Placental transfer and pharmacokinetics of a single dermal dose of [14C]methyl parathion in rats.
The pharmacokinetics and placental transfer of a single dermal 10.0 mg (10microCi)/kg dose of uniformly phenyl-labeled [14C] methyl parathion (0,0-dimethyl 0-4-nitrophenyl phosphorothioate) were investigated in pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at 14-18 days of gestation. Three rats were killed at each time interval: 1, 2, 4, 12, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after dosing. Radioactivity disappeared biexponentially from the administration sites, which retained 50% and 3% of the dose after 1 h and 96 h, respectively. Most of the absorbed radioactivity was excreted in the urine (91%). Only 3% of the 14C was recovered in the feces. One h after the administration, radioactivity was detected in all tissues, including fetal tissue. The peak maternal plasma concentration of radioactivity (ng methyl parathion equivalent/ml) was 1005 at 2 h, compared to 318 ng for fetal plasma at 12 h. The maximum concentrations of radioactivity (ng methyl parathion equivalent/g), detected in most tissues within 12 h of dosing, were, in descending order: adipose tissue (67,532), kidney (1,571), spleen (1,256), spinal cord (1,004), heart (729), liver (706), brain (546), placenta (389), and fetus (256). The metabolism studies showed that methyl parathion, detected by HPLC, was the major compound identified in plasma and tissues. The maximum concentration detected was in plasma, at 513 ng/ml, and in the following tissues (ng/g fresh tissue): kidney (819), fetus (668), placenta (394), liver (375), and brain (282). The metabolite methyl paraoxon was detected in maternal brain and liver at maximum concentrations (ng/g fresh tissue) of 135 and 64 after 12 h and 4 h respectively, while p-nitrophenol was only detected in liver at a maximum concentration of 21 ng/g 72 h after dosing. Pharmacokinetic studies showed that methyl parathion disappeared monoexponentially from plasma and tissues. The half-life of elimination of methyl parathion from plasma was 11 h corresponding to a constant rate value of 0.06 h(-1). The results indicate that skin and placenta are poor barriers against methyl parathion permeability, resulting in a rapid and extensive dermal absorption of this insecticide and extensive placental transfer. This is indicated by the relative residence (R(R)) of methyl parathion in the plasma, which was largest in the placenta followed by the fetus. This study suggests that pregnant women and fetuses may be at risk of cholinergic toxicity following dermal exposure to methyl parathion. (+info)
Changes induced by malathion, methylparathion and parathion on membrane lipid physicochemical properties correlate with their toxicity.
Perturbations induced by malathion, methylparathion and parathion on the physicochemical properties of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) were studied by fluorescence anisotropy of DPH and DPH-PA and by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Methylparathion and parathion (50 microM) increased the fluorescence anisotropy evaluated by DPH-PA and DPH, either in gel or in the fluid phase of DPPC bilayers, but mainly in the fluid phase. Parathion is more effective than methylparathion. On the other hand, malathion had almost no effect. All the three xenobiotics displaced the phase transition midpoint to lower temperature values and broadened the phase transition profile of DPPC, the effectiveness following the sequence: parathion>methylparathion>>malathion. A shifting and broadening of the phase transition was also observed by DSC. Furthermore, at methylparathion/lipid molar ratio of 1/2 and at parathion/lipid molar ratio of 1/7, the DSC thermograms displayed a shoulder in the main peak, in the low temperature side, suggesting coexistence of phases. For higher ratios, the phase transition profile becomes sharp as the control transition, but the midpoint is shifted to the previous shoulder position. Conversely to methylparathion and parathion, malathion did not promote phase separation. The overall data from fluorescence anisotropy and calorimetry indicate that the degree of effect of the insecticides on the physicochemical membrane properties correlates with toxicity to mammals. Therefore, the in vivo effects of organophosphorus compounds may be in part related with their ability to perturb the phospholipid bilayer structure, whose integrity is essential for normal cell function. (+info)
Isolation of methyl parathion-degrading strain M6 and cloning of the methyl parathion hydrolase gene.
A degradative bacterium, M6, was isolated and presumptively identified as Plesiomonas sp. strain M6 was able to hydrolyze methyl parathion to p-nitrophenol. A novel organophosphate hydrolase gene designated mpd was selected from its genomic library prepared by shotgun cloning. The nucleotide sequence of the mpd gene was determined. The gene could be effectively expressed in Escherichia coli. (+info)
Introduction--the methyl parathion story: a chronicle of misuse and preventable human exposure.
In the fall of 1994, Lorain County, Ohio, became the site of the first investigation of several large-scale incidences in which the organophosphate pesticide methyl parathion was illegally applied to private residences. The extent of potential human exposure to this pesticide led the Ohio Department of Health to formally request technical assistance from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). This article describes the initial investigation of 64 homes in Ohio and introduces the method of using both biological markers of exposure (p-nitrophenol levels in human urine samples) and environmental markers of contamination in dust and air samples when making public health decisions about the cleanup of homes sprayed with methyl parathion. The results of the CDC rapid investigation led the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to declare the contaminated homes in Lorain County a Superfund cleanup site. Seven years after the Lorain incident, and after subsequent Superfund actions had been implemented in Illinois and Mississippi, researchers participated in an expanded session devoted to methyl parathion at the 11th Annual Meeting of the International Society of Exposure Analysis held in Charleston, South Carolina, in the fall of 2001. The articles included in this monograph are based on presentations at that meeting. They report previously unpublished data that tell the methyl parathion story from different perspectives, each providing in-depth information about separate aspects of this multistate, multiagency, and multimillion dollar chemical exposure. This monograph is the methyl parathion story. (+info)
Urinary p-nitrophenol as a biomarker of household exposure to methyl parathion.
