Combination therapy of fasudil hydrochloride and ozagrel sodium for cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage.
Fasudil hydrochloride is a new type of intracellular calcium antagonist, different from the calcium entry blockers that are commonly employed for clinical use. Since September 1995, the combination of fasudil hydrochloride and ozagrel sodium, an inhibitor of thromboxane A2 synthesis, has been used to treat 60 patients at risk of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. The effectiveness of this combination therapy was investigated by comparison with the outcome of 57 patients previously treated with only ozagrel sodium. The combination therapy was significantly more effective (p < 0.01) in reducing the incidence of low density areas on computed tomography scans, and reduced, but not significantly, the occurrence of symptomatic vasospasm. The combination therapy of fasudil hydrochloride and ozagrel sodium has superior effectiveness over only ozagrel sodium in treating patients at risk of vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. (+info
Role of thromboxane A2 in healing of gastric ulcers in rats.
We investigated the role of thromboxane (TX) A2 in gastric ulcer healing in rats. Acetic acid ulcers were produced in male Donryu rats. TXA2 synthesis in the stomachs with ulcers was significantly elevated in ulcerated tissue, but not in intact tissue, compared with that in the gastric mucosa of normal rats. Indomethacin inhibited both TXA2 and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) synthesis in ulcerated tissue, while NS-398 (selective cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor) reduced only PGE2 synthesis. OKY-046 (TXA2 synthase inhibitor) dose-relatedly inhibited only TXA2 synthesis. The maximal effect of OKY-046 (80% inhibition) was found at more than 30 mg/kg. When OKY-046 was administered for 14 days, the drug at more than 30 mg/kg significantly accelerated ulcer healing without affecting acid secretion. The maximal reduction of ulcerated area by OKY-046 was about 30%, compared with the area in the control. Histological studies revealed that regeneration of the mucosa was significantly promoted by OKY-046, but neither maturation of the ulcer base nor angiogenesis in the base were affected. OKY-046 and TXB2 had no effect on proliferation of cultured rat gastric epithelial cells, but U-46619 (TXA2 mimetic) dose-relatedly prevented the proliferation without reducing cell viability. These results indicate that the increased TXA2, probably derived from cyclooxygenase-1 in ulcerated tissue, exerts a weak inhibitory effect on ulcer healing in rats. The effect of TXA2 might be due partly to prevention of gastric epithelial cell proliferation at the ulcer margin. (+info
Role of cytochrome P-450 2E1 in methacrylonitrile metabolism and disposition.
Methacrylonitrile (MAN) is a widely used aliphatic nitrile and is structurally similar to the known rat carcinogen and suspected human carcinogen acrylonitrile (AN). There is evidence that AN is metabolized via the cytochrome P-450 (CYP) 2E1. Recently, we identified two biliary conjugates originating from the interaction of MAN and its epoxide with glutathione. Mercapturic acids formed via the degradation of the two conjugates were also identified in rat and mouse urine. Additionally, a significant portion of MAN was eliminated in the expired air as CO2 (formed via the epoxide pathway) and unchanged MAN. The objective of the present work was to determine whether CYP2E1 is involved in the oxidative metabolism of MAN as was suggested for AN. 2-14C-MAN was administered to CYP2E1-null or wild-type mice by gavage at 12 mg/kg. Although total urinary and fecal excretion of MAN-derived radioactivity was slightly different in CYP2E1-null versus wild-type mice, the ratio of mercapturic acids originating from the epoxide-glutathione versus MAN-glutathione conjugates were lower in urine of CYP2E1-null mice than in that of wild-type animals. Exhalation of MAN-derived organic volatiles (primarily parent MAN) was 12- and 42-fold greater in female and male CYP2E1-null mice than in wild-type mice, respectively. Additionally, exhalation of CO2 derived from metabolism of MAN via the CYP2E1 pathway was 3- to 5-fold greater in wild-type than in CYP2E1-null animals. Although these data indicate that CYP2E1 is the principal enzyme responsible for the oxidative metabolism of MAN, other cytochrome P-450 enzymes may be involved. Assessment of MAN metabolism in CYP2E1-null mice pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole (CYP inhibitor) resulted in a further decrease in oxidative metabolites of MAN. Comparison of the tissue concentrations of MAN-derived radioactivity in mouse tissues revealed that MAN-derived radioactivity is generally higher in wild-type > CYP2E1-null mice > CYP2E1-null mice pretreated with 1-aminobenzotriazole, suggesting a direct relationship between MAN oxidative metabolism and the half-life of MAN and/or its metabolites in various tissues. It is therefore concluded that MAN oxidative metabolites such as the epoxide intermediate have greater reactivity than parent MAN. (+info
Steric effects of N-acyl group in O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines on the adhesiveness of unetched human dentin.
We have prepared various O-methacryloyl-N-acyl tyrosines (MAATY) to reveal the relationship between molecular structure near carboxylic acid and adhesive strength of MAATY-HEMA type adhesive resin to unetched dentin. In this study, we attempted to change the steric hindrance effect without changing the HLB value, i.e., introducing an iso-acyl group instead of n-acyl group into MAATY. O-methacryloyl-N-ethylbutyryl tyrosine (MIHTY) showed significantly lower adhesive strength when compared with O-methacryloyl-N-hexanoyl tyrosine even though both MAATY have the same HLB value. The possible explanation of the significantly different adhesive strength was that the 2-ethylbutyryl group in MIHTY was bulky, resulting in inhibition of the hydrogen bonding of the carboxylic group. The HLB value is independent of the steric effect of molecular structure, and thus the steric factor should be taken into consideration for the explanation of different adhesive strengths within the adhesive monomers having the same HLB value but different molecular structures. (+info
Redox components of cytochrome bc-type enzymes in acidophilic prokaryotes. I. Characterization of the cytochrome bc1-type complex of the acidophilic ferrous ion-oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus ferrooxidans.
