(1/9154) Prevention of collagen-induced arthritis by gene delivery of soluble p75 tumour necrosis factor receptor.
Collagen type II-induced arthritis (CIA) in DBA/1 mice can be passively transferred to SCID mice with spleen B- and T-lymphocytes. In the present study, we show that infection ex vivo of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a retroviral vector, containing cDNA for the soluble form of human p75 receptor of tumour necrosis factor (TNF-R) before transfer, prevents the development of arthritis, bone erosion and joint inflammation in the SCID recipients. Assessment of IgG subclass levels and studies of synovial histology suggest that down-regulating the effector functions of T helper-type 1 (Th1) cells may, at least in part, explain the inhibition of arthritis in the SCID recipients. In contrast, the transfer of splenocytes infected with mouse TNF-alpha gene construct resulted in exacerbated arthritis and enhancement of IgG2a antibody levels. Intriguingly, infection of splenocytes from arthritic DBA/1 mice with a construct for mouse IL-10 had no modulating effect on the transfer of arthritis. The data suggest that manipulation of the immune system with cytokines, or cytokine inhibitors using gene transfer protocols can be an effective approach to ameliorate arthritis. (+info)
(2/9154) Probing the function of Bordetella bronchiseptica adenylate cyclase toxin by manipulating host immunity.
We have examined the role of adenylate cyclase-hemolysin (CyaA) by constructing an in-frame deletion in the Bordetella bronchiseptica cyaA structural gene and comparing wild-type and cyaA deletion strains in natural host infection models. Both the wild-type strain RB50 and its adenylate cyclase toxin deletion (DeltacyaA) derivative efficiently establish persistent infections in rabbits, rats, and mice following low-dose inoculation. In contrast, an inoculation protocol that seeds the lower respiratory tract revealed significant differences in bacterial numbers and in polymorphonuclear neutrophil recruitment in the lungs from days 5 to 12 postinoculation. We next explored the effects of disarming specific aspects of the immune system on the relative phenotypes of wild-type and DeltacyaA bacteria. SCID, SCID-beige, or RAG-1(-/-) mice succumbed to lethal systemic infection following high- or low-dose intranasal inoculation with the wild-type strain but not the DeltacyaA mutant. Mice rendered neutropenic by treatment with cyclophosphamide or by knockout mutation in the granulocyte colony-stimulating factor locus were highly susceptible to lethal infection by either wild-type or DeltacyaA strains. These results reveal the significant role played by neutrophils early in B. bronchiseptica infection and by acquired immunity at later time points and suggest that phagocytic cells are a primary in vivo target of the Bordetella adenylate cyclase toxin. (+info)
(3/9154) Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-mediated angiogenesis is associated with enhanced endothelial cell survival and induction of Bcl-2 expression.
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an endothelial cell mitogen and permeability factor that is potently angiogenic in vivo. We report here studies that suggest that VEGF potentiates angiogenesis in vivo and prolongs the survival of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (HDMECs) in vitro by inducing expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Growth-factor-enriched and serum-deficient cultures of HDMECs grown on collagen type I gels with VEGF exhibited a 4-fold and a 1.6-fold reduction, respectively, in the proportion of apoptotic cells. Enhanced HDMEC survival was associated with a dose-dependent increase in Bcl-2 expression and a decrease in the expression of the processed forms of the cysteine protease caspase-3. Cultures of HDMECs transduced with and overexpressing Bcl-2 and deprived of growth factors showed enhanced protection from apoptosis and exhibited a twofold increase in cell number and a fourfold increase in the number of capillary-like sprouts. HDMECs overexpressing Bcl-2 when incorporated into polylactic acid sponges and implanted into SCID mice exhibited a sustained fivefold increase in the number of microvessels and a fourfold decrease in the number of apoptotic cells when examined 7 and 14 days later. These results suggest that the angiogenic activity attributed to VEGF may be due in part to its ability to enhance endothelial cell survival by inducing expression of Bcl-2. (+info)
(4/9154) Suppression of angiogenesis, tumorigenicity, and metastasis by human prostate cancer cells engineered to produce interferon-beta.
