Cationic modulation of human dopamine transporter: dopamine uptake and inhibition of uptake.
Effects of cations on dopamine (DA) uptake into cells expressing the human dopamine transporter and on inhibition of DA uptake by various substrates and inhibitors were investigated by using rotating disk electrode voltammetry. The Na(+) dependence of DA uptake varied with Na(+) substitutes, hyperbolic with Li(+), almost linear at 1 microM DA but hyperbolic at 8 microM DA with choline, and sigmoidal with K(+). With Na(+) substituted by Li(+), K([DA]) decreased and V(app) remained constant with increasing [Na(+)], whereas K([Na+]) decreased and V(app) increased with increasing [DA], suggesting an ordered sequence with Na(+) binding before DA. Similar trends for the Na(+)-DA interactions were observed in the presence of cocaine. Cocaine inhibited DA uptake solely by increasing K([DA]), with its K(i) not significantly different at 55 and 155 mM [Na(+)], whereas it inhibited Na(+) stimulation by reducing V(app) more than K([Na+]) at 1 microM DA, and V(app) only and less potently at 8 microM DA. Thus, cocaine may compete with DA, not with Na(+), for the transporter, and might not follow a strictly ordered reaction with Na(+). With Na(+) substituted by K(+), K([DA]) or K([Na+]) became insensitive to Na(+) or DA. K(+) impaired the DA uptake mainly by reducing V(app,) but affected cocaine inhibition by elevating K(i). Despite their different patterns for inhibiting DA uptake, nontransportable inhibitors cocaine, methylphenidate, mazindol, and 1-[2-[bis(4-fluorophenyl)methoxy]ethyl]-4-(3-phenyl-2-propyl)piperazi ne (GBR12909) showed similarly modest Na(+) dependence in their K(i) values. In contrast, substrates DA, m-tyramine, and amphetamine displayed a similarly stronger Na(+) requirement for their apparent affinities. (+info)
Metal ion selectivity for formation of the calmodulin-metal-target peptide ternary complex studied by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy.
Ion selectivities for Ca(2+) signaling pathways of 33 metal ions were examined based on the Ca(2+)-dependent on/off switching mechanism of calmodulin (CaM): Ca(2+) ion-induced selective binding of CaM-Ca(2+) ion complex to the target peptide was observed as an increase in surface plasmon resonance (SPR) signals. As the target peptide, M13 of 26-amino-acid residues derived from skeletal muscle myosin light-chain kinase was immobilized in the dextran matrix, over which sample solutions containing CaM and each metal ion were injected in a flow system. Large changes in SPR signals were also observed for Sr(2+), Ba(2+), Cd(2+), Pb(2+), Y(3+) and trivalent lanthanide ions, thereby indicating that not only Ca(2+) but also these metal ions induce the formation of CaM-M13-metal ion ternary complex. No SPR signal was, however, induced by Mg(2+), Co(2+), Ni(2+), Cu(2+), Zn(2+) and all monovalent metal ions examined. The latter silent SPR signal indicates that these ions, even if they bind to CaM, are incapable of forming the CaM-M13-metal ion ternary complex. Comparing the obtained SPR results with ionic radii of those metal ions, it was found that all cations examined with ionic radii close to or greater than that of Ca(2+) induced the formation of the CaM-metal-M13 ternary complex, whereas those with smaller ionic radii were not effective, or much less so. Since these results are so consistent with earlier systematic data for the effects of various metal ions on the conformational changes of CaM, it is concluded that the present SPR analysis may be used for a simple screening and evaluating method for physiologically relevant metal ion selectivity for the Ca(2+) signaling via CaM based on CaM/peptide interactions. (+info)
Differential regulation of tight junction permeability during development of the retinal pigment epithelium.
The retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) is an epithelial region of the blood-brain barrier. During embryogenesis, permeability of the barrier gradually decreases. A culture model of RPE development revealed differences in how tight junctions regulate the paracellular diffusion of ionic and nonionic solutes (Ban Y and Rizzolo LJ. Mol Vis 3: 18, 1997). To examine these differences, the permeation of ionic and nonionic monosaccharides was compared with mannitol, and the permeation of the alkali metals was compared with sodium. The order of permeation was 3-O-methlyglucose = glucosamine = mannitol > N-acetylneuraminic acid. The ratio of N-acetylneuraminic acid to mannitol permeability decreased with embryonic age of the RPE or exposure to retinal-conditioned medium. Neither the ratio nor the permeability was affected by inhibiting transcytosis. The ratio increased if tight junctions were disrupted in low-calcium medium. The permeation of cations followed the sequence cesium > rubidium > potassium = sodium > lithium and was unaffected by embryonic age or retinal-conditioned medium. These results are considered in terms of a model in which the size distribution, charge, or number of open junctional pores could be modulated. It suggests that different subpopulations of pores can be regulated independently during development. (+info)
Detection of alkali metal ions in DNA crystals using state-of-the-art X-ray diffraction experiments.