The redox components of the cytochrome bc1 complex from the acidophilic chemolithotrophic organism Thiobacillus ferrooxidans were investigated by potentiometric and spectroscopic techniques. Optical redox titrations demonstrated the presence of two b-type hemes with differing redox midpoint potentials at pH 7.4 (-169 and + 20 mV for bL and bH, respectively). At pH 3.5, by contrast, both hemes appeared to titrate at about +20 mV. Antimycin A, 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide, and stigmatellin induced distinguishable shifts of the b hemes' alpha-bands, providing evidence for the binding of antimycin A and 2-heptyl-4-hydroxyquinoline N-oxide near heme bH (located on the cytosolic side of the membrane) and of stigmatellin near heme bL (located on the periplasmic side of the membrane). The inhibitors stigmatellin, 5-(n-undecyl)-6-hydroxy-4,7-dioxobenzothiazole, and 2, 5-dibromo-3-methyl-6-isopropyl-p-benzoquinone affected the EPR spectrum of the Rieske iron-sulfur center in a way that differs from what has been observed for cytochrome bc1 or b6f complexes. The results obtained demonstrate that the T. ferrooxidans complex, although showing most of the features characteristic for bc1 complexes, contains unique properties that are most probably related to the chemolithotrophicity and/or acidophilicity of its parent organism. A speculative model for reverse electron transfer through the T. ferrooxidans complex is proposed. (+info
New biodegradable hydrogels based on a photocrosslinkable modified polyaspartamide: synthesis and characterization.
alpha,beta-Poly(N-2-hydroxyethyl)-DL-aspartamide (PHEA), a synthetic water-soluble biocompatible polymer, was derivatized with glycidyl methacrylate (GMA), in order to introduce in its structure chemical residues having double bonds and ester groups. The obtained copolymer (PHG) contained 29 mol% of GMA residues. PHG aqueous solutions at various concentrations ranging from 30 to 70 mg/ml were exposed to a source of UV rays at lambda 254 nm in the presence or in the absence of N,N'-methylenebisacrylamide (BIS); the formation of compact gel phases was observed beginning from 50 mg/ml. The obtained networks were characterized by FT-IR spectrophotometry and swelling measurements which evidenced the high affinity of PHG hydrogels towards aqueous media at different pH values. In vitro chemical or enzymatic hydrolysis studies suggested that the prepared samples undergo a partial degradation both at pH 1 and pH 10 and after incubation with enzymes such as esterase, pepsin and alpha-chymotrypsin. Finally, the effect of irradiation time on the yield and the properties of these hydrogels was investigated and the sol fractions coming from irradiated samples, properly purified, were characterized by FT-IR and 1H-NMR analyses. (+info
Cytochrome c-dependent methacrylate reductase from Geobacter sulfurreducens AM-1.
Geobacter sulfurreducens AM-1 can use methacrylate as a terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration. In this paper, we report on the purification and properties of the periplasmic methacrylate reductase, and show that the enzyme is dependent on the presence of a periplasmic cytochrome c (apparent K(m) = 0.12 microM). The methacrylate reductase was found to be composed of only one polypeptide with an apparent molecular mass of 50 kDa and to contain, bound tightly but not covalently, 1 mol of FAD per mol. The N-terminal amino acid sequence showed sequence similarity to a periplasmic fumarate reductase from Shewanella putrefaciens. However, methacrylate reductase did not catalyze the reduction of fumarate. The periplasmic cytochrome c, which was also purified, had an apparent molecular mass of 30 kDa and contained approximately 4 mol of heme.mol(-1). Cells of G. sulfurreducens AM-1 grown on acetate and methacrylate as an energy source were found to contain all the enzymes required for the oxidation of acetate to CO(2) via the citric acid cycle. (+info
Human T lymphocyte priming in vitro by haptenated autologous dendritic cells.
Dendritic cells (DC), generated from adherent peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by culturing with granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and IL-4, were used to study in vitro sensitization of naive, hapten-specific T cells and to analyse cross-reactivities to related compounds. DC were hapten-derivatized with nickel sulphate (Ni) or 2-hydroxyethyl-methacrylate (HEMA), followed by tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha)-induced maturation, before autologous T cells and a cytokine cocktail of IL-1beta, IL-2 and IL-7 were added. After T cell priming for 7 days, wells were split and challenged for another 7 days with Ni or HEMA, and potentially cross-reactive haptens. Hapten-specificity of in vitro priming was demonstrated by proliferative responses to the haptens used for priming but not to the unrelated haptens. Highest priming efficiencies were obtained when both IL-4 and IL-12 were added to the cytokine supplement. Marked interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) release (up to 4 ng/ml) was found when IL-12 was included in the cultures, whereas IL-5 release (up to 500 pg/ml) was observed after addition of IL-4 alone, or in combination with IL-12. Nickel-primed T cells showed frequent cross-reactivities with other metals closely positioned in the periodic table, i.e. palladium and copper, whereas HEMA-primed T cells showed distinct cross-reactivities with selected methacrylate congeners. Similar cross-reactivities are known to occur in allergic patients. Thus, in vitro T cell priming provides a promising tool for studying factors regulating cytokine synthesis, and cross-reactivity patterns of hapten-specific T cells. (+info