Rescue of diabetes-related impairment of angiogenesis by intramuscular gene therapy with adeno-VEGF.
Diabetes is a major risk factor for coronary and peripheral artery diseases. Although diabetic patients often present with advanced forms of these diseases, it is not known whether the compensatory mechanisms to vascular ischemia are affected in this condition. Accordingly, we sought to determine whether diabetes could: 1) impair the development of new collateral vessel formation in response to tissue ischemia and 2) inhibit cytokine-induced therapeutic neovascularization. Hindlimb ischemia was created by femoral artery ligation in nonobese diabetic mice (NOD mice, n = 20) and in control C57 mice (n = 20). Hindlimb perfusion was evaluated by serial laser Doppler studies after the surgery. In NOD mice, measurement of the Doppler flow ratio between the ischemic and the normal limb indicated that restoration of perfusion in the ischemic hindlimb was significantly impaired. At day 14 after surgery, Doppler flow ratio in the NOD mice was 0.49+/-0.04 versus 0.73+/-0.06 for the C57 mice (P< or =0.005). This impairment in blood flow recovery persisted throughout the duration of the study with Doppler flow ratio values at day 35 of 0.50+/-0.05 versus 0.90+/-0.07 in the NOD and C57 mice, respectively (P< or =0.001). CD31 immunostaining confirmed the laser Doppler data by showing a significant reduction in capillary density in the NOD mice at 35 days after surgery (302+/-4 capillaries/mm2 versus 782+/-78 in C57 mice (P< or =0.005). The reduction in neovascularization in the NOD mice was the result of a lower level of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) in the ischemic tissues, as assessed by Northern blot, Western blot and immunohistochemistry. The central role of VEGF was confirmed by showing that normal levels of neovascularization (compared with C57) could be achieved in NOD mice that had been supplemented for this growth factor via intramuscular injection of an adenoviral vector encoding for VEGF. We conclude that 1) diabetes impairs endogenous neovascularization of ischemic tissues; 2) the impairment in new blood vessel formation results from reduced expression of VEGF; and 3) cytokine supplementation achieved by intramuscular adeno-VEGF gene transfer restores neovascularization in a mouse model of diabetes. (+info)
Islet-specific Th1, but not Th2, cells secrete multiple chemokines and promote rapid induction of autoimmune diabetes.
Migration of CD4 cells into the pancreas represents a hallmark event in the development of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus. Th1, but not Th2, cells are associated with pathogenesis leading to destruction of islet beta-cells and disease onset. Lymphocyte extravasation from blood into tissue is regulated by multiple adhesion receptor/counter-receptor pairs and chemokines. To identify events that regulate entry of CD4 cells into the pancreas, we transferred Th1 or Th2 cells induced in vitro from islet-specific TCR transgenic CD4 cells into immunodeficient (NOD.scid) recipients. Although both subsets infiltrated the pancreas and elicited multiple adhesion receptors (peripheral lymph node addressin, mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1, LFA-1, ICAM-1, and VCAM-1) on vascular endothelium, entry/accumulation of Th1 cells was more rapid than that of Th2 cells, and only Th1 cells induced diabetes. In vitro, Th1 cells were also distinguished from Th2 cells by the capacity to synthesize several chemokines that included lymphotactin, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), and macrophage inflammatory protein-1alpha, whereas both subsets produced macrophage inflammatory protein-1beta. Some of these chemokines as well as RANTES, MCP-3, MCP-5, and cytokine-response gene-2 (CRG-2)/IFN-inducible protein-10 (IP-10) were associated with Th1, but not Th2, pancreatic infiltrates. The data demonstrate polarization of chemokine expression by Th1 vs Th2 cells, which, within the microenvironment of the pancreas, accounts for distinctive inflammatory infiltrates that determine whether insulin-producing beta-cells are protected or destroyed. (+info)
Nicotinamide decreases MHC class II but not MHC class I expression and increases intercellular adhesion molecule-1 structures in non-obese diabetic mouse pancreas.
