Methemoglobin formation by hydroxylamine metabolites of sulfamethoxazole and dapsone: implications for differences in adverse drug reactions.
Differences in the incidence of adverse drug reactions to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and dapsone may result from differences in the formation, disposition, toxicity, and/or detoxification of their hydroxylamine metabolites. In this study, we examine whether differences in the biochemical processing of sulfamethoxazole hydroxylamine (SMX-NOH) and dapsone hydroxylamine (DDS-NOH) by erythrocytes [red blood cells (RBCs)] contribute to this differential incidence. The methemoglobin (MetHgb)-forming capacity of both metabolites was compared after a 60-min incubation with washed RBCs from four healthy human volunteers. DDS-NOH was significantly more potent (P =.004) but equally efficacious with SMX-NOH in its ability to form MetHgb. The elimination of potential differences in disposition by lysing RBCs did not change the MetHgb-forming potency of either hydroxylamine. At pharmacologically relevant concentrations, greater reduction to the parent amine occurred with DDS-NOH. Maintenance of MetHgb-forming potency was dependent on recycling with glutathione, but no difference in cycling efficiency was observed between DDS-NOH and SMX-NOH. In contrast, the pharmacodynamics of hydroxylamine-induced MetHgb formation were not changed by pretreatment with the glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase inhibitor epiandrosterone or by compounds that alter normal antioxidant enzyme activity. Methylene blue, which stimulates NADPH-dependent MetHgb reductase activity, decreased MetHgb levels but did not alter the differential potency of these hydroxylamines. DDS-NOH was also significantly more potent when incubated with purified human hemoglobin A0. Collectively, these data suggest that the inherently greater reactivity of DDS-NOH with hemoglobin, the greater conversion of DDS-NOH to its parent amine, and potential differences in disposition of hydroxylamine metabolites may contribute to the preferential development of dapsone-induced hemotoxicity and sulfamethoxazole-induced hypersensitivity reactions. (+info)
Glutathione S-transferase GSTM3 and GSTP1 genotypes and larynx cancer risk.
Glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) are involved in detoxification of reactive metabolites of carcinogens and, therefore, could be potentially important in susceptibility to cancer. The associations between larynx cancer risk and GSTM3 and GSTP1 gene polymorphisms, either separately or in combination with GSTM1 and GSTT1 gene polymorphisms, were evaluated using peripheral blood DNA from 129 cancer patients and 172 controls, all regular smokers. The frequencies of GSTM3 AA, AB, and BB genotypes were 60.5%, 36.4%, and 3.1% in cases and 72.7%, 24.4%, and 2.9% in controls, respectively. The frequencies of GSTP1 AA, AG, and GG genotypes were 48.1%, 40.3%, and 11.6% in cases and 50.0%, 37.2%, and 12.8% in controls, respectively. Multivariate logistic regression analyses did not reveal any association between the GSTP1 (AG or GG) genotype and larynx cancer [odds ratio, 1.1; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.7-2.0]. In contrast, a significant increase in risk was related to the GSTM3 (AB or BB) genotype (odds ratio, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.4). The combined GSTM3 (AB or BB) and GSTM1-null genotype conferred a 4-fold risk (95% CI, 1.6-10.1) of larynx cancer as compared with the combined GSTM3 AA and GSTM1-positive genotype. However, the effect of GSTM3 (AB or BB) genotype was similar among individuals with GSTM1-positive or GSTM1-null genotypes. (+info)
Pregnenolone esterification in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. A potential detoxification mechanism.
While studying the effect of steroids on the growth of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, we found that pregnenolone was converted into the acetate ester. This reaction was identified as a transfer of the acetyl group from acetyl-CoA to the 3beta-hydroxyl group of pregnenolone. The corresponding enzyme, acetyl-CoA:pregnenolone acetyltransferase (APAT) is specific for Delta5- or Delta4-3beta-hydroxysteroids and short-chain acyl-CoAs. The apparent Km for pregnenolone is approximately 0.5 microm. The protein associated with APAT activity was partially purified and finally isolated from an SDS/polyacrylamide gel. Tryptic peptides were generated and N-terminally sequenced. Two peptide sequences allowed the identification of an open reading frame (YGR177c, in the S. cerevisiae genome database) translating into a 62-kDa protein of hitherto unknown function. This protein encoded by a gene known as ATF2 displays 37% identity with an alcohol acetyltransferase encoded by the yeast gene ATF1. Disruption of ATF2 led to the complete elimination of APAT activity and consequently abolished the esterification of pregnenolone. In addition, a toxic effect of pregnenolone linked to the disruption of ATF2 was observed. Pregnenolone toxicity is more pronounced when the atf2-Delta mutation is introduced in a yeast strain devoid of the ATP-binding cassette transporters, PDR5 and SNQ2. Our results suggest that Atf2p (APAT) plays an active role in the detoxification of 3beta-hydroxysteroids in association with the efflux pumps Pdr5p and Snq2p. (+info)
Relation of structure of curcumin analogs to their potencies as inducers of Phase 2 detoxification enzymes.
