(1/90) Trapeziometacarpal subluxation predisposes to incident trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis (OA): the Framingham Study.

OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) of the thumb carpo-metacarpal joint is a common condition that can lead to substantial pain, instability, deformity, and loss of motion. It has been hypothesized that instability of the trapeziometacarpal joint combined with strenuous use can potentially lead to OA. However, as yet there have been no longitudinal evaluations to determine if this hypothesis is true. We examined the relation of radial subluxation to the risk of radiographic OA at trapeziometacarpal joint. METHODS: We conducted a nested case-control study. We restricted our evaluation of cases to subjects with no radiographic trapeziometacarpal OA at baseline (1967). We defined incident trapeziometacarpal OA as the development of a modified Kellgren and Lawrence grade>or=2 in that joint at a later examination (1992-1993). Radial subluxation of the base of the first metacarpal off the trapezium and the amount of the base of the first metacarpal covering the articulating surface of the trapezium were measured using a digital calculation caliper. We examined the relation of gender-specific quartile groups of radial subluxation to the risk of trapeziometacarpal OA using a conditional logistic regression model. RESULTS: We assessed 203 men and 431 women. After adjusting for age, handedness, number of other joints with OA, and grip strength, the odds ratios for the risk of trapeziometacarpal OA in men were 1.0, 1.8, 2.7, and 3.1 from the lowest quartile of radial subluxation to the highest quartile, respectively (P for trend=0.015). There was no significant relationship between radial subluxation quartiles and incident trapeziometacarpal OA in women. CONCLUSION: This study provides evidence that radial subluxation predisposes to subsequent OA of the trapeziometacarpal joint in men.  (+info)

(2/90) Ultrasonographic monitoring of nuclear transferred fetal weight during the final stage of gestation in Holstein cows.

Dystocia or stillbirth accompanied by Large Offspring Syndrome (LOS) occurs rather frequently in Holstein nuclear transferred calves. In regard to prophylaxes, nuclear transferred Holstein fetuses were monitored with ultrasonography during the final stage of gestation. Fetal weight was estimated weekly based on the fetal metacarpal width using ultrasonography. Fourteen Holstein cows pregnant with Holstein nuclear transferred fetuses were the subjects of this experiment. The fetal weight was estimated by measuring the fetal metacarpal width during the last month of gestation according to the expected date of parturition. Measurements were performed on a weekly basis. The ultrasound-estimated metacarpal width and body weight of 13 of the fetuses in the last week of gestation (30.2+/-2.2 mm, 50.0+/-4.7 kg) were similar to the actual measurement immediately after birth (30.0+/-2.1 mm, 51.2+/-5.5 kg). These results indicate that ultrasonographic monitoring within a week of parturition to is accurate for estimating fetal weight. Prediction of LOS with ultrasonography contributes to reliable a diagnostic method that minimizes syndrome-related gyneco-obstetric complications at parturition with the aid of appropriate treatments.  (+info)

(3/90) Functional trade-offs in the limb bones of dogs selected for running versus fighting.

The physical demands of rapid and economical running differ from the demands of fighting in ways that may prevent the simultaneous evolution of optimal performance in these two behaviors. Here, we test an hypothesis of functional trade-off in limb bones by measuring mechanical properties of limb bones in two breeds of domestic dog (Canis lupus familiaris L.) that have undergone intense artificial selection for running (greyhound) and fighting (pit bull) performance. The bones were loaded to fracture in three-point static bending. To correct for the effect of shear, we estimated the shear stress in the cross section and added energy due to shear stress to the tensile energy. The proximal limb bones of the pit bulls differed from those of the greyhounds in having relatively larger second moments of area of mid-diaphyseal cross sections and in having more circular cross-sectional shape. The pit bulls exhibited lower stresses at yield, had lower elastic moduli and failed at much higher levels of work. The stiffness of the tissue of the humerus, radius, femur and tibia was 1.5-2.4-fold greater in the greyhounds than in the pit bulls. These bones from the pit bulls absorbed 1.9-2.6-fold more energy before failure than did those of the greyhounds. These differences between breeds were not observed in the long bones of the feet, metacarpals and metatarsals. Nevertheless, the results of this analysis suggest that selection for high-speed running is associated with the evolution of relatively stiff, brittle limb bones, whereas selection for fighting performance leads to the evolution of limb bones with relatively high resistance to failure.  (+info)

(4/90) Association of radiological hand osteoarthritis with bone mineral mass: a population study.