We determined whether the IFN-beta gene can be used to suppress angiogenesis, tumor growth, and metastasis of human prostate cancer cells growing in the prostate of nude mice. Highly metastatic PC-3M human prostate cancer cells were engineered to constitutively produce murine IFN-beta subsequent to infection with a retroviral vector containing murine IFN-beta cDNA. Parental (PC-3M-P), control vector-transduced (PC-3M-Neo), and IFN-beta-transduced (PC-3M-IFN-beta) cells were injected into the prostate (orthotopic) or subcutis (ectopic) of nude mice. PC-3M-P and PC-3M-Neo cells produced rapidly growing tumors and regional lymph node metastases, whereas PC-3M-IFN-beta cells did not. PC-3M-IFN-beta cells also suppressed the tumorigenicity of bystander nontransduced prostate cancer cells. PC-3M-IFN-beta cells produced small tumors (3-5 mm in diameter) in nude mice treated with anti-asialo GM1 antibodies and in severe combined immunodeficient/Beige mice. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that PC-3M-IFN-beta tumors were homogeneously infiltrated by macrophages, whereas control tumors contained fewer macrophages at their periphery. Most tumor cells in the control tumors were stained positive by an antibody to proliferative cell nuclear antigen; very few were positively stained by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling. In sharp contrast, PC-3M-IFN-beta tumors contained fewer proliferative cell nuclear antigen-positive cells and many terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick-end labeling-positive cells. Staining with antibody against CD31 showed that control tumors contained more blood vessels than PC-3M-IFN-beta tumors. PC-3M-IFN-beta cells were more sensitive to lysis mediated by natural killer cells in vitro or to cytostasis mediated by macrophages than control transduced cells. Conditioned medium from PC-3M-IFN-beta cells augmented splenic cell-mediated cytolysis to control tumor cells, which could be neutralized by antibody against IFN-beta. Collectively, the data suggest that the suppression of tumorigenicity and metastasis of PC-3M-IFN-beta cells is due to inhibition of angiogenesis and activation of host effector cells. (+info)
(5/9154) Induction of lasting complete regression of preformed distinct solid tumors by targeting the tumor vasculature using two new anti-endoglin monoclonal antibodies.
Endoglin (EDG, CD105) is a proliferation-associated antigen on endothelial cells. In this study, two new anti-EDG monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) Y4-2F1 (or termed SN6j) and P3-2G8 (SN6k) were generated and used for treating distinct preformed tumors. These mAbs, both IgG1-kappa antibodies, cross-reacted weakly with mouse endothelial cells but defined epitopes different from the epitope defined by a previously reported anti-EDG mAb K4-2C10 (B. K. Seon et al., Clin. Cancer Res., 3: 1031-1044, 1997). SN6j and SN6k reacted strongly with human endothelial cells and vascular endothelium of malignant human tissues but showed no significant reactivity with tumor cells per se. The deglycosylated ricin A chain (dgRA) conjugates of the two mAbs showed a weak but specific cytotoxic activity against murine endothelial cells in vitro. In the therapeutic studies, severe combined immunodeficient mice were inoculated s.c. with MCF-7 human breast cancer cells and left untreated until palpable tumors of distinct size (4-6 mm in diameter) appeared. Mice with the distinct tumors were treated by i.v. administration of individual anti-EDG conjugates, unconjugated mAbs, or a control conjugate. Long-lasting complete regression of the tumors was induced in the majority of tumor-bearing mice (n = 8 for each conjugate) when 40 microg of the individual conjugates were administered three times via the tail vein. It is remarkable that the tumors remained regressed without further therapy for as long as the mice were followed (i.e., 100 days). Control conjugate did not induce regression of the tumors in any of the treated mice, although weak nonspecific effects were observed in some of the mice (n = 8). The effects of unconjugated mAbs were small with the dose used, i.e., 34 microg three times. The anti-EDG conjugates showed antiangiogenic activity in the dorsal air sac assay in mice. The results suggest good potential of these conjugates for the clinical application. (+info)
(6/9154) Protective effect of vitamin E on ischaemia-reperfusion injury in ovarian grafts.
