Overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP1) in human heavy metal-selected tumor cells.
Cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in the resistance to cytotoxic heavy metals remain largely to be characterized in mammalian cells. To this end, we have analyzed a metal-resistant variant of the human lung cancer GLC4 cell line that we have selected by a step-wise procedure in potassium antimony tartrate. Antimony-selected cells, termed GLC4/Sb30 cells, poorly accumulated antimony through an enhanced cellular efflux of metal, thus suggesting up-regulation of a membrane export system in these cells. Indeed, GLC4/Sb30 cells were found to display a functional overexpression of the multidrug resistance-associated protein MRP1, a drug export pump, as demonstrated by Western blotting, reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and calcein accumulation assays. Moreover, MK571, a potent inhibitor of MRP1 activity, was found to markedly down-modulate resistance of GLC4/Sb30 cells to antimony and to decrease cellular export of the metal. Taken together, our data support the conclusion that overexpression of functional MRP1 likely represents one major mechanism by which human cells can escape the cytotoxic effects of heavy metals. (+info)
Enhanced bioaccumulation of heavy metal ions by bacterial cells due to surface display of short metal binding peptides.
Metal binding peptides of sequences Gly-His-His-Pro-His-Gly (named HP) and Gly-Cys-Gly-Cys-Pro-Cys-Gly-Cys-Gly (named CP) were genetically engineered into LamB protein and expressed in Escherichia coli. The Cd2+-to-HP and Cd2+-to-CP stoichiometries of peptides were 1:1 and 3:1, respectively. Hybrid LamB proteins were found to be properly folded in the outer membrane of E. coli. Isolated cell envelopes of E. coli bearing newly added metal binding peptides showed an up to 1.8-fold increase in Cd2+ binding capacity. The bioaccumulation of Cd2+, Cu2+, and Zn2+ by E. coli was evaluated. Surface display of CP multiplied the ability of E. coli to bind Cd2+ from growth medium fourfold. Display of HP peptide did not contribute to an increase in the accumulation of Cu2+ and Zn2+. However, Cu2+ ceased contribution of HP for Cd2+ accumulation, probably due to the strong binding of Cu2+ to HP. Thus, considering the cooperation of cell structures with inserted peptides, the relative affinities of metal binding peptide and, for example, the cell wall to metal ion should be taken into account in the rational design of peptide sequences possessing specificity for a particular metal. (+info)
High concentrations of heavy metals in neighborhoods near ore smelters in northern Mexico.
In developing countries, rapid industrialization without environmental controls has resulted in heavy metal contamination of communities. We hypothesized that residential neighborhoods located near ore industries in three northern Mexican cities would be heavily polluted with multiple contaminants (arsenic, cadmium, and lead) and that these sites would be point sources for the heavy metals. To evaluate these hypotheses, we obtained samples of roadside surface dust from residential neighborhoods within 2 m of metal smelters [Torreon (n = 19)] and Chihuahua (n = 19)] and a metal refinery [Monterrey (n = 23)]. Heavy metal concentrations in dust were mapped with respect to distance from the industrial sites. Correlation between dust metal concentration and distance was estimated with least-squares regression using log-transformed data. Median dust arsenic, cadmium, and lead concentrations were 32, 10, and 277 microg/g, respectively, in Chihuahua; 42, 2, and 467 microg/g, respectively, in Monterrey, and 113, 112, and 2,448 microg/g, respectively, in Torreon. Dust concentrations of all heavy metals were significantly higher around the active smelter in Torreon, where more than 90% of samples exceeded Superfund cleanup goals. At all sites, dust concentrations were inversely related to distance from the industrial source, implicating these industries as the likely source of the contamination. We concluded that residential neighborhoods around metal smelting and refining sites in these three cities are contaminated by heavy metals at concentrations likely to pose a health threat to people living nearby. Evaluations of human exposure near these sites should be conducted. Because multiple heavy metal pollutants may exist near smelter sites, researchers should avoid attributing toxicity to one heavy metal unless others have been measured and shown not to coexist. (+info)
Transcriptional organization of the czc heavy-metal homeostasis determinant from Alcaligenes eutrophus.
