(1/3580) Accumulation of astaxanthin all-E, 9Z and 13Z geometrical isomers and 3 and 3' RS optical isomers in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) is selective.

Concentrations of all-E-, 9Z- and 13Z- geometrical and (3R,3'R), (3R, 3'S) and (3S,3'S) optical isomers of astaxanthin were determined in rainbow trout liver, gut tissues, kidney, skin and blood plasma to evaluate their body distribution. Two cold-pelleted diets containing predominantly all-E-astaxanthin (36.9 mg/kg astaxanthin, 97% all-E-, 0.4% 9Z-, 1.5% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 1.1% other isomers, respectively) or a mixture of all-E- and Z-astaxanthins (35.4 mg/kg astaxanthin, 64% all-E-, 18.7% 9Z-, 12.3% 13Z-astaxanthin, and 2.0% other isomers, respectively), were fed to duplicate groups of trout for 69 d. Individual E/Z isomers were identified by VIS- and 1H-NMR-spectrometry, and quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Significantly higher total carotenoid concentration was observed in plasma of trout fed diets with all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative E/Z-isomer concentrations of plasma, skin and kidney were not significantly different among groups, whereas all-E-astaxanthin was higher in intestinal tissues and 13Z-astaxanthin was lower in liver of trout fed all-E-astaxanthin (P < 0.05). The relative amount of hepatic 13Z-astaxanthin (39-49% of total astaxanthin) was higher than in all other samples (P < 0.05). Synthetic, optically inactive astaxanthin was used in all experiments, and the determined dietary ratio between the 3R,3'R:3R, 3'S (meso):3S,3'S optical isomers was 25.3:49.6:25.1. The distribution of R/S-astaxanthin isomers in feces, blood, liver and fillet was similar to that in the diets. The ratio between (3S,3'S)- and (3R,3'R)-astaxanthin in the skin and posterior kidney was ca. 2:1 and 3:1, respectively, regardless of dietary E/Z-astaxanthin composition. The results show that geometrical and optical isomers of astaxanthin are distributed selectively in different tissues of rainbow trout.  (+info)

(2/3580) Absorption, metabolism, and excretion of 14C-temozolomide following oral administration to patients with advanced cancer.

The purpose of this study is to characterize the absorption, metabolism, and excretion of carbon 14-labeled temozolomide (14C-TMZ) administered p.o. to adult patients with advanced solid malignancies. On day 1 of cycle 1, six patients received a single oral 200-mg dose of 14C-TMZ (70.2 microCi). Whole blood, plasma, urine, and feces were collected from days 1-8 and on day 14 of cycle 1. Total radioactivity was measured in all samples. TMZ, 5-(3-methyltriazen-1-yl)imidazole-4-carboxamide (MTIC), and 4-amino-5-imidazole-carboxamide (AIC) concentrations were determined in plasma, and urine and plasma samples were profiled for metabolite/degradation products. Maximum TMZ plasma concentrations were achieved between 0.33 to 2 h (mean, 1.2 h), and half-life, apparent volume of distribution, and oral clearance values averaged 1.9 h, 17 liters/m2, and 104 ml/min/m2, respectively. A first-order absorption, one-compartment linear model, which included first-order formation of MTIC from TMZ and elimination of MTIC via degradation to AIC, and a peripheral distribution compartment for AIC, adequately described the plasma TMZ, MTIC, and AIC concentrations. MTIC systemic clearance was estimated to be 5384 ml/min/m2, and the half-life was calculated to be 2.5 min. Metabolite profiles of plasma at 1 and 4 h after treatment showed that 14C-derived radioactivity was primarily associated with TMZ, and a smaller amount was attributed to AIC. Profiles of urine samples from 0-24 h revealed that 14C-TMZ-derived urinary radioactivity was primarily associated with unchanged drug (5.6%), AIC (12%), or 3-methyl-2,3-dihydro-4-oxoimidazo[5,1-d]tetrazine-8-carboxyl ic acid (2.3%). The recovered radioactive dose (39%) was principally eliminated in the urine (38%), and a small amount (0.8%) was excreted in the feces. TMZ exhibits rapid oral absorption and high systemic availability. The primary elimination pathway for TMZ is by pH-dependent degradation to MTIC and further degradation to AIC. Incomplete recovery of radioactivity may be explained by the incorporation of AIC into nucleic acids.  (+info)

