Speed of onset and offset and mechanisms of ventilatory depression from sevoflurane: an experimental study in the cat.
BACKGROUND: Inhalational anesthetics depress breathing dose dependently. The authors studied the dynamics of ventilation on changes in end-tidal sevoflurane partial pressure. To learn more about the mechanisms of sevoflurane-induced respiratory depression, the authors also studied its influence on the dynamic ventilatory response to carbon dioxide. METHODS: Experiments were performed in cats anesthetized with alpha chloralose-urethane. For protocol 1, step changes in end-tidal sevoflurane partial pressure were applied and inspired ventilation was measured. Breath-to-breath inspired ventilation was related to the sevoflurane concentration in a hypothetical effect compartment based on an inhibitory sigmoid Emax model. For protocol 2, step changes in the end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide were applied at 0, 0.5, and 1% end-tidal sevoflurane. The inspired ventilation-end-tidal partial pressure of carbon dioxide data were analyzed using a two-compartment model of the respiratory controller, which consisted of a fast peripheral and slow central compartment. Values are the mean +/- SD. RESULTS: In protocol 1, the effect-site half-life of respiratory changes caused by alterations in end-tidal sevoflurane partial pressure was 3.6+/-1.0 min. In protocol 2, at 0.50% sevoflurane, the central and peripheral carbon dioxide sensitivities decreased to 43+/-20% and 36+/-18% of control. At 1% sevoflurane, the peripheral carbon dioxide sensitivity decreased further, to 12+/-13% of control, whereas the central carbon dioxide sensitivity showed no further decrease. CONCLUSIONS: Steady state inspired ventilation is reached after 18 min (i.e., 5 half-lives) on stepwise changes in end-tidal sevoflurane. Anesthetic concentrations of sevoflurane have, in addition to an effect on pathways common to the peripheral and central chemoreflex loops, a selective effect on the peripheral chemoreflex loop. Sevoflurane has similar effects on ventilatory control in humans and cats. (+info)
Comparison of the effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane on arterial oxygenation during one lung ventilation.
We have compared the effects of sevoflurane and isoflurane on arterial oxygenation, heart rate and mean arterial pressure during one lung anaesthesia in a prospective, crossover study. We studied 28 patients undergoing oesophagogastrectomy, allocated alternatively to one of two groups. Patients in group I/S (n = 14) received 1 MAC (1.1%) of isoflurane in oxygen from induction until the end of 30 min of open chest one lung ventilation (OLV) in the lateral position. This was followed by 1 MAC (2.1%) of sevoflurane in oxygen for the next 30 min of OLV. Patients in group S/I (n = 14) received the two anaesthetic agents in the reverse order. We found no significant difference in arterial oxygenation, heart rate or mean arterial pressure between the two potent inhalation agents. In the subgroup of patients with pulmonary artery catheters (n = 12), we found a significant increase (P < 0.05) in derived shunt during sevoflurane anaesthesia. There was no significant difference in mixed venous saturation and cardiac output. We conclude that during one lung ventilation, the choice between sevoflurane and isoflurane did not significantly influence arterial oxygenation. (+info)
Effects of enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane on reperfusion injury after regional myocardial ischaemia in the rabbit heart in vivo.
It is known that volatile anaesthetics protect myocardial tissue against ischaemic and reperfusion injury in vitro. In this investigation, we have determined the effects of the inhalation anaesthetics, enflurane, isoflurane, sevoflurane and desflurane, administered only during early reperfusion, on myocardial reperfusion injury in vivo. Fifty chloralose-anaesthetized rabbits were subjected to 30 min of occlusion of a major coronary artery followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Left ventricular pressure (LVP, tip-manometer), cardiac output (CO, ultrasonic flow probe) and infarct size (triphenyltetrazolium staining) were determined. During the first 15 min of reperfusion, five groups of 10 rabbits each received 1 MAC of enflurane (enflurane group), isoflurane (isoflurane group), sevoflurane (sevoflurane group) or desflurane (desflurane group), and 10 rabbits served as untreated controls (control group). Haemodynamic baseline values were similar between groups (mean LVP 106 (SEM 2) mm Hg; CO 281(7) ml min-1). During coronary occlusion, LVP and CO were reduced to the same extent in all groups (LVP 89% of baseline; CO 89%). Administration of inhalation anaesthetics during early reperfusion further reduced both variables, but they recovered after discontinuation of the anaesthetics to values not different from control animals. Infarct size was reduced from 49 (5)% of the area at risk in the control group to 32 (3)% in the desflurane group (P = 0.021), and to 36 (2)% in the sevoflurane group (P = 0.097). In the enflurane group, infarct size was 39 (5)% (P = 0.272). Isoflurane had no effect on infarct size (48 (5)%, P = 1.000). The results show that desflurane and sevoflurane markedly reduced infarct size and therefore can protect myocardium against reperfusion injury in vivo. Enflurane had only a marginal effect and isoflurane offered no protection against reperfusion injury in vivo. These different effects suggest different protective mechanisms at the cellular level. (+info)
Sevoflurane-induced reduction of hypoxic drive is sex-independent.