A series of naturally occurring as well as synthetic structural analogs of the dietary constituent curcumin were examined in order to elucidate which portions of the molecule are critical for the ability to induce Phase 2 detoxification enzymes in murine hepatoma cells, and hence to assess the chemoprotective potential of these compounds. Two groups of compounds were studied: classical Michael reaction acceptors such as curcumin and related beta-diketones such as dibenzoylmethane which lack direct Michael reactivity. The presence of two structural elements was found to be required for high inducer potency: (i) hydroxyl groups at ortho-position on the aromatic rings and (ii) the beta-diketone functionality. All curcuminoids elevate the specific activity of quinone reductase in both wild type and mutant cells defective in either the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor or cytochrome P4501A1 activity. This indicates that neither binding to this receptor, nor metabolic activation by P4501A1 are required for the signaling process originating from this family of electrophiles and ultimately resulting in Phase 2 enzyme induction. (+info)
Molecular basis for hepatic detoxifying enzyme induction by 2-(allylthio)pyrazine in rats in comparison with oltipraz: effects on prooxidant production and DNA degradation.
The expression of hepatic microsomal epoxide hydrolase (mEH) and glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) by 2-(allylthio)pyrazine (2-AP), an experimental chemopreventive agent, was investigated in rats. Northern blot analysis revealed that 2-AP caused increases in mEH, rGSTA2/3/5, and rGSTM1/2 mRNA levels. mEH and rGSTA2 proteins were also induced. Molecular basis of the enzyme induction by 2-AP was studied in comparison with oltipraz (Olt). Rats exposed to buthionine sulfoximine, a GSH-depleting agent, before treatment with either 2-AP or Olt exhibited greater increases in the mRNA levels than the individual treatment. Conversely, increases of the mRNAs were prevented by cysteine treatment, indicating that metabolic intermediates or reactive oxygens produced from the agents could be reduced by cysteine. Gel shift analysis revealed that nuclear factor-kappaB, which is associated with the altered cellular redox state, was not activated by the agents. Effects of these agents on the breakage of phix-174 DNA were compared in vitro. 2-AP effectively reduced the conversion of supercoiled DNA to the open circular form induced by benzenetriol and prevented benzenetriol- and iron-catalyzed degradation of DNA, whereas Olt failed to prevent strand breakage of DNA. These results provided evidence that: 1) 2-AP was effective in elevating the hepatic mEH and GST gene expression in rats, which might be mediated with the production of reactive oxygen species; 2) nuclear factor-kappaB activation was not involved in the induction of the detoxifying enzymes by either 2-AP or Olt in spite of their production of reactive oxygens in vivo; and 3) the antioxidant effect of 2-AP in vitro differed from that of Olt. (+info)
Tolerance to toxic metals by a gene family of phytochelatin synthases from plants and yeast.
Phytochelatins play major roles in metal detoxification in plants and fungi. However, genes encoding phytochelatin synthases have not yet been identified. By screening for plant genes mediating metal tolerance we identified a wheat cDNA, TaPCS1, whose expression in Saccharomyces cerevisiae results in a dramatic increase in cadmium tolerance. TaPCS1 encodes a protein of approximately 55 kDa with no similarity to proteins of known function. We identified homologs of this new gene family from Arabidopsis thaliana, Schizosaccharomyces pombe, and interestingly also Caenorhabditis elegans. The Arabidopsis and S.pombe genes were also demonstrated to confer substantial increases in metal tolerance in yeast. PCS-expressing cells accumulate more Cd2+ than controls. PCS expression mediates Cd2+ tolerance even in yeast mutants that are either deficient in vacuolar acidification or impaired in vacuolar biogenesis. PCS-induced metal resistance is lost upon exposure to an inhibitor of glutathione biosynthesis, a process necessary for phytochelatin formation. Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells disrupted in the PCS gene exhibit hypersensitivity to Cd2+ and Cu2+ and are unable to synthesize phytochelatins upon Cd2+ exposure as determined by HPLC analysis. Saccharomyces cerevisiae cells expressing PCS produce phytochelatins. Moreover, the recombinant purified S.pombe PCS protein displays phytochelatin synthase activity. These data demonstrate that PCS genes encode phytochelatin synthases and mediate metal detoxification in eukaryotes. (+info)
Candidate genetic modifiers of individual susceptibility to renal cell carcinoma: a study of polymorphic human xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes.
