Endotoxin-induced changes in IGF-I differ in rats provided enteral vs. parenteral nutrition.
The purpose of the present study was to determine whether acute changes in the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system induced by mild surgical trauma/fasting or endotoxin [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)] are differentially modulated by total enteral nutrition (TEN) or total parenteral nutrition (TPN). Rats had vascular catheters and a gastrostomy tube surgically placed and were fasted overnight. The next morning animals randomly received an isocaloric, isonitrogenous (250 kcal. kg-1. day-1, 1.6 g N. kg-1. day-1) infusion of either TEN or TPN for 48 h. Then rats were injected intravenously with Escherichia coli LPS (1 mg/kg) while nutritional support was continued. Time-matched control animals were injected with saline. After mild surgical trauma and an 18-h fast, TEN was more effective at increasing plasma IGF-I levels than TPN. Subsequent injection of LPS decreased IGF-I in blood, liver, and muscle in both TEN- and TPN-fed rats compared with saline-injected control animals. However, this decrease was approximately 30% greater in rats fed TPN compared with those fed TEN. LPS-induced downregulation of IGF-I mRNA expression in liver and muscle was also more prominent in TPN-fed rats. The LPS-induced increase in plasma corticosterone and tumor necrosis factor-alpha was greater (2- and 1.6-fold, respectively) in TPN-fed rats, and these changes were consistent with the greater reduction in IGF-I seen in these animals. In similarly treated rats allowed to survive for 24 h after LPS injection, the LPS-induced increase in the urinary 3-methylhistidine-to-creatinine ratio was smaller in TEN-fed rats. In summary, LPS reduced systemic levels of IGF-I as well as IGF-I protein and mRNA in critical target organs. Enteral feeding greatly attenuated this response. Maintenance of higher IGF-I levels in TEN-fed rats was associated with a reduction in inflammatory cytokine levels and lower rates of myofibrillar degradation. (+info)
Effect of a single bout of acute exercise on plasma human immunodeficiency virus RNA levels.
Acute exercise is known to activate the immune system and thus could lead to increased human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) replication. We sought to determine whether a single acute bout of exercise, similar to what people experience when starting an intensive exercise program, has a detrimental effect on plasma HIV RNA levels. Twenty-five patients with HIV infection performed one 15-min bout of acute exercise. Absolute neutrophil counts, serum creatine phosphokinase, and 72-h urinary 3-methylhistidine (a marker of muscle protein breakdown) were measured before and after the exercise, along with plasma HIV RNA levels. There were increases in neutrophil counts (P < 0.06), serum creatine phosphokinase (P < 0. 01), and urinary 3-methylhistidine (P < 0.01) in response to exercise, indicating a mild acute-phase response with muscle proteolysis. However, mean HIV RNA, which was elevated at baseline in 22 of the 25 subjects (mean of 4 x 10(5) +/- 0.7 x 10(5) copies/ml), did not increase during the week after exercise (P = 0. 12). Small changes in RNA were seen in the three subjects with initially undetectable HIV RNA, but the significance of these changes is unclear. Acute exercise does not have a deleterious effect on HIV replication in adults with high viral loads. Because regular exercise training has not been shown to activate the acute-phase response, the lack of increased viral loads in response to an acute exercise intervention suggests that exercise training is safe in people with HIV infection. (+info)
Resistance exercise training increases mixed muscle protein synthesis rate in frail women and men >/=76 yr old.
Muscle atrophy (sarcopenia) in the elderly is associated with a reduced rate of muscle protein synthesis. The purpose of this study was to determine if weight-lifting exercise increases the rate of muscle protein synthesis in physically frail 76- to 92-yr-old women and men. Eight women and 4 men with mild to moderate physical frailty were enrolled in a 3-mo physical therapy program that was followed by 3 mo of supervised weight-lifting exercise. Supervised weight-lifting exercise was performed 3 days/wk at 65-100% of initial 1-repetition maximum on five upper and three lower body exercises. Compared with before resistance training, the in vivo incorporation rate of [(13)C]leucine into vastus lateralis muscle protein was increased after resistance training in women and men (P < 0.01), although it was unchanged in five 82 +/- 2-yr-old control subjects studied two times in 3 mo. Maximum voluntary knee extensor muscle torque production increased in the supervised resistance exercise group. These findings suggest that muscle contractile protein synthetic pathways in physically frail 76- to 92-yr-old women and men respond and adapt to the increased contractile activity associated with progressive resistance exercise training. (+info)
Physiological significance of ECL-cell histamine.
In the oxyntic mucosa of the mammalian stomach, histamine is stored in ECL cells and in mucosal mast cells. In the rat, at least 80 percent of oxyntic mucosal histamine resides in the ECL cells. Histamine is a key factor in the regulation of gastric acid secretion. Following depletion of ECL-cell histamine by treatment with alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (alpha-FMH), basal acid secretion was reduced, and gastrin-stimulated acid secretion was abolished. Vagally-induced acid secretion (by insulin injection or pylorus ligation) was unaffected by alpha-FMH treatment but inhibited by an H2 antagonist. These results suggest that gastrin stimulates acid secretion via release of ECL-cell histamine, whereas vagally-induced acid secretion--although histamine-dependent--does not rely on ECL-cell histamine. Gastrin is known to have a trophic effect on the oxyntic mucosa. By combining long-term hypergastrinemia with continuous infusion of alpha-FMH, we were able to show that gastrin-evoked trophic effects in the stomach do not depend on ECL-cell histamine. (+info)
ECL cell morphology.
