(1/134) Formal analysis of electrogenic sodium, potassium, chloride and bicarbonate transport in mouse colon epithelium.
1. The mammalian colonic epithelium carries out a number of different transporting activities simultaneously, of which more than one is increased following activation with a single agonist. These separate activities can be quantified by solving a set of equations describing these activities, provided some of the dependent variables can be eliminated. Using variations in the experimental conditions, blocking drugs and comparing wild type tissues with those from transgenic animals this has been achieved for electrogenic ion transporting activity of the mouse colon. 2. Basal activity and that following activation with forskolin was measured by short circuit current in isolated mouse colonic epithelia from normal and cystic fibrosis (CF) mice. 3. Using amiloride it is shown that CF colons show increased electrogenic sodium absorption compared to wild type tissues. CF mice had elevated plasma aldosterone, which may be responsible for part or all of the increased sodium absorbtion in CF colons. 4. The derived values for electrogenic chloride secretion and for electrogenic potassium secretion were increased by 13 and 3 fold respectively by forskolin, compared to basal state values for these processes. 5. The loop diuretic, frusemide, completely inhibited electrogenic potassium secretion, but apparently only partially inhibited electrogenic chloride secretion. However, use of bicarbonate-free solutions and acetazolamide reduced the frusemide-resistant current, suggesting that electrogenic bicarbonate secretion accounts for the frusemide-resistant current. 6. It is argued that the use of tissues from transgenic animals is an important adjunct to pharmacological analysis, especially where effects in tissues result in the activation of more than one sort of response. (+info)
(2/134) Sodium channel blockers and uridine triphosphate: effects on nasal potential difference in cystic fibrosis mice.
Sodium channel inhibitors block the enhanced Na+ reabsorption in cystic fibrosis (CF). Extracellular nucleotides facilitate Cl- secretion via Ca2+ gated Cl- channels. A combination of these effects may produce less viscid secretions in CF which are easier to expectorate. This study examined the effects of combining sodium channel blockers with uridine triphosphate (UTP) on nasal membrane potential difference (PD) in CF insertional null mutant mice (cftr(tm1HGU)), deltaF508 homozygous mice (cftr(tm1Cam)) and matched control animals. Median basal PD in the insertional CF mice and deltaF508 CF mice were -28 and -34 mV respectively. These values were significantly different to the control animals (-20 mV). Amiloride and loperamide reduced the PD in cftr(tm1HGU) CF mice (deltaPD 13 mV & 15 mV respectively) suggesting Na+ blockade. The subsequent addition of UTP in a chloride-free vehicle increased the PD (deltaPD -8- -12.5 mV). DeltaF508 mice showed significantly greater responses compared with CF insertional null mutant mice (p<0.05). The action of UTP was brief and not prolonged by the addition alpha-beta-methylene-adenosine 5' diphosphate. Suramin, a competitive antagonist of P2 purinoceptors blocked the action of UTP. In conclusion, this study demonstrated dose dependant nasal membrane potential changes in differences mice with uridine triphosphate in the presence of sodium channel blockers suggestive of chloride secretion. More stable analogues of uridine triphosphate in combination with long acting sodium channel blockers such as loperamide may have therapeutic potential in cystic fibrosis. (+info)
(3/134) A murine tracheal culture system to investigate parameters affecting gene therapy for cystic fibrosis.
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening condition caused by mutations in the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator gene (CFTR). Delivery of the CFTR gene to the airways offers a potential treatment for CF but requires improvement in efficiency to obtain clinical benefit. We have developed a murine tracheal culture system that maintains tissue integrity as judged by normal histological appearance, high transepithelial resistance and electrophysiological responses similar to fresh tissue. This ex vivo system allows precise control of gene delivery parameters to a structure that retains the in vivo cellular architecture. We have demonstrated correction of CFTR-dependent Cl- secretion following ex vivo delivery of the CFTR gene to tracheas from CF null mice. We have used this system to examine parameters affecting liposome-mediated gene delivery to the upper airway such as plasmid dose. We have also found that a contact time of 1 min for the transfection mixture is sufficient to achieve significant DNA binding and maximal reporter gene expression. (+info)
(4/134) Evidence for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-dependent sodium reabsorption in kidney, using Cftr(tm2cam) mice.
