Expression and characterization of the prtV gene encoding a collagenase from Vibrio parahaemolyticus in Escherichia coli.
The prtV gene, encoding a collagenase of Vibrio parahaemolyticus, was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by affinity chromatography. The transformant E. coli BL21(DE3)(pPRT2) secreted the recombinant PrtV, and the highest enzyme activity was detected in the culture supernatant after 5 h IPTG induction. The molecular mass of purified PrtV was 62 kDa as determined by gel filtration, which was similar to that obtained by SDS-PAGE (64 kDa). This suggested that PrtV was a monomer protein having no subunit structure. The isoelectric point of PrtV was 8.52. In addition, PrtV contained a 27 amino acid signal peptide, and the amino acid composition of the PrtV showed satisfactory agreement with that predicted from the DNA sequence. The optimum temperature and pH of PrtV were 40 degrees C and pH 7.5, respectively. The activity of PrtV was inhibited by chelators such as EDTA, EGTA and 1,10-phenanthroline; however, its activity was restored by the addition of various metal ions (Co2+, Mn2+, Ca2+, Cu2+, Ni2+ and Zn2+), indicating that PrtV is a metalloprotease. PrtV degraded both type I collagen and synthetic substrate FALGPA well, showing that PrtV is indeed a collagenase. (+info)
Microbicidal mechanisms of human granulocytes: synergistic effects of granulocyte elastase and myeloperoxidase or chymotrypsin-like cationic protein.
The antibacterial activity of a myeloperoxidase (MPO)-glucose oxidase system was found to be greatly increased by granulocyte elastase, present in azurophil granules of human neutrophils. The MPO-H2O3-mediated killing of both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was potentiated by granuocyte elastase at an acid pH, whereas at pH 7.4 only killing of E. coli was potentiated. The potentiating effect of elastase was not dependent on the enzymatic properties of the protein since it was not abolished by heating, which destroys the enzymatic activity. A peptide chloromethyl ketone elastase inhibitor abolished both elastolytic activity and the pctentiating effects on MPO-H2-O2-mediated bacterial killing. The antibacterial activity of chymotrypsin-like cationic protein of human neutrophils was also potentiated by elastase. Other degradative enzymes isolated from human granulocytes, e.g., collagenase and lysozyme, did not potentiate MPO-H2O2-mediated or cationic protein-dependent bacterial killing. The present study indicates that a neutrophil constitutent, elastase, which is not microbicidal by itself, can initiate sublethal changes that render some microorganisms more susceptible to the action of microbicidal agents like MPO and chymotrypsin-like cationic protein. (+info)
Plasma protein synthesis by isolated rat hepatocytes.
A system of preparation of rat hepatocytes with extended viability has been developed to study the role of hormones and other plasma components upon secretory protein synthesis. Hepatocytes maintained in minimal essential medium reduced the levels of all amino acids in the medium except the slowly catabolized amino acids leucine, isoleucine, and valine, which steadily increase as the result of catabolism of liver protein. Although the liver cells catabolize 10-15% of their own protein during a 20-h incubation, the cells continue to secrete protein in a linear fashion throughout the period. The effects of insulin, cortisol, and epinephrine on general protein synthesis, and specifically on fibrinogen and albumin synthesis, have been tested on cells from both normal rats and adrenalectomized rats. Cells from normal animals show preinduction of tyrosine amino transferase (TAT), having at the time of isolation a high level of enzyme which shows only an increase of approximately 60% upon incubation with cortisol. In contrast, cells from adrenalectomized animals initially have a low level of enzyme which increases fourfold over a period of 9 h. The effects of both epinephrine and cortisol on protein synthesis are also much larger in cells from adrenalectomized animals. After a delay of several hours, cortisol increases fibrinogen synthesis sharply, so that at the end of the 20-h incubation, cells treated with hormone have secreted nearly 2.5 times as much fibrinogen as control cells. The effect is specific; cortisol stimulates neither albumin secretion nor intracellular protein synthesis. The combination of cortisol and epinephrine strongly depresses albumin synthesis in both types of cells. Insulin enhances albumin and general protein synthesis but has little effect on fibrinogen synthesis. (+info)
A bacterial collagen-binding domain with novel calcium-binding motif controls domain orientation.
The crystal structure of a collagen-binding domain (CBD) with an N-terminal domain linker from Clostridium histolyticum class I collagenase was determined at 1.00 A resolution in the absence of calcium (1NQJ) and at 1.65 A resolution in the presence of calcium (1NQD). The mature enzyme is composed of four domains: a metalloprotease domain, a spacing domain and two CBDs. A 12-residue-long linker is found at the N-terminus of each CBD. In the absence of calcium, the CBD reveals a beta-sheet sandwich fold with the linker adopting an alpha-helix. The addition of calcium unwinds the linker and anchors it to the distal side of the sandwich as a new beta-strand. The conformational change of the linker upon calcium binding is confirmed by changes in the Stokes and hydrodynamic radii as measured by size exclusion chromatography and by dynamic light scattering with and without calcium. Furthermore, extensive mutagenesis of conserved surface residues and collagen-binding studies allow us to identify the collagen-binding surface of the protein and propose likely collagen-protein binding models. (+info)
Collagenase plaque digestion for facilitating guide wire crossing in chronic total occlusions.
