Effects of repeated baking on the mechanical and physical properties of metal-ceramic systems.
This study evaluates effects of repeated baking processes on the mechanical and physical properties of single and triple applications of opaque, body and enamel porcelains fused to three different metal substrates (precious metal, semi-precious metal and non-precious metal). The vintage halo porcelain system was employed and fused to metals. Fused samples were subjected to three-point bend tests to evaluate bend strength and modulus of elasticity. It was found that, by increasing repeated baking cycles, (1) body and enamel porcelains increased bend strengths but opaque porcelain did not show any changes, (2) all triple-layered porcelains fired to metals increased bend strengths, and (3) all three porcelains and metal substrates did not exhibit changes in thermal expansion percentage. It was concluded that repeating baking procedures up to 10 cycles did not exhibit any adverse effects on the final properties of porcelain-fired to metals, rather it was noticed that mechanical strengths increased by increasing cycles. (+info)
Cross-sectional TEM analysis of porcelain fused to gold-coated titanium.
This study investigated the interfacial microstructure between gold-coated titanium and low-fusing porcelain. The square surfaces of cast titanium split rods were sputter-coated with gold using a sputter coater at 40 mA for 1,000 seconds. Specimens were prepared for transmission electron microscopy (TEM) by cutting and polishing two pieces of the gold-coated split-rod specimens, which were glued and embedded in Cu tubes with an epoxy adhesive. TEM observation was also conducted for the gold-coated specimens after degassing and porcelain fusing. Due to the gold coating, intermetallic compounds of Au-Ti formed under the sputtered gold layer after degassing and porcelain fusing. Ti3Au and Ti3Al layers were also observed beneath the Au-Ti intermetallic compound layer. There was good adhesion of porcelain to the Au-Ti compound and Ti oxides without any gaps or formation of a Ti-deficient intermediate layer, which is normally observed at the titanium-porcelain interface. The results of this TEM study suggested that gold-sputter-coating the cast titanium surface produced a Ti-Au intermetallic compound and suppressed the formation of a Ti-deficient intermediate layer, resulting in improved adherence between porcelain and titanium. (+info)
Shear bond strength of orthodontic brackets bonded to different ceramic surfaces.
This study was undertaken to measure the shear bond strength (SBS) of stainless steel brackets bonded to different ceramic surfaces, to compare the SBS of the different ceramics with each other and with conventional ceramo-metal porcelains, and to determine the mode of failure for each group following debonding. A total of 60 ceramic crowns were constructed on extracted teeth and divided into three equal groups as follows: In-Ceram ceramic crowns, IPS-Impress ceramic crowns, and conventional ceramo-metal porcelain. Standard edgewise metal premolar brackets were bonded to the prepared porcelain surfaces. After bonding, all samples were tested in shear mode on an Instron universal testing machine. Statistical analysis was undertaken using analysis of variance, LSD, and chi-squared tests. The results showed that the SBS for the ceramo-metal and the In-Ceram groups were comparable, with mean values of 80.54 +/- 13.44 N and 78.87 +/- 13.47 N, respectively. The IPS-Impress group showed the weakest SBS which averaged 67.40 +/- 8.99 N. This was significantly lower than that of the conventional ceramo-metal porcelain (P < 0.001) and the In-Ceram surface (P < 0.01). The mode of failure in the ceramo-metal group was between the porcelain surface and adhesive and in the other two ceramic groups, between the brackets and adhesive (P < 0.001). The SBS of orthodontic brackets to the three tested ceramic surfaces were adequate for orthodontic use. (+info)
The effect of post-core and ferrule on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors.
AIM: To evaluate the effect of post reinforcement, post type and ferrule on the fracture resistance of endodontically treated maxillary central incisors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sixty central incisor teeth were selected and grouped into six groups, viz. A, B, C, D, E, and F, each consisting of 10 specimens. Group A specimens were not subjected to any restorative treatment. Group B specimens were endodontically treated and crowned. Specimens of groups C and D were restored with custom cast post and core. Specimens of groups E and F were treated with prefabricated titanium post and composite core. Specimens of groups C and E were restored with porcelain-fused metal (PFM) crown having 2 mm ferrule. Specimens of groups D and F were restored with PFM crown having no ferrule. All the specimens were subjected to load (newton, N) on the lingual surface at a 135 degree angle to the long axis with a universal testing machine until it fractured. The fracture load and mode of fracture of each specimen were noted. One-way analysis of variance with Tukey honestly significant difference procedure was employed to identify the significant difference among the groups at 5% level (P < 0.05). RESULTS: There were significant differences among the six groups studied (P < 0.0001). The highest fracture strength was recorded with specimen of group C (1376.7 N). There were significant differences between groups A and D versus groups B, E, and F. There were no significant differences between groups B, E, and F. Cervical root fracture was the predominant mode of failure in all the groups except group A. CONCLUSION: The results showed that endodontically treated teeth restored with custom cast post core were as strong as the untreated group. Teeth restored with custom cast post core were better resistant to fracture than teeth restored with prefabricated titanium post and composite core. Ferrule is more important in custom cast post core than in prefabricated post and composite core. (+info)
Three-dimensional finite element analysis of stress distribution in composite resin cores with fiber posts of varying diameters.