The aims of this study were to investigate (a) if renal Na(+) handling was normal in Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 cystic fibrosis mice, (b) whether adaptation to dietary salt depletion was preserved and (c) whether Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice exhibited enhanced amiloride-sensitive Na(+) absorption. In Na(+)-replete animals (maintained on a 0.32 % NaCl diet) given a 150 mM NaCl i.v. maintenance infusion, there was no difference in fractional Na(+) excretion (FE(Na)) between wild-type (0. 42 +/- 0.06 %, n = 12) and Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice (0.47 +/- 0.13 %, n = 7). Amiloride infusion significantly increased FE(Na) in both wild-type (3.14 +/- 0.83 %, n = 6) and Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice (3. 47 +/- 0.63 %, n = 9), though with no significant difference between genotypes. A 14 day dietary salt restriction (animals maintained on a 0.03 % NaCl diet) and maintenance infusion with a 15 mM NaCl vehicle caused a reduction in FE(Na) to 0.14 +/- 0.05 %, n = 8 in wild-type mice and 0.14 +/- 0.04 %, n = 8 in Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice. No significant difference in the ability to adapt to low salt conditions was apparent comparing the two genotypes. Treatment of salt-restricted mice with amiloride resulted in a blunted natriuresis in both wild-type mice (FE(Na) = 1.10 +/- 0.16 %, n = 7) and Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice (FE(Na) = 1.97 +/- 0.29 %, n = 9). The natriuresis induced by amiloride was significantly greater in Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice than in wild-type controls. In conclusion, Cftr(tm2cam) delta F508 mice exhibit normal renal salt excretion when either salt replete or salt restricted. Enhanced amiloride-sensitive FE(Na) is consistent with increased Na(+) absorption via the amiloride-sensitive sodium channel ENaC, in cystic fibrosis kidney, but this was only observed during salt restriction. (+info)
(5/134) Expression of the chloride channel ClC-2 in the murine small intestine epithelium.
The chloride channel ClC-2 has been implicated in neonatal airway chloride secretion. To assess its role in secretion by the small intestine, we assessed its subcellular expression in ileal segments obtained from mice and studied the chloride transport properties of this tissue. Chloride secretion across the mucosa of murine ileal segments was assessed in Ussing chambers as negative short-circuit current (I(sc)). If ClC-2 contributed to chloride secretion, we predicted on the basis of previous studies that negative I(sc) would be stimulated by dilution of the mucosal bath and that this response would depend on chloride ion and would be blocked by the chloride channel blocker 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino) benzoic acid but not by DIDS. In fact, mucosal hypotonicity did stimulate a chloride-dependent change in I(sc) that exhibited pharmacological properties consistent with those of ClC-2. This secretory response is unlikely to be mediated by the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) channel because it was also observed in CFTR knockout animals. Assessment of the native expression pattern of ClC-2 protein in the murine intestinal epithelium by confocal and electron microscopy showed that ClC-2 exhibits a novel distribution, a distribution pattern somewhat unexpected for a channel involved in chloride secretion. Immunolabeled ClC-2 was detected predominantly at the tight junction complex between adjacent intestinal epithelial cells. (+info)
(6/134) Airway gene transfer in mouse nasal-airways: importance of identification of epithelial type for assessment of gene transfer.