OBJECTIVES: A number of previous studies have reported an inverse relationship between osteoarthritis and osteoporosis. However, the association has remained controversial because osteoarthritis in hand joints seems to associate differently from osteoarthritis in weight-bearing joints with bone mineral mass. We studied osteoarthritis in distal interphalangeal (DIP) joints and osteoarthritis in the base of the thumb (CMC-1) for their cross-sectional associations with metacarpal cortical bone mineral mass, and for their prediction of calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation. METHODS: A population sample of 8000 Finns aged 30 yr and over was invited to a comprehensive health examination in 1978-1980; 90% complied. Hand radiographs were taken from 3568 participants to diagnose osteoarthritis in various hand joints, and to determine two indicators of cortical bone mineral mass, the combined cortical thickness (CCT) and the metacarpal index (MCI). Calcaneal broadband ultrasound attenuation was measured 20 yr later in 340 of these participants with the Sahara sonometer. RESULTS: In the cross-sectional setting, osteoarthritis in the DIP joints and osteoarthritis in the base of the thumb (CMC-1) were significantly associated with low CCT and low MCI. These associations were proportional to the radiological severity of osteoarthritis. In the follow-up setting, symmetrical DIP osteoarthritis adjusted for age, sex, body mass index, smoking, education, workload and MCI significantly predicted low values of broadband ultrasound attenuation. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate a direct relation of both radiological DIP osteoarthritis and CMC-1 osteoarthritis with low cortical bone mineral mass, in proportion to the severity of osteoarthritis. The presence of symmetrical DIP osteoarthritis, a possible indicator of generalized osteoarthritis, suggests an increased risk of osteoporosis over time.  (+info)

(5/90) Disseminated tuberculosis presenting with finger swelling in a patient with tuberculous osteomyelitis: a case report.

BACKGROUND: Extrapulmonary manifestations of tuberculosis have become increasingly important in the era of HIV/AIDS. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a case of tuberculosis (TB) dactylitis in a patient with AIDS who originated from the Ivory Coast. The diagnosis was established by direct visualization of acid-fast bacilli on joint fluid and bone biopsy of the proximal phalanx. Imaging of the chest revealed multiple bilateral nodules. Confirmation of the diagnosis was made by isolation of Mycobacterium tuberculosis from sputum and bone cultures. CONCLUSION: Tuberculosis should be considered in patients with unusual soft tissue or skeletal lesions, especially when an immunosuppressive condition is present. Ziehl-Neelsen staining and culture of tissue obtained via surgical biopsy offer the most direct approach to diagnosis.  (+info)

(6/90) Basal thumb metacarpal osteotomy for trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis.

PURPOSE: To review the subjective and functional results of basal thumb metacarpal osteotomy for the treatment of trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis. METHODS: Between July 1993 and November 1998, 35 thumb osteotomies without internal fixation were performed on 33 patients in the Christchurch Hospital, New Zealand. Records of 28 thumbs (13 right and 15 left) of 26 patients (17 women and 9 men) were available for review. Patients were reviewed using strength testing and the Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire. RESULTS: The mean age of the 26 patients was 54 years (range, 30-69 years). Of the 28 thumbs, 22 (21 patients) had good or excellent results, 2 fair, one poor. The remaining 3 thumbs (3 patients) required further revision and were classified as failures. The mean follow-up period of the 25 thumbs (24 patients) not requiring revision was 34 months (range, 12-73 months). Good thumb motion was present in all hands with no trapeziometacarpal instability seen. Compared with the normative data, the strengths of key pinch, pulp pinch, and tripod pinch of our patients were significantly lower (22-32% lower), but not the grip strength. Michigan Hand Outcomes Questionnaire scores increased 28 (range, 1-56) points after surgery, with significant improvement especially in pain (+44 points), activities of daily living (one-handed tasks, +41 points), and satisfaction (+35 points). CONCLUSION: Basal thumb metacarpal osteotomy is a straightforward, conservative procedure that should be considered for grades II and III trapeziometacarpal osteoarthritis.  (+info)

(7/90) Piezoelectric osteotomy in hand surgery: first experiences with a new technique.

BACKGROUND: In hand and spinal surgery nerve lesions are feared complications with the use of standard oscillating saws. Oral surgeons have started using a newly developed ultrasound bone scalpel when performing precise osteotomies. By using a frequency of 25-29 kHz only mineralized tissue is cut, sparing the soft tissue. This reduces the risk of nerve lesions. As there is a lack of experience with this technique in the field of orthopaedic bone surgery, we performed the first ultrasound osteotomy in hand surgery. METHOD: While performing a correctional osteotomy of the 5th metacarpal bone we used the Piezosurgery Device from Mectron [Italy] instead of the usual oscillating saw. We will report on our experience with one case, with a follow up time of one year. RESULTS: The cut was highly precise and there were no vibrations of the bone. The time needed for the operation was slightly longer than the time needed while using the usual saw. Bone healing was good and at no point were there any neurovascular disturbances. CONCLUSION: The Piezosurgery Device is useful for small long bone osteotomies. Using the fine tip enables curved cutting and provides an opportunity for new osteotomy techniques. As the device selectively cuts bone we feel that this device has great potential in the field of hand- and spinal surgery.  (+info)

(8/90) Parosteal osteosarcoma of the thumb metacarpal: a case report.

A 60-year-old man presented with increasing swelling of his right thumb, duration one year. Imaging studies demonstrated a bone-forming lesion extending from the dorsal cortex of the thumb metacarpal and involving the underlying medullary canal. Incisional biopsy yielded the diagnosis of parosteal osteosarcoma. The differential diagnosis for and rarity of parosteal osteosarcoma arising in the tubular bones of the hand are discussed.  (+info)