BACKGROUND: Although the mu-opioid agonist morphine affects ventilatory control in men and women in different ways, no data exist regarding the influence of sex on the ventilatory effects of inhalational anesthetics. The authors compared the effect of sevoflurane on the ventilatory response to isocapnic hypoxia in healthy young men and women. METHODS: Breath-to-breath ventilatory responses to hypoxic steps (number of hypoxic steps, four-six; duration, 3 min; end-tidal oxygen tension, approximately 50 mmHg; end-tidal carbon dioxide tension clamped at approximately 4 mmHg above resting values) were assessed in nine men and nine women without and with low-dose sevoflurane (end-tidal concentration, 0.25%). The bispectral index of the electroencephalogram was measured concomitantly. RESULTS: Sevoflurane reduced the hypoxic ventilatory sensitivity significantly in both sexes (men: control, 0.62 +/- 0.17 vs. sevoflurane, 0.38 +/- 0.19 l x min(-1) x %(-1); women: control, 0.52 +/- 0.30 vs. sevoflurane, 0.34 +/- 0.15 l x min(-1) x %(-1)). Sevoflurane-induced reductions of the hypoxic responses were not different in the men and women. During sevoflurane inhalation, the bispectral index values decreased equally in men and women. CONCLUSION: In contrast to morphine, the influence of a low dose of the inhalational anesthetic sevoflurane on the ventilatory response to hypoxia is independent of sex. (+info)
The dynamic relationship between end-tidal sevoflurane and isoflurane concentrations and bispectral index and spectral edge frequency of the electroencephalogram.
BACKGROUND: Inhalational anesthetics produce dose-dependent effects on electroencephalogram-derived parameters, such as 95% spectral edge frequency (SEF) and bispectral index (BIS). The authors analyzed the relationship between end-tidal sevoflurane and isoflurane concentrations (FET) and BIS and SEF and determined the speed of onset and offset of effect (t1/2k(e0)). METHODS: Twenty-four patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status I or II were randomly assigned to receive anesthesia with sevoflurane or isoflurane. Several transitions between 0.5 and 1.5 minimum alveolar concentration were performed. BIS and SEF data were analyzed with a combination of an effect compartment and an inhibitory sigmoid Emax model, characterized by t1/2k(e0), the concentration at which 50% depression of the electroencephalogram parameters occurred (IC50), and shape parameters. Parameter values estimated are mean +/- SD. RESULTS: The model adequately described the FET-BIS relationship. Values for t1/2k(e0), derived from the BIS data, were 3.5 +/- 2.0 and 3.2 +/- 0.7 min for sevoflurane and isoflurane, respectively (NS). Equivalent values derived from SEF were 3.1 +/- 2.4 min (sevoflurane) and 2.3 +/- 1.2 min (isoflurane; NS). Values of t1/2k(e0) derived from the SEF were smaller than those from BIS (P < 0.05). IC50 values derived from the BIS were 1.14 +/- 0.31% (sevoflurane) and 0.60 +/- 0.11% (isoflurane; P < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The speed of onset and offset of anesthetic effect did not differ between isoflurane and sevoflurane; isoflurane was approximately twice as potent as sevoflurane. The greater values of t1/2k(e0) derived from the BIS data compared with those derived from the SEF data may be related to computational and physiologic delays. (+info)
Effect of sevoflurane and desflurane on the myogenic constriction and flow-induced dilation in rat coronary arterioles.