Ovarian cortical tissue cryopreservation with subsequent autografting is a potential strategy for the preservation of fertility in patients undergoing systemic chemotherapy and pelvic radiotherapy. Non-vascular implants are first subjected to a period of ischaemia before revascularization and are, therefore, vulnerable to ischaemia-reperfusion injury from reactive oxygen species. Ischaemia-reperfusion injury was investigated during the first week after surgery in murine ovarian grafts and human ovarian xenografts in mice with severe combined immune deficiency (SCID) by measuring total lipid peroxides and malondialdehyde concentrations with a colorometric assay. The effects of administering an antioxidant, vitamin E, on these concentrations were also tested. Products of lipid peroxidation were higher in non-supplemented murine autografts compared with control ovaries (P < 0.05), and were significantly reduced on day 3 by vitamin E administration (P < 0.05). Similarly, in human xenografts, there was a significant reduction in lipid peroxidation with vitamin E administration. These results correspond to a significantly greater total follicle survival in the murine grafts of the supplemented group (45 versus 72%; P < 0.05). They suggest that antioxidant treatment improves the survival of follicles in ovarian grafts by reducing ischaemia-reperfusion injury. (+info)
(7/9154) Two neutralizing human anti-RSV antibodies: cloning, expression, and characterization.
BACKGROUND: Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection is a major problem in the newborn and aging populations. Fully human monoclonal antibodies with the ability to neutralize RSV could have a major impact on the immunotherapy of the disease. The generation of human antibodies has been difficult because there exists no general way to activate B cells against an antigen of choice in vitro. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Human spleen cells from individuals exposed to RSV were used to repopulate SCID mice. Hu-SCID mice were boosted with RSV fusion (F)-protein and subsequently developed B cell tumors. The tumors were removed and cultured and subcloned in vitro, using a feeder layer of CD154-expressing T cells. Two of these tumors produced the antibodies designated RF-1 and RF-2. VL genes were isolated by standard PCR techniques, however, it was necessary to use high-temperature reverse transcriptase to clone the VH genes. RESULTS: RF-1 and RF-2 VH genes were both found to be closely related members of the VH2 family. Vk genes originated from the VK III family. RF-1 and RF-2 recombinant antibodies expressed in CHO cells (cRF-1 and cRF-2) were found to have affinities for RSV F-protein of 0.1 nM and 0.07 nM, respectively, and both were able to neutralize several A and B subtypes of RSV. CONCLUSION: The technique of immortalizing human B lymphocytes, by passage in SCID mice and expression as recombinant antibodies in CHO cells, provides a method by which high-affinity human antibodies can be developed for immunotherapy of viral diseases. (+info)
(8/9154) Tolerance to antigen-presenting cell-depleted islet allografts is CD4 T cell dependent.
Pretreatment of pancreatic islets in 95% oxygen culture depletes graft-associated APCs and leads to indefinite allograft acceptance in immunocompetent recipients. As such, the APC-depleted allograft represents a model of peripheral alloantigen presentation in the absence of donor-derived costimulation. Over time, a state of donor-specific tolerance develops in which recipients are resistant to donor APC-induced graft rejection. Thus, persistence of the graft is sufficient to induce tolerance independent of other immune interventions. Donor-specific tolerance could be adoptively transferred to immune-deficient SCID recipient mice transplanted with fresh immunogenic islet allografts, indicating that the original recipient was not simply "ignorant" of donor antigens. Interestingly, despite the fact that the original islet allograft presented only MHC class I alloantigens, CD8+ T cells obtained from tolerant animals readily collaborated with naive CD4+ T cells to reject donor-type islet grafts. Conversely, tolerant CD4+ T cells failed to collaborate effectively with naive CD8+ T cells for the rejection of donor-type grafts. In conclusion, the MHC class I+, II- islet allograft paradoxically leads to a change in the donor-reactive CD4 T cell subset and not in the CD8 subset. We hypothesize that the tolerant state is not due to direct class I alloantigen presentation to CD8 T cells but, rather, occurs via the indirect pathway of donor Ag presentation to CD4 T cells in the context of host MHC class II molecules. (+info)