Anaphylactic bronchoconstriction in BP2 mice: interactions between serotonin and acetylcholine.
1. Immunized BP2 mice developed an acute bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro in response to ovalbumin (OA) and these contractions were dose dependent. 2. Methysergide or atropine inhibited OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro. 3. Neostigmine potentiated the OA-induced bronchoconstriction in vivo and airway muscle contraction in vitro of BP2 mice. This potentiation was markedly reduced by the administration of methysergide or atropine and when the two antagonists were administered together, the responses were completely inhibited. 4. Neostigmine also potentiated the serotonin (5-HT)- and acetylcholine (ACh)-induced bronchoconstriction and this potentiation was significantly reversed by atropine. 5. These results indicate that OA provokes a bronchoconstriction in immunized BP2 mice by stimulating the release of 5-HT, which in turn acts via the cholinergic mediator, ACh. (+info)
Regional and functional differences of 5-hydroxytryptamine-receptor subtypes in guinea pig stomach.
Functions and the presence of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) receptors in the fundus, corpus and antrum of the guinea pig stomach were examined by measuring contractile force and acetylcholine (ACh) release. Stimulation of the 5-HT1 receptor caused tetrodotoxin (TTX)-insensitive relaxations in the preparations from 3 regions. Stimulation of the 5-HT2 receptor caused TTX-insensitive contractions in the preparations of fundus and antrum. Stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors caused contractions that were sensitive to TTX and atropine and enhanced the outflow of [3H]ACh from preparations of only antrum. Stimulation of 5-HT4 receptors caused contractions of antral strips and decreased relaxations of corporal strips and enhanced the outflow of [3H]ACh from the preparations of both corpus and antrum. In the guinea pig stomach, the fundus possesses relaxant 5-HT1 receptor < contractile 5-HT2 receptors and caused the contractile response to 5-HT. The corpus possesses relaxant 5-HT1 receptors and relaxant receptors other than 5-HT1, 5-HT2, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors > contractile 5-HT4 receptor, and therefore 5-HT caused relaxations. The antrum possesses relaxant 5-HT1 receptor < contractile 5-HT2, 5-HT3 and 5-HT4 receptors, and thus 5-HT caused contractions. (+info)
Canine external carotid vasoconstriction to methysergide, ergotamine and dihydroergotamine: role of 5-HT1B/1D receptors and alpha2-adrenoceptors.
The antimigraine drugs methysergide, ergotamine and dihydroergotamine (DHE) produce selective vasoconstriction in the external carotid bed of vagosympathectomized dogs anaesthetized with pentobarbital and artificially respired, but the receptors involved have not yet been completely characterized. Since the above drugs display affinity for several binding sites, including alpha-adrenoceptors and several 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor subtypes, this study has analysed the mechanisms involved in the above responses. Intracarotid (i.c.) infusions during 1 min of methysergide (31-310 microg min(-1)), ergotamine (0.56-5.6 microg min(-1)) or DHE (5.6-31 microg min(-1)) dose-dependently reduced external carotid blood flow (ECBF) by up to 46+/-4, 37+/-4 and 49+/-5%, respectively. Blood pressure and heart rate remained unchanged. The reductions in ECBF by methysergide were abolished and even reversed to increases in animals pre-treated with GR127935 (10 microg kg(-1), i.v.). The reductions in ECBF by ergotamine and DHE remained unchanged in animals pre-treated (i.v.) with prazosin (300 microg kg(-1)), but were partly antagonized in animals pre-treated with either GR127935 (10 or 30 microg kg(-1)) or yohimbine (1000 microg kg(-1)). Pre-treatment with a combination of GR127935 (30 microg kg(-1)) and yohimbine (1000 microg kg(-1)) abolished the responses to both ergotamine and DHE. The above doses of antagonists were shown to produce selective antagonism at their respective receptors. These results suggest that the external carotid vasoconstrictor responses to methysergide primarily involve 5-HT1B/1D receptors, whereas those to ergotamine and DHE are mediated by 5-HT1B/1D receptors as well as alpha2-adrenoceptors. (+info)
Preliminary studies of pharmacological antigonism of anaphylaxis in the horse.
Systemic anaphylaxis was induced in seven groups of ponies. Systemic hypotension, pulmonary hypotension, and apnea were observed in the control group. Suppression of anaphylaxis was achieved most efficiently with sodium meclofenamate followed by acetylsalicylic acid and diethylcarboamazine. Tripelennamine and methysergide reduced anaphylaxis minimally and burimamide not at all. The findings suggest that histamine and serotonin are of relatively low significance in equine anaphylaxis whereas kinins, prostaglandins and slow reacting substance may be more important. (+info)
Involvement of 5-HT1B receptors in collar-induced hypersensitivity to 5-hydroxytryptamine of the rabbit carotid artery.