BACKGROUND: Determinants of myocardial blood flow distribution include metabolic, myogenic, endothelial, and neurohumoral control mechanisms. The authors studied the effect of sevoflurane and desflurane on the myogenic and endothelial mechanisms. METHODS: Wistar rat subepicardial microvessels, approximately 100 microm in diameter, were monitored for diameter changes in vitro using a video detection system. Myogenic vasomotion was studied by varying the intraluminal pressure from 10 mmHg to 120 mmHg. Flow-induced, endothelium-dependent dilation was evaluated in U46619-preconstricted vessels by varying the pressure gradient across the isolated vessel from 10 mmHg to 80 mmHg, while maintaining the midpoint luminal pressure constant at 40 mmHg to avoid myogenic effects. Myogenic and flow-induced vasomotion both were studied in the presence of sevoflurane, 1 or 2 minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) (MAC is a unit of inhalational anesthetic potency), desflurane, 1 or 2 MAC, or no anesthetic (control). RESULTS: Myogenic constriction was shown above intraluminal pressures of 70 mmHg. Myogenic constriction was unchanged by sevoflurane, 1 MAC (P = 0.24), but was mildly enhanced by sevoflurane, 2 MAC (P < 0.05), or desflurane, 1 (P < 0.05) or 2 MAC (P < 0.01). Flow-induced dilation was shown over the pressure gradient range of 10-80 mmHg. Flow-induced dilation was not altered significantly by sevoflurane, 1 or 2 MAC (P > 0.3 each), but was significantly attenuated by desflurane, 1 or 2 MAC (P < 0.001 each). CONCLUSIONS: Sevoflurane maintains myogenic and endothelial determinants of myocardial blood flow distribution. Conversely, desflurane attenuates endothelium-dependent flow-induced dilation while mildly enhancing myogenic constriction. (+info)
Effects of sevoflurane on regional myocardial blood flow distribution: quantification with myocardial contrast echocardiography.
BACKGROUND: Using myocardial contrast echocardiography, the authors tried to determine whether sevoflurane causes myocardial blood maldistribution in humans and dogs. METHODS: In animal experiments, 15 mongrel dogs were organized into dipyridamole (n = 6) and sevoflurane (n = 9) groups. Sonicated albumin was infused into the left main coronary artery. The peak gray level corrected for background was analyzed at the following intervals: (1) at baseline, (2) after stenosis of the left circumflex coronary artery (blood flow reduced by 40%), (3) after administration of dipyridamole (1 mg/kg given intravenously) or sevoflurane (1 minimum alveolar concentration) during stenosis, and (4) after phenylephrine during stenosis and administration of dipyridamole or sevoflurane. In human studies, nine patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting were studied. During partial extracorporeal circulation, the peak gray level was analyzed before and 20 min after sevoflurane (1 minimum alveolar concentration). RESULTS: In animal experiments, dipyridamole decreased significantly the inner:outer ratio of the peak gray level in the ischemic area and the ischemic:normal ratio of the peak gray level. After arterial pressure was restored with phenylephrine, neither the inner:outer ratio nor the ischemic:normal ratio improved. In contrast, after sevoflurane administration, the inner:outer ratio and the ischemic:normal ratio remained unchanged, but these increased with phenylephrine. In human studies, sevoflurane did not change the inner:outer ratio in the area supplied by the most stenotic coronary artery. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that dipyridamole, a potent coronary vasodilator, produces maldistribution of coronary blood flow in our dog models, whereas sevoflurane does not do this in animal or human studies. (+info)
Effect of sevoflurane concentration on inhalation induction of anaesthesia in the elderly.
We have conducted a randomized, double-blind comparison of 4% and 8% sevoflurane for induction of anaesthesia in unpremedicated patients aged more than 60 yr. Sevoflurane was inhaled in 50% nitrous oxide using a vital capacity breath technique, and mean, systolic and diastolic arterial pressures and heart rate were monitored continuously using a Finapres cuff. In the 8% sevoflurane group, time to successful laryngeal mask insertion was significantly shorter (mean 168 (SD 34) s vs 226 (62) s; P < 0.01) and achieved more often at the first attempt than in the 4% sevoflurane group. Arterial pressures were lower in the 8% group, but this was not significant. No patient had apnoea lasting longer than 1 min. A total of 69% of patients described induction as pleasant and 85% would choose to have it again. We conclude that compared with 8% sevoflurane, the use of 4% sevoflurane in the elderly resulted in greater cardiovascular stability but at the cost of prolonged and occasionally unsuccessful induction. (+info)