A comparison between quarter, partial and total laser assisted hatching in selected infertility patients.
BACKGROUND: The object of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of laser assisted hatching (LAH) of embryos on implantation and pregnancy rates of a selected group of infertility patients. METHODS: A total of 322 cycles using LAH was undertaken in our Centre between June 1998 and September 1999. Patients were offered LAH if they fell in either one or more of the following categories: (i) Patients over 37 years of age undergoing either IVF or intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) treatment cycles; (ii) patients with more than 2 previous treatment cycle failures; (iii) patients undergoing frozen embryo replacement cycles and (iv) women who were considered to be poor responders. The initial results of totally breaching the zona pellucida (total LAH; group 1) did not meet with our expectations. We subsequently modified the technique to thinning one area of the zona pellucida (partial LAH; group 2) and this thinned area was then extended to a quarter segment (quarter LAH; group 3). RESULTS: In group 1, the pregnancy rate was 14.6% with a clinical pregnancy rate of 5.2%. In group 2 the pregnancy rate was 20.9% with a clinical pregnancy rate of 18% and for patients in group 3 the pregnancy rate was 29.0% with a clinical pregnancy rate of 22.1%. CONCLUSIONS: Overall there was firm statistical evidence that the pregnancy and clinical pregnancy rates arising from quarter LAH were higher in comparison with partial and total LAH. (+info)
Survival and clonal expansion of mutating "forbidden" (immunoglobulin receptor-deficient) epstein-barr virus-infected b cells in angioimmunoblastic t cell lymphoma.
Angioimmunoblastic lymphadenopathy with dysproteinemia (AILD) is a peculiar T cell lymphoma, as expanding B cell clones are often present besides the malignant T cell clones. In addition, large numbers of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected B cells are frequently observed. To analyze the differentiation status and clonal composition of EBV-harboring B cells in AILD, single EBV-infected cells were micromanipulated from lymph nodes of six patients with frequent EBV(+) cells and their rearranged immunoglobulin (Ig) genes analyzed. Most EBV-infected B cells carried mutated Ig genes, indicating that in AILD, EBV preferentially resides in memory and/or germinal center B cells. EBV(+) B cell clones observed in all six cases ranged from small polyclonal to large monoclonal expansions and often showed ongoing somatic hypermutation while EBV(-) B cells showed little tendency for clonal expansion. Surprisingly, many members of expanding B cell clones had acquired destructive mutations in originally functional V gene rearrangements and showed an unfavorable high load of replacement mutations in the framework regions, indicating that they accumulated mutations over repeated rounds of mutation and division while not being selected through their antigen receptor. This sustained selection-free accumulation of somatic mutations is unique to AILD. Moreover, the survival and clonal expansion of "forbidden" (i.e., Ig-deficient) B cells has not been observed before in vivo and thus represents a novel type of viral latency in the B cell compartment. It is likely the interplay between the microenvironment in AILD lymph nodes and the viral transformation that leads to the survival and clonal expansion of Ig-less B cells. (+info)
Refrigeration of donor cells in preparation for bovine somatic nuclear transfer.
In mammals, preparation of donor cells for somatic nuclear transfer is very important because the character of the donor cell directly affects the efficiency and outcome of transfer. The protocols used most commonly for donor preparation are (i) disaggregating cells from fresh tissue 1-2 h before micromanipulation or (ii) trypsinizing cultured cells temporarily, after special treatments for 3-8 days (for example, serum starvation). In this study, a new simple protocol was designed, whereby the donor cells (cumulus cells) used in bovine somatic nuclear transfer were refrigerated. In brief, cultured cells at 80-100% confluency were detached using trypsin, washed by centrifugation, aliquoted into different vials and refrigerated at 4 degrees C. The density of viable cells was decreased after day 1 of refrigeration; however, the rate of decrease tended to slow down with increasing duration of refrigeration. Cells refrigerated for 15 days were seeded at a density of 5 x 10(4) ml(-1) and reached 70% confluency after day 2 of culture. Most cells had the normal number of chromosomes (2n = 60). Cells chilled at 4 degrees C for different durations were removed from refrigeration and immediately subjected to micromanipulation. The in vitro development of reconstructed embryos (fusion rates, cleavage rates, morula and blastocyst rates) indicated that there were no significant differences among treatment groups regardless of the duration of refrigeration (0-2 weeks) of the donor cells. Reconstructed embryos were transferred into the uteri of recipient cows. No significant differences were observed in established early pregnancies between embryos derived from the non-refrigerated donor cells and those derived from refrigerated donor cells. This study indicates that refrigeration of donor cells for 1-2 weeks is a feasible protocol for preparing donor cells for bovine somatic nuclear transfer, and does not compromise development in vitro and early development in vivo. (+info)
Phospholipase C activation by anesthetics decreases membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion.
