Metabolic abnormalities characteristic of dysmetabolic syndrome predict the development of transplant coronary artery disease: a prospective study.
BACKGROUND: This study examines the hypothesis that metabolic abnormalities of dysmetabolic syndrome are risk factors for transplant coronary artery disease (TxCAD). METHODS AND RESULTS: Sixty-six patients without overt diabetes, 2 to 4 years after surgery, underwent intracoronary ultrasound (ICUS), measurement of plasma glucose and insulin after oral glucose (75 g), and fasting lipid and lipoproteins. TxCAD incidence by angiography or autopsy was prospectively determined during subsequent follow-up (8 years). Coronary artery intimal thickness (IT) and subsequent outcomes were compared in patients stratified as having "high" versus "low" plasma glucose (>8.9 mmol/L) and insulin (>760 pmol/L) 2 hours after glucose challenge; and "abnormal" versus "normal" fasting lipid and lipoprotein concentrations as defined by the National Cholesterol Education PROGRAM: Patients with high glucose or insulin concentrations had greater IT: 0.38+/-0.05 versus 0.22+/-0.02 mm, P0.3 mm than with IT +info)
A high-fructose diet induces insulin resistance but not blood pressure changes in normotensive rats.
Rats fed a high-fructose diet represent an animal model for insulin resistance and hypertension. We recently showed that a high-fructose diet containing vegetable oil but a normal sodium/potassium ratio induced mild insulin resistance with decreased insulin receptor substrate-1 tyrosine phosphorylation in the liver and muscle of normal rats. In the present study, we examined the mean blood pressure, serum lipid levels and insulin sensitivity by estimating in vivo insulin activity using the 15-min intravenous insulin tolerance test (ITT, 0.5 ml of 6 microg insulin, iv) followed by calculation of the rate constant for plasma glucose disappearance (Kitt) in male Wistar-Hannover rats (110-130 g) randomly divided into four diet groups: control, 1:3 sodium/potassium ratio (R Na:K) diet (C 1:3 R Na:K); control, 1:1 sodium/potassium ratio diet (CNa 1:1 R Na:K); high-fructose, 1:3 sodium/potassium ratio diet (F 1:3 R Na:K), and high-fructose, 1:1 sodium/potassium ratio diet (FNa 1:1 R Na:K) for 28 days. The change in R Na:K for the control and high-fructose diets had no effect on insulin sensitivity measured by ITT. In contrast, the 1:1 R Na:K increased blood pressure in rats receiving the control and high-fructose diets from 117 +/- 3 and 118 +/- 3 mmHg to 141 +/- 4 and 132 +/- 4 mmHg (P < 0.05), respectively. Triacylglycerol levels were higher in both groups treated with a high-fructose diet when compared to controls (C 1:3 R Na:K: 1.2 +/- 0.1 mmol/l vs F 1:3 R Na:K: 2.3 +/- 0.4 mmol/l and CNa 1:1 R Na:K: 1.2 +/- 0.2 mmol/l vs FNa 1:1 R Na:K: 2.6 +/- 0.4 mmol/l, P < 0.05). These data suggest that fructose alone does not induce hyperinsulinemia or hypertension in rats fed a normal R Na:K diet, whereas an elevation of sodium in the diet may contribute to the elevated blood pressure in this animal model. (+info)
GLUT4 protein expression in obese and lean 12-month-old rats: insights from different types of data analysis.
GLUT4 protein expression in white adipose tissue (WAT) and skeletal muscle (SM) was investigated in 2-month-old, 12-month-old spontaneously obese or 12-month-old calorie-restricted lean Wistar rats, by considering different parameters of analysis, such as tissue and body weight, and total protein yield of the tissue. In WAT, an approximately 70% decrease was observed in plasma membrane and microsomal GLUT4 protein, expressed as microg protein or g tissue, in both 12-month-old obese and 12-month-old lean rats compared to 2-month-old rats. However, when plasma membrane and microsomal GLUT4 tissue contents were expressed as g body weight, they were the same. In SM, GLUT4 protein content, expressed as microg protein, was similar in 2-month-old and 12-month-old obese rats, whereas it was reduced in 12-month-old obese rats, when expressed as g tissue or g body weight, which may play an important role in insulin resistance. Weight loss did not change the SM GLUT4 content. These results show that altered insulin sensitivity is accompanied by modulation of GLUT4 protein expression. However, the true role of WAT and SM GLUT4 contents in whole-body or tissue insulin sensitivity should be determined considering not only GLUT4 protein expression, but also the strong morphostructural changes in these tissues, which require different types of data analysis. (+info)
Dietary patterns and risk factors of diabetes mellitus among urban indigenous women in Fiji.