BACKGROUND: Chronic total occlusions (CTOs) are associated with significant angina, impaired left ventricular function, and worse long-term outcomes. Percutaneous coronary interventions in CTO are unsuccessful in up to 50% of cases, primarily because of inability to cross the lesion with a guide wire. Collagen is the predominant component of the atherosclerotic plaque. The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy and toxicity of local delivery of a collagen-degrading enzyme to facilitate guide wire crossing in CTO. METHODS AND RESULTS: Type IA collagenase (100 or 450 microg) or placebo was locally administered to 45 CTOs in a rabbit femoral artery model. Mean occlusion duration was 16+/-5 weeks. Attempts to cross the CTO (mean length, 28+/-9 mm) with conventional guide wires were assessed at 72 hours after treatment. An additional 3 arteries per group were assessed for collagenase effects at 24 hours after treatment. Successful guide wire crossings were significantly higher in collagenase-treated arteries (13 of 21, 62%) than in placebo-treated arteries (7 of 24, 29%) (P=0.028). No adverse effects on arterial structure were observed in collagenase-treated arteries. At 24 hours, collagenase-treated arteries demonstrated increased collagenase protein, gelatinase activity, and collagen fragments. CONCLUSIONS: Local delivery of collagenase can safely facilitate guide wire crossing of CTO. This novel approach could lead to higher percutaneous coronary intervention success rates in CTO. (+info)
Interleukin 4 inhibition of prostaglandin E2 synthesis blocks interstitial collagenase and 92-kDa type IV collagenase/gelatinase production by human monocytes.
Activation of human monocytes results in the production of interstitial collagenase through a prostaglandin E2 (PGE2)-cAMP-dependent pathway. Inasmuch as interleukin 4 (IL-4) has been shown to inhibit PGE2 synthesis by monocytes, we examined the effect of IL-4 on the production of human monocyte interstitial collagenase. Additionally, we also assessed the effect of IL-4 on the production of 92-kDa type IV collagenase/gelatinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) by monocytes. The inhibition of PGE2 synthesis by IL-4 resulted in decreased interstitial collagenase protein and activity that could be restored by exogenous PGE2 or dibutyryl cyclic AMP (Bt2cAMP). IL-4 also suppressed ConA-stimulated 92-kDa type IV collagenase/gelatinase protein and zymogram enzyme activity that could be reversed by exogenous PGE2 or Bt2cAMP. Moreover, indomethacin suppressed the ConA-induced production of 92-kDa type IV collagenase/gelatinase. These data demonstrate that, like monocyte interstitial collagenase, the conA-inducible monocyte 92-kDa type IV collagenase/gelatinase is regulated through a PGE2-mediated cAMP-dependent pathway. In contrast to ConA stimulation, unstimulated monocytes released low levels of 92-kDa type IV collagenase/gelatinase that were not affected by IL-4, PGE2, or Bt2cAMP, indicating that basal production of this enzyme is PGE2-cAMP independent. IL-4 inhibition of both collagenases was not a result of increased TIMP expression since Western analysis of 28.5-kDa TIMP-1 revealed that IL-4 did not alter the increased TIMP-1 protein in response to ConA. These data indicate that IL-4 may function in natural host regulation of connective tissue damage by monocytes. (+info)
Rapid optimization of enzyme substrates using defined substrate mixtures.
A strategy is described for the rapid optimization of kcat/Km for protease substrates. Selected positions of a given peptide substrate sequence are varied through synthesis with mixtures of amino acids. Incubation of the resulting peptide mixture with the enzyme of interest and analysis by high pressure liquid chromatography provides a direct measure of analogs with enhanced kcat/Km. High performance liquid chromatography/continuous flow fast atom bombardment mass spectrometry is used to assign structure to each peak in the chromatogram. As an example of the utility and efficiency of "substrate mapping" we describe optimization of the collagenase substrate Dnp-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Trp-Ala-D-Arg-NH2 (where Dnp is dinitrophenyl) at the P'1 and P'2 positions. Six different mixtures were prepared for evaluation, representing the synthesis of 128 different synthetic substrates. "Substrate mapping" has led to Dnp-Pro-Leu-Gly-Cys(Me)-His-Ala-D-Arg-NH2, a substrate that possesses a 10-fold better kcat/Km than Dnp-Pro-Leu-Gly-Leu-Trp-Ala-D-Arg-NH2. (+info)
Mutations in the Jun delta region suggest an inverse correlation between transformation and transcriptional activation.
The viral Jun protein (v-Jun) transforms chicken embryo fibroblasts (CEF) more effectively than its cellular counterpart (c-Jun). In certain cell types v-Jun is also a stronger transcriptional activator than c-Jun. These functional differences between v-Jun and c-Jun result from a deletion in v-Jun (referred to as "delta deletion") that seems to weaken the interaction of Jun with a negative cellular regulator molecule. These observations suggested that the oncogenicity of v-Jun may be due to an enhanced ability to activate transcription of target genes. To test this hypothesis, we constructed several deletions in the delta domain of chicken c-Jun and determined their transforming and transactivating properties. Surprisingly, we found an inverse correlation between the ability of the mutants to transform CEF and to transactivate the collagenase and transin promoters in CEF. In contrast, there was no significant effect of the delta mutations in c-Jun on transactivation in F9 murine embryonal carcinoma cells. The function of the delta region is therefore cell-type specific. The inverse correlation between transformation and transactivation in CEF suggests that the strong growth-promoting effect of v-Jun may be related to a failure to activate the transcription of growth attenuating genes. (+info)