Many different amphiphilic compounds cause an increase in the fluid-phase endocytosis rates of cells in parallel with a decrease in membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion. These compounds, however, do not share a common chemical structure, which leaves the mechanism and even site of action unknown. One possible mechanism of action is through an alteration of inositol lipid metabolism by modifying the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane bilayer. By comparing permeable amphiphilic amines used as local anesthetics with their impermeable analogs, we find that access to the cytoplasmic surface is necessary to increase endocytosis rate and decrease membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion. In parallel, we find that the level of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP(2)) in the plasma membrane is decreased and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) is increased only by permeable amines. The time course of both the decrease in plasma membrane PIP(2) and the rise in Ca(2+) parallels the decrease in cytoskeleton-membrane adhesion. Inositol labeling shows that phosphatidylinositol-4-phosphate levels are increased by the permeable anesthetics, indicating that lipid turnover is increased. Consistent with previous observations, phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors block anesthetic effects on the PIP(2) and cytoplasmic Ca(2+) levels, as well as the drop in adhesion. Therefore, we suggest that PLC activity is increased by amine anesthetics at the cytoplasmic surface of the plasma membrane, which results in a decrease in membrane-cytoskeleton adhesion. (+info)
Germinal vesicle transfer between fresh and cryopreserved immature mouse oocytes.
BACKGROUND: We assessed the maturational competence and the chromosomal pattern of mouse oocytes reconstructed by germinal vesicle (GV) transfer technique using nuclear and/or cytoplasmic components from cryopreserved GV stage oocytes. METHODS: From 657 GV oocytes (326 fresh and 331 frozen/thawed), four groups of reconstructed oocytes were obtained by micromanipulation and electrofusion: fresh GV-fresh cytoplast (FF), thawed GV-thawed cytoplast (TT), fresh GV-thawed cytoplast (FT), thawed GV-fresh cytoplast (TF). All reconstructed oocytes were cultured in vitro to metaphase II. RESULTS: Survival rate after manipulation and electrofusion, as well as progression to metaphase II, did not differ significantly among the four groups. Comparing reconstructed oocytes with fresh and thawed control pools, the only difference was a slightly but significantly higher maturation rate in the TT pool versus matched controls (P < 0.01). Cytogenetic analysis of 25 reconstructed oocytes showed the expected number of 20 chromosomes in 88% of them. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that both nuclear and cytoplasmic components derived from cryopreserved immature oocytes are suitable for GV transfer procedure, and generate chromosomally normal oocytes able to progress to metaphase II in vitro. The possibility of using cryostored immature oocytes as a source of nuclei and cytoplasm could help in applying GV transfer procedure, both in research and clinical settings. (+info)
Neoplastic T cells in angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma express CD10.
Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma (AITL) is a systemic disease involving lymph nodes, spleen, and bone marrow. Although the histologic features have been well described, the diagnosis is often challenging, as there are no specific phenotypic or molecular markers available. This study shows that the neoplastic cells of AITL can be identified by aberrant CD10 expression. Archival material from 30 cases of AITL, 10 cases of peripheral T-cell lymphoma unspecified (PTL), and 10 cases of reactive lymphoid hyperplasia were reviewed. Single and double immunostaining for CD3, CD4, CD8, CD20, CD21, CD10, BCL6, Ki67, and LMP-1 in situ hybridization for Epstein-Barr early region and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for T-cell receptor gamma chain gene and immunoglobulin heavy chain gene were performed. Three overlapping histologic patterns with hyperplastic follicles, depleted follicles, or without follicles were identified in AITL. Of the 30 cases of AITL, 27 contained CD10(+) T cells. No CD10(+) T cells were present in the cases of PTL or reactive hyperplasia. PCR confirmed a monoclonal or oligoclonal T-cell population in 29 of 30 cases of AITL and a monoclonal B-cell population in 6 cases. Analysis of microdissected CD10(+) single cells showed that they belonged to the neoplastic clone. In conclusion CD10 is a phenotypic marker that specifically identifies the tumor cells in 90% of AITL, including the early cases. The presence of these cells distinguishes AITL from other PTLs. This finding provides an objective criterion for accurate and early diagnosis of AITL. (+info)
Effect of partial incision of the zona pellucida by piezo-micromanipulator for in vitro fertilization using frozen-thawed mouse spermatozoa on the developmental rate of embryos transferred at the 2-cell stage.
Cryopreservation of mouse spermatozoa is widely used, although considerable strain differences in fertilization rates using frozen-thawed mouse spermatozoa have been described. The C57BL/6 mouse strain is a very widely used for establishment of transgenic mice, but the fertilization rate associated with the use of cryopreserved C57BL/6 spermatozoa is very low compared with rates for other inbred strains. We have recently solved this difficulty by in vitro fertilization (IVF) in combination with partial zona pellucida dissection (PZD). However, this technique requires culture of fertilized eggs with PZD in vitro up to morula or blastocyst stage before transfer into the uterus because blastomeres are lost after transfer into the oviduct because of the relatively large artificial slit in the zona pellucida. To overcome this problem, we performed a partial zona pellucida incision by using a piezo-micromanipulator (ZIP) for IVF with frozen-thawed mouse spermatozoa. The blunt end of the micropipette touched the surface of the zona pellucida of the oocytes, and piezo pulses were used to incise the zona pellucida while the pipette was moved along by the surface of zona pellucida. The length of the incision was pir/6 microm. When cumulus-free ZIP and PZD oocytes were inseminated with frozen-thawed genetically modified C57BL/6J spermatozoa, the fertilization rates of ZIP and PZD oocytes were 52% and 48%, respectively. After embryo transfer at the 2-cell stage, 18% and 2% of the transferred embryos with ZIP and PZD developed to term, respectively. This difference was significant (P < 0.05). When ZIP and PZD zygotes were cultured to blastocyst stage and subsequently transferred to uterine horns of recipient animals, the difference between ZIP and PZD zygotes for development rate to full term was not significant. Our results indicate that ZIP is an effective alternative technique for IVF using cryopreserved mouse spermatozoa and subsequent embryo transfer. (+info)
mRNA expression profiling of laser microbeam microdissected cells from slender embryonic structures.
Microarray hybridization has rapidly evolved as an important tool for genomic studies and studies of gene regulation at the transcriptome level. Expression profiles from homogenous samples such as yeast and mammalian cell cultures are currently extending our understanding of biology, whereas analyses of multicellular organisms are more difficult because of tissue complexity. The combination of laser microdissection, RNA amplification, and microarray hybridization has the potential to provide expression profiles from selected populations of cells in vivo. In this article, we present and evaluate an experimental procedure for global gene expression analysis of slender embryonic structures using laser microbeam microdissection and laser pressure catapulting. As a proof of principle, expression profiles from 1000 cells in the mouse embryonic (E9.5) dorsal aorta were generated and compared with profiles for captured mesenchymal cells located one cell diameter further away from the aortic lumen. A number of genes were overexpressed in the aorta, including 11 previously known markers for blood vessels. Among the blood vessel markers were endoglin, tie-2, PDGFB, and integrin-beta1, that are important regulators of blood vessel formation. This demonstrates that microarray analysis of laser microbeam micro-dissected cells is sufficiently sensitive for identifying genes with regulative functions. (+info)