The dietary patterns of indigenous Fijians are changing rapidly. Dietary relationships in regard to the prevalence of diabetes are poorly studied in Fiji. A survey was conducted to show the relationship of dietary patterns and other lifestyle factors for the development of diabetes among urban indigenous women in Fiji. A sample of 200 Fijian women aged 30-39 who agreed to participate were interviewed by the use of semiquantitative food frequency, 3 day-24 h recall study. Physical activity and ceremonial dietary customs were also taken into consideration. Anthropometry included measurements of height, weight, waist and hip. Total percentage bodyfat measurements and glycosuria tests were also conducted. The results showed high rates of obesity manifested in high percentage bodyfat, high body mass index (BMI) and high waist and hip ratio (WHR). The mean 24 h dietary intake exhibited a moderate intake of protein, high intake of fat and a low intake of carbohydrate. The carbohydrate reduction was a result from the decline in consumption of traditional staples. Consumption of cereals and related products favored the high intake of butter and margarine and also encouraged the use of cooking oil in frying varieties of flour products. The daily intake of anti-oxidant vitamins of beta-carotene and vitamin E were low, however there was a high intake of vitamin C. The food frequency study revealed cassava, bread and sugar were consumed daily as the main carbohydrate foods. Fish and meat were the most frequently consumed protein foods. The main beverage was sweet tea with whole-cream milk. Butter, margarine, coconut cream, cheap lamb flaps and cooking oil provided the main sources of fat. Levels of physical activity included high sedentary lifestyles with a high rate of subjects being overweight and obese. Ceremonial dietary customs showed a high consumption of meat and fish. Fruits were rarely consumed. Glycosuria existed among the age group under study. The impact of dietary transition, coupled with dietary excesses and physical inactivity, seem to be potential risk factors of diabetes among the indigenous women in the urban area. (+info)
Nutrition and diabetes in the Asia-Pacific region with reference to cardiovascular disease.
In many parts of the Asia-Pacific region, diabetes prevalence is increasing and seems destined to become a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The phenomenon seems predicated on insulin resistance (IR), partly attributable to an early impact of abdominal (visceral) adiposity than in Caucasian populations. Food intake along with physical activity and emotional stress are all determinants of glycaemic status. The glycaemic index (GI) of foods indicates that a number of food factors other than glucose content are important for good glycaemic response to foods and meals. These include (i) low GI foods could also be ones low in fat, (ii) foods that have the lowest GI which include lentils, pasta, noodles, multigrain breads and some fruits (e.g. grapefruit, plums) and (iii) fruits are to be preferred to their juices. The nutritional management of diabetes is best served by counselling changes in a sociocultural context and step-wise fashion by negotiation rather than prescription. It needs to be accompanied by advice to engage in regular physical activity, both aerobic and strength training. The same concept applies to the prevention of abdominal adiposity and diabetes mellitus type II in the Asia-Pacific region, but with particular reference to protective regional food. (+info)
A genome-wide scan for coronary heart disease suggests in Indo-Mauritians a susceptibility locus on chromosome 16p13 and replicates linkage with the metabolic syndrome on 3q27.
Prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD), of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and of the metabolic syndrome are in Mauritius amongst the highest in the world. As T2DM and CHD are closely associated and have both a polygenic basis, we conducted a 10 cM genome scan with 403 microsatellite markers in 99 independent families of North-Eastern Indian origin including 535 individuals. Families were ascertained through a proband with CHD before 52 years of age and additional sibs with myocardial infarction (MI) or T2DM. Model-free two-point and multipoint linkage analysis were performed using the Mapmarker-Sibs (MLS) and maximum-likelihood-binomial (MLB) programs for autosomal markers and the Aspex program for chromosome X markers. In a second step, additional markers were studied to increase the genetic map density in three regions on chromosomes 3, 8 and 16 where initial indication for linkage was found. Our data show suggestive linkage with CHD on chromosome 16p13-pter with the MLS statistics at 8.69 cM (LOD = 3.06, P = 0.00017) which partially overlaps with a high pressure (HBP) peak. At the same locus, a nominal indication for linkage with T2DM was found in 35 large T2DM Pondicherian families also having Indian origin. With respect to region 8q23, we found suggestive linkage with T2DM (LOD = 2.55, P = 0.00058) as well as with HBP. On 3q27, we replicated previous indication for linkage found in Caucasians (for the metabolic syndrome and for diabetes) according to the categorized trait for CHD and MI with the MLB statistics (LOD = 2.13, P = 0.0009). The genome scan also revealed nominal evidence of linkage with CHD on 10q23 (LOD = 2.06, P = 0.00188). Interestingly, we detected in the same region overlapping linkages with three QTLs: age of onset of CHD (LOD = 2.03), HDL cholesterol (LOD = 1.48) and LDL/HDL ratio (LOD = 1.34). Ordered-subset analysis based on family body mass index ranking replicated finding on 2q37 for T2DM (at Calpain 10 locus). These results show the first evidence for susceptibility loci that predispose to CHD, T2DM and HBP in the context of the metabolic syndrome. (+info)
A transgenic model of visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome.
The adverse metabolic consequences of obesity are best predicted by the quantity of visceral fat. Excess glucocorticoids produce visceral obesity and diabetes, but circulating glucocorticoid levels are normal in typical obesity. Glucocorticoids can be produced locally from inactive 11-keto forms through the enzyme 11beta hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11beta HSD-1). We created transgenic mice overexpressing 11beta HSD-1 selectively in adipose tissue to an extent similar to that found in adipose tissue from obese humans. These mice had increased adipose levels of corticosterone and developed visceral obesity that was exaggerated by a high-fat diet. The mice also exhibited pronounced insulin-resistant diabetes, hyperlipidemia, and, surprisingly, hyperphagia despite hyperleptinemia. Increased adipocyte 11beta HSD-1 activity may be a common molecular etiology for visceral obesity and the metabolic syndrome. (+info)
PPARgamma and atherosclerosis: effects on cell growth and movement.
Atherosclerosis is a major vascular complication of diabetes and the primary cause of mortality in persons with this disease. Metabolic abnormalities related to the Insulin Resistance Syndrome or Metabolic Syndrome may importantly contribute to the increased risk of atherosclerosis associated with diabetes. Thiazolidinediones (TZDs) are oral insulin sensitizers in broad clinical use that enhance insulin-stimulated glucose uptake into skeletal muscle. TZDs can also improve cardiovascular risk factors and exert direct effects on vascular cells to potentially retard the atherosclerotic process. Direct vascular effects of TZDs likely result from their activity as ligands for the nuclear receptor, PPARgamma. All of the major cell types in the vasculature express PPARgamma, including intimal macrophages and vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in human atheroma. TZDs block VSMC growth by inducing cell cycle arrest in G1 through an inhibition of retinoblastoma protein phosphorylation. Migration of monocytes and VSMCs is also inhibited by TZDs, possibly through decreased matrix metalloproteinase production. Activation of PPARgamma by TZDs in macrophages induces ABCA1 transporter expression to promote reverse cholesterol transport. These antiatherogenic activities may also occur in vivo because TZDs have been shown to inhibit lesion formation in several animal models. Thus, TZD activation of PPARgamma may protect against atherosclerosis both by normalizing proatherogenic metabolic abnormalities of the insulin resistance/diabetes milieu and through an inhibition of vascular cell growth and movement. (+info)