The Czc system of Alcaligenes eutrophus mediates resistance to cobalt, zinc, and cadmium through ion efflux catalyzed by the CzcCB2A cation-proton antiporter. DNA sequencing of the region upstream of the czcNICBADRS determinant located on megaplasmid pMOL30 revealed the 5' end of czcN and a gene for a MgtC-like protein which is transcribed in the orientation opposite that of czc. Additional open reading frames upstream of czc had no homologs in the current databases. Using oligonucleotide-probed Northern blotting experiments, a 500-nucleotide czcN message and a 400-nucleotide czcI message were found, and the presence of 6, 200-nucleotide czcCBA message (D. Van der Lelie et al., Mol. Microbiol. 23:493-503, 1997) was confirmed. Induction of czcN, czcI, czcCBA, and czcDRS followed a similar pattern: transcription was induced best by 300 microM zinc, less by 300 microM cobalt, and only slightly by 300 microM cadmium. Reverse transcription-PCR gave evidence for additional continuous transcription from czcN to czcC and from czcD to czcS, but not between czcA and czcD nor between czcS and a 131-amino-acid open reading frame following czcS. The CzcR putative response regulator was purified and shown to bind in the 5' region of czcN. A reporter strain carrying a czcNIC-lacZ-czcBADRS determinant on plasmid pMOL30 was constructed, as were DeltaczcR and DeltaczcS mutants of this strain and of AE128(pMOL30) wild type. Experiments on (i) growth of these strains in liquid culture containing 5 mM Zn2+, (ii) induction of the beta-galactosidase in the reporter strains by zinc, cobalt, and cadmium, and (iii) cDNA analysis of czcCBA mRNA synthesis under inducing and noninducing conditions showed that the CzcRS two-component regulatory system is involved in Czc regulation. (+info)
Extracellular heavy-metal ions stimulate Ca2+ mobilization in hepatocytes.
Populations of hepatocytes in primary culture were loaded with fura 2 and the effects of extracellular heavy-metal ions were examined under conditions that allowed changes in fura 2 fluorescence (R340/360, the ratio of fluorescence recorded at 340 and 360 nm) to be directly attributed to changes in cytosolic free [Ca2+] ([Ca2+]i). In Ca2+-free media, Ni2+ [EC50 (concentration causing 50% stimulation) approximately 24+/-9 microM] caused reversible increases in [Ca2+]i that resulted from mobilization of the same intracellular Ca2+ stores as were released by [Arg8]vasopressin. The effects of Ni2+ were not mimicked by increasing the extracellular [Mg2+], by addition of MnCl2, CoCl2 or CdCl2 or by decreasing the extracellular pH from 7.3 to 6.0; nor were they observed in cultures of smooth muscle, endothelial cells or pituitary cells. CuCl2 (80 microM), ZnCl2 (80 microM) and LaCl3 (5 mM) mimicked the ability of Ni2+ to evoke Ca2+ mobilization. The response to La3+ was sustained even in the absence of extracellular Ca2+, probably because La3+ also inhibited Ca2+ extrusion. Although Ni2+ entered hepatocytes, from the extent to which it quenched fura 2 fluorescence the free cytosolic [Ni2+] ([Ni2+]i) was estimated to be <5 nM at the peak of the maximal Ni2+-evoked Ca2+ signals and there was no correlation between [Ni2+]i and the amplitude of the evoked increases in [Ca2+]i. We conclude that extracellular Ni2+, Zn2+, Cu2+ and La3+, but not all heavy-metal ions, evoke an increase in [Ca2+]i in hepatocytes by stimulating release of the hormone-sensitive intracellular Ca2+ stores and that they may do so by interacting with a specific cell-surface ion receptor. This putative ion receptor may be important in allowing hepatocytes to contribute to regulation of plasma heavy-metal ions and may mediate responses to Zn2+ released into the portal circulation with insulin. (+info)
Abundance and diversity of Archaea in heavy-metal-contaminated soils.