Using three-dimensional finite element analysis (3D-FEA), stress distributions in the remaining radicular tooth structure were investigated under the condition of varying diameters of fiber post for fiber post-reinforced composite resin cores (fiber post and core) in maxillary central incisors. Four 3D-FEA models were constructed: (1) fiber post (o1.2, o1.4, and o1.6 mm) and composite resin core; and (2) gold-cast post and core. Maximum stresses in the tooth structure for fiber post and core were higher than that for gold-cast post and core. In the former models, stresses in the tooth structure as well as in the composite resin were slightly reduced with increase in fiber post diameter. These results thus suggested that to reduce stress in the remaining radicular tooth with a large coronal defect, it is recommended to accompany a composite resin core with a fiber post of a large diameter. (+info)
Long-term observation of porous sapphire dental implants.
We used porous sapphire dental implants made of alumina clinically for 4 years 1 month, commencing September, 1984 until September, 1988. Subjects consisted of 18 men and 42 women 20-71 years old (mean age: 35 years). Sixty-five implants were inserted in 60 patients. Of these, 20 were clinical cases of an implant connected with natural teeth and 45 were free-standing cases. We conducted a follow-up study on these patients over a 23-year period. One implant in 1 patient had to be removed because of postoperative infection and 8 implants in 7 patients had to be removed because of fracturing or detachment of the porous-part. This paper reports 3 cases where implants remained in place for 21-23 years. These cases have all shown good long-term clinical progress. (+info)
Influence of different luting agents on the marginal discrepancy of Procera Allceram alumina crown copings--an experimental study.
Two maxillary first molars and two central incisor typhodont teeth were prepared with 0.8 mm chamfer, 2.0 mm occlusal reduction, and 6 degree taper. The prepared teeth were duplicated 9 times to obtain 36 die stone models and divided into three groups (n = 12). Luting agents tested were zinc phosphate, glass ionomer and resin cement. Procera AllCeram 0.6 mm coping was fixed with a calibrated finger force of 50 N. The absolute marginal discrepancy was measured using the scanning electron microscope on four axial walls with 4 measurements on each wall to obtain a total of 16 readings for one tooth. Mann Whitney U test was applied to find significant differences between luting cements and Kruskal Wallis tests among groups. Results The absolute marginal discrepancies of cements were in reducing order zinc phosphate (AZ) 53 microm; resin (AR) 44.5 microm, glass ionomer (AG) 29 microm. There was a significant difference among luting cements AG V/s AZ (p = 0.001) and AR V/s AG (p = 0.003), except AR V/s AZ (p = 0.213). All axial surfaces except mesial showed a significant difference. Conclusion The study concluded that different luting media have a definite effect over the final fit of AllCeram coping. Absolute marginal discrepancy was within the accepted level of 100 microm. Distal axial surface demonstrated a wider gap among all the luting agents. (+info)
Marginal and internal fit of all-ceramic crowns fabricated with two different CAD/CAM systems.
This study evaluated the accuracy of marginal and internal fit between the all-ceramic crowns manufactured by a conventional double-layer computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) system and a single-layer system. Ten standardized crowns were fabricated from each of these two systems: conventional double-layer CAD/CAM system (Procera) and a single-layer system (Cerec 3D). The copings and completed crowns were seated on the abutments by a special device that facilitated uniform loading, and the marginal discrepancies were measured. Internal gaps were also measured using a low-viscosity silicone material. Marginal discrepancies of Procera copings were significantly smaller than those of Procera crowns and Cerec 3D crowns (p < 0.05), but Procera crowns and Cerec 3D crowns did not differ significantly from each other (p > 0.05). On internal gaps, Cerec 3D crowns showed significantly larger internal gaps than Procera copings and crowns (p < 0.05). Within the limitations of this study, the single-layer system demonstrated acceptable marginal and internal fit. (+info)