Using immunohistochemistry at the conventional light, confocal and electron microscopic levels, we have demonstrated that rat stomach ECL cells store histamine and pancreastatin in granules and secretory vesicles, while histidine decarboxylase occurs in the cytosol. Furthermore the ECL cells display immunoreactivity for vesicular monoamine transporter type 2 (VMAT-2), synaptophysin, synaptotagmin III, vesicle-associated membrane protein-2, cysteine string protein, synaptosomal-associated protein of 25 kDa, syntaxin and Munc-18. Using electron microscopy in combination with stereological methods, we have evidence to suggest the existence of both an exocytotic and a crinophagic pathway in the ECL cells. The process of exocytosis in the ECL cells seems to involve a class of proteins that promote or participate in the fusion between the granule/vesicle membrane and the plasma membrane. The granules take up histamine by VMAT-2 from the cytosol during transport from the Golgi zone to the more peripheral parts of the cells. As a result, they turn into secretory vesicles. As a consequence of stimulation (e.g., by gastrin), the secretory vesicles fuse with the cell membrane to release their contents by exocytosis. The crinophagic pathway was studied in hypergastrinemic rats. In the ECL cells of such animals, the secretory vesicles were found to fuse not only with the cell membrane but also with each other to form vacuoles. Subsequent lysosomal degradation of the vacuoles and their contents resulted in the development of lipofuscin bodies. (+info)
Interactions between the thiol-group reagent N-ethylmaleimide and neutral and basic amino acid transporter-related amino acid transport.
The neutral and basic amino acid transport protein (NBAT) expressed in renal and jejunal brush-border membranes is involved in amino acid and cystine absorption. NBAT mutations result in Type 1 cystinuria. A C-terminal myc-tagged NBAT (NBATmyc) retains the amino acid transport and protein-protein interaction properties of NBAT when expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Neutral amino acid (Ala, Phe)-cationic amino acid (Arg) heteroexchanges related to NBATmyc expression in oocytes are inactivated by treatment with the thiol-group reagent N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), although significant Arg-Arg and Ala-Ala homoexchanges persist. Inactivation of heteroexchange activity by NEM is accompanied by loss of >85% of alanine and cystine uptake, with smaller (<50%) inhibition of arginine and phenylalanine uptake. NEM-sensitive cystine uptake and arginine-alanine heteroexchange (system b(0,+) activity) are not expressed by an NBAT truncation mutant (NBATmyc-Sph1) lacking the 13 C-terminal amino acid residues, but the mutant expresses NEM-resistant transport activity (system y(+)L-like) equivalent to that of full-length NBATmyc. The deleted region of NBATmyc-Sph1 contains two cysteine residues (671/683) which may be the targets of NEM action. The synthetic amino acid 2-trifluoromethylhistidine (TFMH) stimulated alanine efflux at pH 7.5 and arginine at pH 5.5, but not vice versa, establishing the existence of distinct pathways for cationic and neutral amino acid homoexchange (TFMH is zwitterionic at pH 7.5 and cationic at pH 5.5). We suggest that NBAT expresses a combination of system b(0,+) and y(+)L-like activities, possibly by interacting with different light-chain subunits endogenous to oocytes (as does the homologous 4F2hc protein). The C-terminus of NBAT may also have an additional, direct role in the mechanism of System b(0,+) transport (the major transport activity that is defective in Type 1 cystinuria). (+info)
Lower recovery of muscle protein lost during starvation in old rats despite a stimulation of protein synthesis.
Sarcopenia could result from the inability of an older individual to recover muscle lost during catabolic periods. To test this hypothesis, we compared the capacity of 5-day-refed 12- and 24-mo-old rats to recover muscle mass lost after 10 days without food. We measured gastrocnemius and liver protein synthesis with the flooding-dose method and also measured nitrogen balance, 3-methylhistidine excretion, and the gene expression of components of proteolytic pathways in muscle comparing fed, starved, and refed rats at each age. We show that 24-mo-old rats had an altered capacity to recover muscle proteins. Muscle protein synthesis, inhibited during starvation, returned to control values during refeeding in both age groups. The lower recovery in 24-mo-old rats was related to a lack of inhibition of muscle proteolysis during refeeding. The level of gene expression of components of the proteolytic pathways did not account for the variations in muscle proteolysis at both ages. In conclusion, this study highlights the role of muscle proteolysis in the lower recovery of muscle protein mass lost during catabolic periods. (+info)
Distribution of protein turnover changes with age in humans as assessed by whole-body magnetic resonance image analysis to quantify tissue volumes.
We tested the hypothesis that nonmuscle lean tissue mass and its rate of protein catabolism remain constant with aging despite changes in the proportional contribution of these tissues to whole-body protein metabolism. Whole-body protein kinetics, using the 60-h oral [(15) N]glycine method, and muscle and nonmuscle protein catabolism, based on protein kinetic data, urinary N(tau)-methylhistine excretion and lean tissue volumes defined by whole-body magnetic resonance imaging, from eight healthy elderly subjects (5 females and 3 males, mean age 71.5 y) were compared with those of seven young persons (3 females and 4 males, mean age 28 y). There were no significant age or gender effects on rates of protein kinetics per L total lean tissue. There was a lower (P < 0.004) rate of muscle protein catabolism in the elderly (1.8 +/- 0.2 vs. 2.6 +/- 0.1 g. L(-1). d(-1)) and a trend (P = 0.08) for lower muscle volume (19.7 +/- 1.5 vs. 25.0 +/- 2.4 L). This contrasted with intraabdominal lean tissue, where the rate of protein catabolism (13. 8 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.2 +/- 0.9 g. L(-1 ). d(-1)) and volume (7.5 +/- 0.3 vs 8.0 +/- 0.5 L) did not differ between age groups. Thus, the decrease in the contribution by muscle to whole-body protein metabolism with age is associated with an increase from 62 to 74% (P < 0.001) in the contribution by nonmuscle lean tissues. These findings have potential implications for the nutrition of both normal and sick elderly persons. (+info)