The impact of heavy-metal contamination on archaean communities was studied in soils amended with sewage sludge contaminated with heavy metals to varying extents. Fluorescent in situ hybridization showed a decrease in the percentage of Archaea from 1.3% +/- 0.3% of 4', 6-diamidino-2-phenylindole-stained cells in untreated soil to below the detection limit in soils amended with heavy metals. A comparison of the archaean communities of the different plots by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed differences in the structure of the archaean communities in soils with increasing heavy-metal contamination. Analysis of cloned 16S ribosomal DNA showed close similarities to a unique and globally distributed lineage of the kingdom Crenarchaeota that is phylogenetically distinct from currently characterized crenarchaeotal species. (+info)
pABC11 (also known as MOAT-C and MRP5), a member of the ABC family of proteins, has anion transporter activity but does not confer multidrug resistance when overexpressed in human embryonic kidney 293 cells.
Several members of the ABC family of proteins have been implicated in multidrug resistance associated with cancer therapies. A novel member of this gene family, designated pABC11, has been identified using degenerate polymerase chain reaction. The full-length cDNA spans 5881 base pairs and encodes an open reading frame of 1437 amino acids predicted to contain two sets of transmembrane domains and two nucleotide binding domains characteristic of ABC proteins. The nucleotide sequence described herein extends that of three recently reported sequences, MRP5 (Kool, M., de Haas, M., Scheffer, G., Scheper, R., van Eijk, M., Juijn, J., Baas, F., and Borst, P. (1997) Cancer Res. 57, 3537-3547), SMRP (Suzuki, T., Nishio, K., Sasaki, H., Kurokawa, H., Saito-Ohara, F., Ikeuchi, T., Tanabe, S., Terada, M., and Saijo, N. (1997) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 238, 790-794), and MOAT-C (Belinsky, M., Bain, L., Balsara, B., Testa, J., and Kruh, G. (1998) J. Natl. Cancer Inst. 90, 1735-1741), in the 5' direction. Northern blot analysis detected five transcripts that were differentially expressed in several tissue types, and the gene encoding pABC11 was mapped to chromosome 3. Confocal imaging of HEK293 cells expressing a green fluorescent protein-pABC11 construct confirmed plasma membrane localization of the fusion protein. Overexpression of pABC11 resulted in reduced labeling with the fluorochromes 5-chloromethylfluorescein diacetate, fluorescein diacetate, and 2',7'-bis-(2-carboxyethyl)-5 (and-6)-carboxyfluorescein acetoxymethyl ester but not with calcein or rhodamine derivatives, consistent with pABC11 being an anion transporter. Fluorochrome export was ATP-dependent but glutathione-independent. We also show that this export pump does not confer resistance to various classes of cytotoxic drugs but does provide small but significant resistance to CdCl(2) and potassium antimonyl tartrate. (+info)
Toxicity of copper, cobalt, and nickel salts is dependent on histidine metabolism in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae.
The pH-dependent inhibition of 22 metal salts have been systematically investigated for the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We have established that the inhibition of growth by Cu, Co, or Ni salts is markedly enhanced by histidine auxotrophy and by increasing the pH of the medium. Each of the his1-his7 mutant strains were unable to grow in the presence of elevated levels of Cu, Co, or Ni at nearly neutral pHs, in contrast to His(+) strains, which grew under these conditions. The Cu, Co, or Ni inhibition was reversed by the addition of histidine to the medium. Deletion of the high-affinity histidine permease Hip1p in His(-) strains resulted in even greater sensitivity to Cu, Co, and Ni and the requirement of an even higher level of histidine to reverse the inhibition. These results suggest that intracellular histidine, most likely in the vacuole, diminishes the pH-dependent toxicity of Cu, Co, and Ni. Furthermore, the toxicity of many salts is exacerbated in strains with a defective vacuolar H(+)-ATPase, which abolishes the ability of yeast to maintain an acidic vacuole, a compartment known to sequester metal compounds. We suggest that the accumulation of histidine in the vacuole is a normal process used to detoxify Cu, Co, and Ni. (+info)