Methyl parathion (MP) is an organophosphate pesticide illegally applied to the interiors of many hundreds of homes throughout the United States by unlicensed pesticide applicators. Public health authorities developed a protocol for investigating contaminated homes and classifying their need for public health interventions. This protocol included environmental screening for MP contamination and 1-day biomonitoring (a.m. and p.m. spot urine samples) of household members for p-nitrophenol (PNP), a metabolite of MP. The variability of urinary PNP excretion under these exposure conditions was unknown. We collected a.m. and p.m. spot urine samples for 7 consecutive days from 75 individuals, who were members of 20 MP-contaminated households in the greater Chicago, Illinois, area, and analyzed them for PNP. We also assessed the ability of the 1-day sampling protocol to correctly classify exposed individuals and households according to their need for public health interventions, assuming that 1 week of sampling (14 urinary PNPs) represented their true exposure condition. The coefficient of variation of log urinary PNPs for individuals over the course of 7 days of a.m. and p.m. sampling averaged about 15%. Adjusting for urinary excretion of creatinine improved reproducibility of urinary PNPs among children but not among adults. The 1-day protocol correctly classified true risk category in 92% of individuals and 85% of households. The data contained in this study can be used to refine what is already a reasonable and effective approach to identifying MP-exposed households and determining the appropriate public health intervention. (+info)
Assessment of human exposure and human health effects after indoor application of methyl parathion in Lorain County, Ohio, 1995-1996.
In January 1995 the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency declared methyl parathion-contaminated homes in Lorain County, Ohio, as a Superfund cleanup site. During the 2-year cleanup, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in collaboration with county and city health officials conducted a study of exposure and health effects among residents. We administered 254 household and 747 individual questionnaires; urine analysis for p-nitrophenol (PNP, a metabolite of methyl parathion) was available for 626 participants. We also reviewed medical records of 49 people who were hospitalized or died after their homes were sprayed. People living in homes sprayed <180 days previously were most likely to have the highest PNP levels (22.9% > 100 ppb PNP), but even people living in homes sprayed more than a year previously appeared to be highly exposed (8.5% > 100 ppb PNP). The National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey reference range is 0-63 ppb. Median detectable PNP levels among children younger than 3 years of age were 93.9 ppb compared with 41.6 ppb among people older than 3 years. Younger children appeared to be at greatest risk of exposure. In none of the medical records that we reviewed did a health care provider consider pesticide poisoning as a potential etiology. (+info)
An investigation of unexplained infant deaths in houses contaminated with methyl parathion.
In Lorain County, Ohio, unexplained infant deaths in homes sprayed with methyl parathion (MP), an organophosphate (OP) pesticide, prompted an investigation to determine whether infants living in treated homes are at higher risk for unexplained death. A case was defined as any death of an infant (12 months of age) in Lorain County between 1 January 1990 and 31 December 1994, attributed to sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) or other unknown natural causes. For each case infant, birth certificate data were used to identify two control infants matched with regard to date of birth, sex, city of residence, and maternal race and educational level. Wipe samples from the home address listed on the birth certificate of control infants or the death certificate of case infants were analyzed for MP. Birth certificates provided additional risk factor information. The relationship between MP contamination and unexplained death was analyzed by exact conditional logistic regression. Wipe samples were collected from the residences of 34 case infants and 72 control infants. MP (>0.02 mg/100 cm2) was detected in five homes, three of which had been occupied by case infants. Case infants were 4.6 times more likely than control infants to have lived in MP-treated homes, but the confidence interval (CI) was wide (95% CI: 0.2, 274.7) and included 1. Maternal smoking, young maternal age, and the presence of other siblings in the family were each independently predictive of case status. In a multivariate model adjusting for these other variables and the matching variables, the estimated risk associated with MP exposure was 13.0 (95% CI: 0.2, 2,685.0). Although this association was not statistically significant and should be interpreted cautiously, it suggests an increased risk for unexplained death among infants living in MP-contaminated homes. The relationship between children's health and exposure to OP pesticides including MP should be evaluated further. (+info)
Public health decisions: the laboratory's role in the Lorain County, Ohio, investigation.
In 1994 officials from the Ohio Department of Health reported that some residents of Lorain County, Ohio, possibly had been exposed to methyl parathion (MP), a highly toxic restricted-use pesticide. The U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) assisted in the investigation by providing epidemiologic and laboratory support to the state and local health departments. Although the initial investigation found MP inside the homes, it was unclear if the residents were exposed. CDC used a new biological monitoring method to measure urinary p-nitrophenol (PNP), the metabolite of MP. This biological monitoring measures the internal dose from exposure to toxic chemicals from all routes. Laboratory analyses demonstrated that the urine of residents contained moderate to high levels of PNP, with median, mean, and highest reported concentrations of 28, 240, and 4,800 g/L, respectively, thus confirming exposure of the residents. Almost 80% of the residents had urinary PNP concentrations above the 95th percentile of the reference range concentrations. This information, combined with other analytical results of air and wipe tests, guided public health officials' decisions about the potential risk in each household. In this article we illustrate the laboratory's role in providing information to assist in making these public health decisions. Furthermore, it illustrates how a multidisciplinary team from various governmental agencies worked together to protect the public's health. (+info)