(3/3580) Bioavailability and toxicity after oral administration of m-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG).

meta-iodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) radiolabelled with iodine-131 is used for diagnosis and treatment of neuroadrenergic neoplasms such as phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma. In addition, non-radiolabelled MIBG, administered i.v., is used in several clinical studies. These include palliation of the carcinoid syndrome, in which MIBG proved to be effective in 60% of the patients. Oral MIBG administration might be convenient to maintain palliation and possibly improve the percentage of responders. We have, therefore, investigated the feasibility of oral administration of MIBG in an animal model. Orally administered MIBG demonstrated a bioavailability of 59%, with a maximal tolerated dose of 60 mg kg(-1). The first and only toxicity encountered was a decrease in renal function, measured by a reduced clearance of [51Cr]EDTA and accompanied by histological tubular damage. Repeated MIBG administration of 40 mg kg(-1) for 5 sequential days or of 20 mg kg(-1) for two courses of 5 sequential days with a 2-day interval did not affect renal clearance and was not accompanied by histological abnormalities in kidney, stomach, intestines, liver, heart, lungs, thymus, salivary glands and testes. Because of a sufficient bioavailability in absence of gastrointestinal toxicity, MIBG is considered suitable for further clinical investigation of repeated oral administration in patients.  (+info)

(4/3580) Phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin.

We conducted a phase I and pharmacokinetic study of the topoisomerase II catalytic inhibitor fostriecin. Fostriecin was administered intravenously over 60 min on days 1-5 at 4-week intervals. Dose was escalated from 2 mg m(-2) day(-1) to 20 mg m(-2) day(-1) in 20 patients. Drug pharmacokinetics was analysed with high performance liquid chromatography with UV-detection. Plasma collected during drug administration was tested in vitro for growth inhibition of a teniposide-resistant small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) cell line. The predominant toxicities were elevated liver transaminases (maximum common toxicity criteria (CTC) grade 4) and serum creatinine (maximum CTC grade 2). These showed only a limited increase with increasing doses, often recovered during drug administration and were fully reversible. Duration of elevated alanine-amino transferase (ALT) was dose-limiting in one patient at 20 mg m(-2). Other frequent toxicities were grade 1-2 nausea/vomiting, fever and mild fatigue. Mean fostriecin plasma half-life was 0.36 h (initial; 95% CI, 0-0.76 h) and 1.51 h (terminal; 95% CI, 0.41-2.61 h). A metabolite, most probably dephosphorylated fostriecin, was detected in plasma and urine. No tumour responses were observed, but the plasma concentrations reached in the patients were insufficient to induce significant growth inhibition in vitro. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) has not been reached, because drug supply was stopped at the 20 mg m(-2) dose level. However, further escalation seems possible and is warranted to achieve potentially effective drug levels. Fostriecin has a short plasma half-life and longer duration of infusion should be considered.  (+info)

(5/3580) Altered pharmacokinetics of a novel anticancer drug, UCN-01, caused by specific high affinity binding to alpha1-acid glycoprotein in humans.