Mouse nasal airways are often used for the assessment of both reporter and cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) gene transfer to respiratory epithelia. However, the mouse nasal cavity is lined by both olfactory (OE) and respiratory epithelium (RE). Previous gene transfer studies have suggested that OE may be more efficiently transduced by adenoviral vectors than RE. However, to provide data pertinent to CFTR gene transfer in humans, measurements of CFTR function in mice by transepithelial potential difference (TPD) should be directed towards respiratory rather than olfactory epithelium. We report a new technique to mark the position of the TPD sensing cannula tip in the mouse nasal cavity that permitted us to correlate TPD measurements with epithelial cell type. Using this technique, we found TPD values did not discriminate between respiratory and olfactory epithelia. We next assessed relationships between anatomic regions accessed by the TPD cannula and epithelial type. The frequently used insertion depth of approximately 5 mm from the nose tip predominantly recorded the TPD from anterior dorsal olfactory epithelium. Measurement of the TPD of respiratory epithelium in our study was maximized by insertion of the TPD cannula probe to 2.5 mm depth. Because TPD measurements are not sensitive to epithelial type, adequate control of position and TPD catheter insertion depth are required to ensure accurate estimation of CFTR gene transfer into the target RE in the mouse nasal cavity. (+info)
(7/134) Generation and phenotype of cell lines derived from CF and non-CF mice that carry the H-2K(b)-tsA58 transgene.
Tracheal, renal, salivary, and pancreatic epithelial cells from cystic fibrosis [CF; cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) -/-] and non-CF mice that carry a temperature-sensitive SV40 large T antigen oncogene (ImmortoMouse) were isolated and maintained in culture under permissive conditions (33 degrees C with interferon-gamma). The resultant cell lines have been in culture for >1 year and 50 passages. Each of the eight cell lines form polarized epithelial barriers and exhibit regulated, electrogenic ion transport. The four non-CF cell lines (mTEC1, mCT1, mSEC1, and mPEC1) express cAMP-regulated Cl(-) permeability and cAMP-stimulated Cl(-) secretion. In contrast, the four CFTR -/- cell lines (mTEC1-CF, mCT1-CF, mSEC1-CF, and mPEC1-CF) each lack cAMP-stimulated Cl(-) secretory responses. Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) secretion is retained in both CF and non-CF cell lines. Thus we have generated genetically well-matched epithelial cell lines from several tissues relevant to cystic fibrosis that either completely lack CFTR or express endogenous levels of CFTR. These cell lines should prove useful for studies of regulation of epithelial cell function and the role of CFTR in cell physiology. (+info)
(8/134) Chloride channel function is linked to epithelium-dependent airway relaxation.
We previously reported that substance P (SP) and ATP evoke transient, epithelium-dependent relaxation of mouse tracheal smooth muscle. Since both SP and ATP are known to evoke transepithelial Cl- secretion across epithelial monolayers, we tested the hypothesis that epithelium-dependent relaxation of mouse trachea depends on Cl- channel function. In perfused mouse tracheas, the responses to SP and ATP were both inhibited by the Cl- channel inhibitors diphenylamine-2-carboxylate and 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoate. Relaxation to ATP or SP was unaffected by 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DNDS), and relaxation to SP was unaffected by either DIDS or DNDS. Replacing Cl- in the buffer solutions with the impermeable anion gluconate on both sides of the trachea inhibited relaxation to SP or ATP. In contrast, increasing the gradient for Cl- secretion using Cl- free medium only in the tracheal lumen enhanced the relaxation to SP or ATP. We conclude that Cl- channel function is linked to receptor-mediated, epithelium-dependent relaxation. The finding that relaxation to SP was not blocked by DIDS suggested the involvement of a DIDS-insensitive Cl- channel, potentially the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) Cl- channel. To test this hypothesis, we evaluated tracheas from CFTR-deficient mice and found that the peak relaxation to SP or ATP was not significantly different from those responses in wild-type littermates. This suggests that a DIDS-insensitive Cl- channel other than CFTR is active in the SP response. This work introduces a possible role for Cl- pathways in the modulation of airway smooth muscle function and may have implications for fundamental studies of airway function as well as therapeutic approaches to pulmonary disease. (+info)