Pancreases of untreated and nicotinamide (NIC)-treated pre-diabetic (10-week-old) and overtly diabetic (25-week-old) female NOD (non-obese diabetic) mice and of NON (non-obese non-diabetic) control mice were studied, with the following results. (1) Islets and ducts of overtly diabetic untreated NOD mice (25-week-old) were found to express low levels of MHC class I and II molecules, like NON controls, and high levels of adhesive molecules. (2) NIC was able to slightly affect glycaemia and insulitis, slowing down diabetes progression. Moreover it significantly decreased MHC class II expression (but not class I) in vivo by week 10, and significantly enhanced intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) expression, mainly by week 25, within the pancreas, where 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positive nuclei and insulin positive cells were present, demonstrating that a stimulation of endocrine cell proliferation occurs. (3) In addition, NIC partly counteracted the fall of superoxide dismutase levels, observed in untreated diabetic NOD animals. (4) In vitro studies demonstrated that NIC: (i) was able to significantly reduce nitrite accumulation and to increase NAD+NADH content significantly, and (ii) was able to increase the levels of interleukin-4, a T helper 2 lymphocyte (Th2) protective cytokine, and of interferon-alpha (IFN-alpha), which is known to be able to induce MHC class I and ICAM-1 but not MHC class II expression, as well as IFN-gamma, which is also known to be able to induce MHC class I and ICAM-1 expression. The latter, although known to be a proinflammatory Th1 cytokine, has also recently been found to exert an anti-diabetogenic role. This study therefore clearly shows that adhesive mechanisms are ongoing during the later periods of diabetes in pancreatic ducts of NOD mice, and suggests they may be involved in a persistence of the immune mechanisms of recognition, adhesion and cytolysis and/or endocrine regeneration or differentiation processes, as both NIC-increased ICAM-1 expression and 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine positivity imply. The effects of NIC on MHC class II (i.e. a reduction) but not class I, and, mainly, on ICAM-1 expression (i.e. an increase), together with the increase in Th2 protective cytokine levels are very interesting, and could help to explain its mechanism of action and the reasons for alternate success or failure in protecting against type 1 diabetes development. (+info)
Major DQ8-restricted T-cell epitopes for human GAD65 mapped using human CD4, DQA1*0301, DQB1*0302 transgenic IA(null) NOD mice.
The 65KD isoform of GAD is considered to be a major target autoantigen in many humans with autoimmune prediabetes or diabetes. The major histocompatibility complex class II allele DQA1*0301, DQB1*0302, which encodes HLA-DQ8, confers susceptibility to type 1 diabetes and occurs in up to 80% of affected individuals. To map T-cell epitopes for GAD65 restricted to the diabetes-associated DQ8 heterodimer, we generated transgenic NOD mice expressing HLA-DQ8 and human CD4 while having the mouse class II gene (IA(beta)) deleted. These mice were immunized with full-length purified recombinant GAD65, and the fine specificity of T-cell responses was mapped by examining recall responses of bulk splenocytes to an overlapping set of 20-mer peptides encompassing the entire GAD65 protein. Four different peptides (P121-140, P201-220, P231-250, and P471-490) gave significant T-cell recall responses. P201-220 and P231-250 have been shown previously to bind DQ8, whereas the other two peptides had been classified as nonbinders. Interestingly, the peptide giving the greatest response (P201-220) encompasses residues 206-220 of GAD65, a region that has been shown to be a dominant T-cell epitope in wild-type IA(g7) NOD mice. Overlap in this T-cell epitope likely reflects structural similarities between DQ8 and IA(g7). The fine specificity of antibody responses in the GAD65-immunized mice was also examined by testing the antisera by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) against the same overlapping set of peptides. The two dominant B-cell epitopes were P361-380 and P381-400; P121-140 and P471-490 appeared to correspond to both B- and T-cell epitopes. Although the NOD human CD4, DQ8, IA(null) transgenic mice generated in these studies do not develop autoimmune diabetes either spontaneously or after cyclophosphamide treatment, they can be used to map DQ8-restricted T-cell epitopes for a variety of human islet autoantigens. They can also be used to test T-cell-specific reagents, such as fluorescently labeled DQ8 tetramers containing GAD65 peptides or other beta-cell peptides, which we believe will be useful in analyzing human immune responses in diabetic and prediabetic patients. (+info)
Cytokine treatment or accessory cells are required to initiate engraftment of purified primitive human hematopoietic cells transplanted at limiting doses into NOD/SCID mice.
Little is known about the cell types or mechanisms that underlie the engraftment process. Here, we have examined parameters affecting the engraftment of purified human Lin-CD34+CD38- normal and AML cells transplanted at limiting doses into NOD/SCID recipients. Mice transplanted with 500 to 1000 Lin-CD34+CD38- cord blood (CB) or AML cells required the co-transplantation of accessory cells (ACs) or short-term in vivo cytokine treatment for engraftment, whereas transplantation of higher doses (>5000 Lin-CD34+CD38- cells) did not show these requirements suggesting that ACs are effective for both normal and leukemic stem cell engraftment in this model. Mature Lin+CD34- and primitive Lin-CD34+CD38+ cells were capable of acting as ACs even though no repopulating cells are present. Cytokine treatment of NOD/SCID mice could partially replace the requirement for co-transplantation of AC. Furthermore, no difference was seen between the percentage of engrafted mice treated with cytokines for only the first 10 days after transplant compared to those receiving cytokines for the entire time of repopulation. Surprisingly, no engraftment was detected in mice when cytokine treatment was delayed until 10 days posttransplant. Together, these studies suggest that the engraftment process requires pluripotent stem cells plus accessory cells or cytokine treatment which act early after transplantation. The NOD/SCID xenotransplant system provides the means to further clarify the processes underlying human stem cell engraftment. (+info)
One-day ex vivo culture allows effective gene transfer into human nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient repopulating cells using high-titer vesicular stomatitis virus G protein pseudotyped retrovirus.