In humans intimal thickening is aprerequisite of atherosclerosis. Application of a silicone collar around the rabbit carotid artery induces an intimal thickening but in addition it increases the sensitivity to the vasoconstrictor action of serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT). The 5-HT receptors involved in collar-induced hypersensitivity to 5-HT were investigated using several agonists and antagonists. One week after placement of collars around both carotid arteries of anaesthetized rabbits, rings (2 mm width) from inside (=collar) and outside (=sham) the collars were mounted in organ baths (10 ml) for isometric force measurements at 6 g loading tension. Collared rings were more sensitive to the contractile effect of 5-HT (7.6 fold) and 5-carboxamidotryptamine (31 fold, 5-CT, 5-HT1 agonist) in cumulative concentration response curves. Sumatriptan (5-HT1B/1D agonist) caused concentration-dependent constrictions in collared rings only. Collar placement did not significantly alter pA2 values (Schild regression) or apparent pKb values (non-linear regression) of spiperone and methysergide (mixed 5-HT2A/5-HT1 antagonists) or ketanserin and ritanserin (5-HT2A antagonists), indicating unchanged binding characteristics of the 5-HT2A receptor. However, the reduced slope of the Schild regression pointed to a heterogeneous receptor population in collared rings. In contrast, the apparent pKb value of methiothepin (5-HT1B antagonist) was significantly reduced by collar placement, and its antagonism shifted from non-surmountable in sham rings to surmountable in collared segments. Taken together, this study demonstrates that the serotonergic receptor involved in the hypersensitivity to 5-HT of rabbit collared carotid artery is a 5-HT1B receptor subtype. (+info)
Amphetamine depresses excitatory synaptic transmission via serotonin receptors in the ventral tegmental area.
The ventral tegmental area (VTA) is the origination zone for dopaminergic neurons involved in reward and addictive properties of a variety of abused substances. A major excitatory projection to VTA neurons originates in the medial prefrontal cortex, and several lines of evidence suggest that glutamatergic synapses on VTA neurons are activated and modified during exposure to psychostimulant drugs. Here, we report for the first time that amphetamine depresses excitatory glutamatergic synaptic transmission onto VTA neurons in the midbrain slice preparation. Unexpectedly, this depression is mediated not by activation of dopamine receptors, but instead by activation of serotonin receptors. Our findings suggest that an acute effect of amphetamine exposure is the release of serotonin in the VTA, which in turn modulates excitation of VTA neurons. This process may be an important early component of permanent changes occurring in the reward pathway that contribute to drug addiction. (+info)
Methysergide reduces nonnutritive blood flow in normal and scalded skin.
Methysergide is a serotonin antagonist and has been demonstrated to reduce wound blood flow and edema formation. We have determined the effect of methysergide on protein kinetics in normal and scalded skin of anesthetized rabbits. L-[ring-(13)C(6)]- or L-[ring-(2)H(5)]phenylalanine was used to reflect skin protein kinetics by use of an ear model, and L-[1-(13)C]leucine was used to reflect whole body protein kinetics. The results were that infusion of methysergide (2-3 mg. kg(-1). h(-1)) reduced the blood flow rate in normal skin by 50% without changing skin or whole body protein kinetics. After scald injury on the ear, administration of methysergide for 48 h reduced the weight of scalded ears (43 +/- 4 vs. 30 +/- 5 g, P < 0.01) and ear blood flow rate (42.6 +/- 4.9 vs. 5.8 +/- 1.0 ml. 100 g(-1). min(-1), P < 0.0001) and did not change wound protein kinetics. Methysergide reduced arteriovenous shunting and maintained inward phenylalanine transport from the blood to the skin pool. Using the microsphere technique, we found that the infusion of methysergide decreased blood perfusion by 33-36% in both normal and scalded ear skin. We conclude that methysergide administration reduces nonnutritive, as opposed to nutritive, blood flow in normal and scalded skin. (+info)
Serotonin suppresses subthreshold and suprathreshold oscillatory activity of rat inferior olivary neurones in vitro.
The effect of serotonin on membrane potential oscillations of inferior olivary neurones was studied in brainstem slices from 10- to 19-day-old rats. Serotonin at 50 and 5 microM induced a mean depolarization of 9.4 and 7.7 mV, respectively, that was preceded by a reversible suppression of subthreshold membrane potential oscillations. These effects were not changed by 1 microM tetrodotoxin and the suppression of subthreshold oscillations persisted after current-mediated restoration of resting potential. In spontaneously active neurones, serotonin abolished the rhythmicity of action potential firing without affecting spike frequency. Serotonin reduced the slope of the calcium-mediated rebound spike and both the duration and amplitude of the subsequent afterhyperpolarization. Serotonin also shifted the voltage dependence of the rebound spike to more negative values. Hyperpolarizing current pulses (200 ms) revealed that serotonin increased the pre-rectification and steady-state components of membrane resistance by 37 and 38 %, respectively, in 66 % of neurones, but decreased these parameters by 14 and 20% in the remaining cells. The serotonin effects were antagonized by 5 microM methysergide or 1-5 microM ketanserin and were mimicked by 10-20 microM dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine but not 10 microM 8-hydroxy-2-(di-N-propylamino)-tetralin. The data indicate that serotonin suppresses the rhythmic activity of olivary neurones via 5-HT2 receptors by inhibition of the T-type calcium current in combination with membrane depolarization due to activation of a cation current (Ih) and block of a resting K+ current (fast IK(ir)). This modulatory action of serotonin may account for the differential propensity of olivary neurones to fire rhythmically during different behavioural states in vivo. (+info)