The observation of light metal ions in nucleic acids crystals is generally a fortuitous event. Sodium ions in particular are notoriously difficult to detect because their X-ray scattering contributions are virtually identical to those of water and Na(+.)O distances are only slightly shorter than strong hydrogen bonds between well-ordered water molecules. We demonstrate here that replacement of Na(+) by K(+), Rb(+) or Cs(+) and precise measurements of anomalous differences in intensities provide a particularly sensitive method for detecting alkali metal ion-binding sites in nucleic acid crystals. Not only can alkali metal ions be readily located in such structures, but the presence of Rb(+) or Cs(+) also allows structure determination by the single wavelength anomalous diffraction technique. Besides allowing identification of high occupancy binding sites, the combination of high resolution and anomalous diffraction data established here can also pinpoint binding sites that feature only partial occupancy. Conversely, high resolution of the data alone does not necessarily allow differentiation between water and partially ordered metal ions, as demonstrated with the crystal structure of a DNA duplex determined to a resolution of 0.6 A. (+info)
The contribution of metal ions to the conformational stability of ribonuclease T1: crystal versus solution.
In the crystalline state, ribonuclease T1 binds calcium ions at different lattice-dependent positions. In solution, its conformational stability is also remarkably increased in the presence of divalent metal ions. Combining urea unfolding studies and X-ray crystallography, we compared the presence of several metal ions at specific sites in the protein to their contribution to the overall stabilizing effect in solution. We constructed thermodynamic cycles involving particular metal ions and specific carboxylate functions. The resulting coupling energies indicate that some (but not all) metal ions found at lattice contacts in crystal structures may indeed significantly contribute to stability enhancement in the presence of metal ions in solution. (+info)
Stimulation of the salt receptor of the blowfly. III. The alkali halides.
Application of solutions of each of the alkali halides to the tip of a labellar sensillum of the blowfly elicited a repetitive neural discharge from the salt receptor. The records were qualitatively similar to those for NaCl. For each of the alkali chlorides and sodium halides, the shapes of the curves of the response of the salt receptor as a function of concentration were similar to that for NaCl. The alkali halides exhibited a regular pattern of relative stimulating effectiveness for the salt receptor. The effectiveness of the anions increased monotonically with atomic number. The effectiveness of the cations was greatest for potassium and declined as the atomic number was increased or decreased. This hierarchy for stimulating effectiveness was maintained at all tested molarities. The response to a mixture of two salts appeared to be an average of those to the single salts at concentrations equal to the total concentration of the mixture. Cross-adaptation was observed between the alkali halides. The results indicate that an explanation of stimulation of the salt receptor must apply to all the salts tested and that both the anion and the cation affect a salt's stimulating effectiveness. (+info)
Ca(2+) function in photosynthetic oxygen evolution studied by alkali metal cations substitution.
Effects of adding monovalent alkali metal cations to Ca(2+)-depleted photosystem (PS)II membranes on the biochemical and spectroscopic properties of the oxygen-evolving complex were studied. The Ca(2+)-dependent oxygen evolution was competitively inhibited by K(+), Rb(+), and Cs(+), the ionic radii of which are larger than the radius of Ca(2+) but not inhibited significantly by Li(+) and Na(+), the ionic radii of which are smaller than that of Ca(2+). Ca(2+)-depleted membranes without metal cation supplementation showed normal S(2) multiline electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal and an S(2)Q(A)(-) thermoluminescence (TL) band with a normal peak temperature after illumination under conditions for single turnover of PSII. Membranes supplemented with Li(+) or Na(+) showed properties similar to those of the Ca(2+)-depleted membranes, except for a small difference in the TL peak temperatures. The peak temperature of the TL band of membranes supplemented with K(+), Rb(+), or Cs(+) was elevated to approximately 38 degrees C which coincided with that of Y(D)(+)Q(A)(-) TL band, and no S(2) EPR signals were detected. The K(+)-induced high-temperature TL band and the S(2)Q(A)(-) TL band were interconvertible by the addition of K(+) or Ca(2+) in the dark. Both the Ca(2+)-depleted and the K(+)-substituted membranes showed the narrow EPR signal corresponding to the S(2)Y(Z)(+) state at g = 2 by illuminating the membranes under multiple turnover conditions. These results indicate that the ionic radii of the cations occupying Ca(2+)-binding site crucially affect the properties of the manganese cluster. (+info)
Cleavage reactions of the complex ions derived from self-complementary deoxydinucleotides and alkali-metal ions using positive ion electrospray ionization with tandem mass spectrometry.
The dissociation reactions of the adduct ions derived from the four self-complementary deoxydinucleotides, d(ApT), d(TpA), d(CpG), d(GpC), and alkali-metal ions were studied in detail by positive ion electrospray ionization multiple-stage mass spectrometry (ESI-MS(n)). For the [M + H](+) ions of the four deoxydinucleotides, elimination of 5'-terminus base or loss of both of 5'-terminus base and a deoxyribose were the major dissociation pathway. The ESI-MS(n) spectra showed that Li(+), Na(+), and Cs(+) bind to deoxydinucleotides mainly by substituting the H(+) of phosphate group, and these alkali-metal ions preferred to bind to pyrimidine bases rather than purine bases. For a given deoxydinucleotide, the dissociation pathway of [M + K](+) ions differed clearly from that of [M + Li](+), [M + Na](+), and [M + Cs](+) ions. Some interesting and characteristic cleavage reactions were observed in the product-ion spectra of [M + K](+) ions, including direct elimination of deoxyribose and HPO(3) from molecular ions. The fragmentation behavior of the [M + K](+) and [M + W](+) (W = Li, Na, Cs) adduct ions depend upon the sequence of bases, the interaction between alkali-metal ions and nucleobases, and the steric hindrance caused by bases. (+info)