perfusion abnormalities on thallium SPECT (p = 0.61). Dobutamine infusion reproduced anginal pain in seven normotensive and seven hypertensive patients (p = 0.88). ST segment depression was also recorded in eight normotensive patients and seven hypertensive patients (p = 0. 61). No patient in either group developed regional wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine stress echocardiography. CONCLUSIONS: Neither hypertensive nor normotensive CPNA patients developed regional wall motion abnormalities during dobutamine stress echocardiography, despite the high prevalence of scintigraphic perfusion defects in both groups and the presence of chest pain and ST segment depression. Thus myocardial ischaemia was not present in either group, or else dobutamine stress echocardiography is insensitive to ischaemia caused by microvascular dysfunction.  (+info)