The steady increase in sporadic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) observed in industrialized countries supports the notion that certain carcinogens present in the environment (tobacco smoke, drugs, pollutants, and dietary constituents) may affect the occurrence of RCC. Many of the enzymes dealing with such environmental factors are polymorphic and may, therefore, confer variable susceptibility to RCC. This case-control study was designed to test for an association between genetic polymorphism of enzymes involved in xenobiotic metabolism and the risk of sporadic RCC. Genomic DNA was obtained from 173 patients with RCC and 211 controls of Caucasian origin. We used PCR-RFLP to investigate polymorphism for the most common alleles at two cytochrome-P450 mono-oxygenases (CYP1A1 and CYP2D6), one NAD[P]H:quinone oxidoreductase (NQO1), three glutathione S-transferases (GSTM1, GSTT1, and GSTP1), and one N-acetyltransferase (NAT2) loci. The CYP1A1 (m) "variant" genotype, which contains at least one copy of the CYP1A1 variant alleles, was found to be associated with a 2.1-fold [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.1-3.9] increase in the risk of RCC. There was also a higher risk of RCC for subjects with the CYP1A1 (m) variant genotype combined with any of the following genotypes: GSTT1 (+) "active" [odds ratio (OR), 2.3; 95% CI, 1.2-4.5], GSTP1 (m) variant (OR, 2.4; 95% CI, 1.0-5.4), or NAT2 (-) "slow acetylator" (OR, 2.5; 95% CI, 1.1-5.5). A significant association was also found for the GSTM1 (-) "null" and GSTP1 (m) genotypes combined with either NAT2 (-) (OR, 2.6; 95% CI, 1.2-5.8) or CYP1A1 (m) (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.1-11.2). The CYP2D6 (-) "poor metabolizer " and the NQO1 (-) "defective" genotypes were not clearly associated with a higher risk of RCC. Our data demonstrate for the first time a significant association between a group of pharmacogenetic polymorphisms and RCC risk. These positive findings suggest that interindividual variation in the metabolic pathways involved in the functionalization and detoxification of specific xenobiotics is an important susceptibility factor for RCC in Caucasians. (+info)
Genetic and dietary predictors of CYP2E1 activity: a phenotyping study in Hawaii Japanese using chlorzoxazone.
Cytochrome P4502E1 (CYP2E1) is considered to play an important role in the metabolic activation of procarcinogens such as N-nitrosoamines and low molecular weight organic compounds. An RsaI polymorphism is present in the 5'-flanking region of the CYP2E1 gene, which could possibly affect its transcription. However, the relationship between genotype and the phenotypic catalytic activity of the enzyme has not been defined. Also, the effects in humans of specific dietary factors, other than ethanol, which have been shown in animal and in vitro studies to modulate CYP2E1 activity, are unknown. Accordingly, the CYP2E1-mediated metabolism of chlorzoxazone to its 6-hydroxy metabolite was investigated in 50 healthy Japanese of both sexes in Hawaii. The oral clearance of the in vivo probe, the trait measure of CYP2E1 activity, was smaller than that reported in European-Americans. Significantly, after adjustment for age and sex, the oral clearance of chlorzoxazone decreased with the number of variant c2 alleles, and its mean in the c2/c2 genotype (147 ml/min) was statistically lower (P < or = 0.05) than that for either the homozygous wild-type (238 ml/min) or the heterozygote (201 ml/min) genotypes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis indicated that body weight was a major contributor to the interindividual variability in the oral clearance of chlorzoxazone, accounting for 43% of the variance. Consumption of lettuce, broccoli, and black tea explained additional components of the variability (7, 5, and 6%, respectively), as did medication use (3%), age (4%), and CYP2E1 genotype (5%). Overall, 73% of the variance could be accounted for by these variables. Body weight, lettuce, and use of medications were associated with increased CYP2E1 activity, and the other covariates were associated with reduced enzyme function. Because of the role that CYP2E1 plays in procarcinogen activation, especially of N-nitrosamines involved in lung cancer, the identified factors may account in part for observed differences in individual susceptibility to disease and may also have implications for cancer prevention. (+info)