Retrovirus-mediated gene transfer into long-lived human pluripotent hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) is a widely sought but elusive goal. A major problem is the quiescent nature of most HSCs, with the perceived requirement for ex vivo prestimulation in cytokines to induce stem cell cycling and allow stable gene integration. However, ex vivo culture may impair stem cell function, and could explain the disappointing clinical results in many current gene transfer trials. To address this possibility, we examined the ex vivo survival of nonobese diabetic/severe combined immune-deficient (NOD/SCID) repopulating cells (SRCs) over 3 days. After 1 day of culture, the SRC number and proliferation declined twofold, and was further reduced by day 3; self-renewal was only detectable in noncultured cells. To determine if the period of ex vivo culture could be shortened, we used a vesicular stomatitis virus G protein (VSV-G) pseudotyped retrovirus vector that was concentrated to high titer. The results showed that gene transfer rates were similar without or with 48 hours prestimulation. Thus, the use of high-titer VSV-G pseudotyped retrovirus may minimize the loss of HSCs during culture, because efficient gene transfer can be obtained without the need for extended ex vivo culture. (+info)
In autoimmune diabetes the transition from benign to pernicious insulitis requires an islet cell response to tumor necrosis factor alpha.
The islet-infiltrating and disease-causing leukocytes that are a hallmark of insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus produce and respond to a set of cytokine molecules. Of these, interleukin 1beta, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha, and interferon (IFN)-gamma are perhaps the most important. However, as pleiotropic molecules, they can impact the path leading to beta cell apoptosis and diabetes at multiple points. To understand how these cytokines influence both the formative and effector phases of insulitis, it is critical to determine their effects on the assorted cell types comprising the lesion: the effector T cells, antigen-presenting cells, vascular endothelium, and target islet tissue. Here, we report using nonobese diabetic chimeric mice harboring islets deficient in specific cytokine receptors or cytokine-induced effector molecules to assess how these compartmentalized loss-of-function mutations alter the events leading to diabetes. We found that islets deficient in Fas, IFN-gamma receptor, or inducible nitric oxide synthase had normal diabetes development; however, the specific lack of TNF- alpha receptor 1 (p55) afforded islets a profound protection from disease by altering the ability of islet-reactive, CD4(+) T cells to establish insulitis and subsequently destroy islet beta cells. These results argue that islet cells play a TNF-alpha-dependent role in their own demise. (+info)
Bone morphogenetic proteins regulate the developmental program of human hematopoietic stem cells.
The identification of molecules that regulate human hematopoietic stem cells has focused mainly on cytokines, of which very few are known to act directly on stem cells. Recent studies in lower organisms and the mouse have suggested that bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) may play a critical role in the specification of hematopoietic tissue from the mesodermal germ layer. Here we report that BMPs regulate the proliferation and differentiation of highly purified primitive human hematopoietic cells from adult and neonatal sources. Populations of rare CD34(+)CD38(-)Lin- stem cells were isolated from human hematopoietic tissue and were found to express the BMP type I receptors activin-like kinase (ALK)-3 and ALK-6, and their downstream transducers SMAD-1, -4, and -5. Treatment of isolated stem cell populations with soluble BMP-2, -4, and -7 induced dose-dependent changes in proliferation, clonogenicity, cell surface phenotype, and multilineage repopulation capacity after transplantation in nonobese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient (NOD/SCID) mice. Similar to transforming growth factor beta, treatment of purified cells with BMP-2 or -7 at high concentrations inhibited proliferation yet maintained the primitive CD34(+)CD38(-) phenotype and repopulation capacity. In contrast, low concentrations of BMP-4 induced proliferation and differentiation of CD34(+) CD38(-)Lin- cells, whereas at higher concentrations BMP-4 extended the length of time that repopulation capacity could be maintained in ex vivo culture, indicating a direct effect on stem cell survival. The discovery that BMPs are capable of regulating repopulating cells provides a new pathway for controlling human stem cell development and a powerful model system for studying the biological mechanism of BMP action using primary human cells. (+info)