The large species difference in the pharmacokinetics/pharmacodynamics of 7-hydroxystaurosporine (UCN-01) can be partially explained by the high affinity binding of UCN-01 to human alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) (Fuse et al, Cancer Res., 58: 3248-3253, 1998). To confirm whether its binding to human AGP actually changes the in vivo pharmacokinetics, we have studied the alteration in its pharmacokinetics after simultaneous administration of human AGP to rats: (a) the protein binding of UCN-01 was evaluated by chasing its dissociation from proteins using dextran-coated charcoal. The UCN-01 remaining 0.1 h after adding dextran-coated charcoal to human plasma or AGP was approximately 80%, although the values for other specimens, except monkey plasma (approximately 20%), were <1%, indicating that the dissociation from human AGP was specifically slower than from other proteins; and (b) the pharmacokinetics of UCN-01 simultaneously administered with human AGP has been determined. The plasma concentrations after i.v. administration of UCN-O1 with equimolar human AGP were much higher than those after administration of UCN-01 alone. The steady-state distribution volume and the systemic clearance were reduced to about 1/100 and 1/200, respectively. Human AGP thus reduced the distribution and elimination of UCN-01 substantially. On the other hand, dog AGP, which has a low binding affinity for UCN-01, did not change the pharmacokinetics of UCN-01 so much. Furthermore, human AGP markedly reduced the hepatic extraction ratio of UCN-01 from 0.510 to 0.0326. Also, human AGP (10 microM) completely inhibited the initial uptake of UCN-01 (1 microM) into isolated rat hepatocytes, whereas the uptake of UCN-01 was unchanged in the presence of human serum albumin (10 microM). In conclusion, the high degree of binding of UCN-01 to human AGP causes a reduction in the distribution and clearance, resulting in high plasma concentrations in humans.  (+info)

(6/3580) L-Asparagine synthetase in serum as a marker for neoplasia.

L-Asparagine synthetase appears in serum approximately 7 days after the s.c. implantation of 1 X 10(5) cells of Leukemia 5178Y/AR (resistant to L-asparaginase) and increases in activity as the neoplasm grows and metastasizes. The principal source of the enzyme is the primary tumor. After intravranial inoculation of tumor, the rate of leakage of the enzyme is more pronounced than when the subcutaneous, intramuscular, or intraperitoneal routes are used. 1-(2-Chloroethyl)-3-cyclohexyl-1-nitrosourea (NSC 79037), a nitro-sourea effective in the palliation of L5178Y/AR, temporarily halts the influx of enzyme into the blood stream, as does surgical excision of the s.c. tumor nodules. Treatment of mice with L-asparaginase within 24 hr of inoculation of the tumor markedly augments both tumor growth and the rate of penetration of L-asparagine synthetase into the circulation. Several other L-asparagine synthetase into the circulation. Several other L-asparaginase-resistant tumors also were found to spill L-asparagine synthetase into the serum, but the correlation between this phenomenon and the specific activity of the enzyme in homogenates of the tumor was imperfect.  (+info)

(7/3580) Renal and metabolic clearance of N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) during angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition in humans.

We investigated the contributions of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and glomerular filtration to creating the new metabolic balance of the hemoregulatory peptide N-acetyl-seryl-aspartyl-lysyl-proline (AcSDKP) that occurs during acute and chronic ACE inhibition in healthy subjects. We also studied the effect of chronic renal failure on the plasma concentration of AcSDKP during long-term ACE inhibitor (ACEI) treatment or in its absence. In healthy subjects, a single oral dose of 50 mg captopril (n=32) and a 7-day administration of 50 mg captopril BID (n=10) resulted in a respective 42-fold (range, 18- to 265-fold) and 34-fold (range, 24-fold to 45-fold) increase in the ratio of urinary AcSDKP to creatinine accompanied by a 4-fold (range, 2- to 6.8-fold) and 4.8-fold (range, 2.6- to 11.8-fold) increase in plasma AcSDKP levels. Changes in plasma AcSDKP and in vitro ACE activity over time showed an intermittent reactivation of ACE between each captopril dose. In subjects with chronic renal failure (creatinine clearance<60 mL/min per 1.73 m2), plasma AcSDKP levels were 22 times higher (95% confidence interval, 15 to 33) in the ACEI group (n=35) than the control group (n=23); in subjects with normal renal function, they were only 4.1 times higher (95% confidence interval, 3.2 to 5.3) in the ACEI group (n=19) than the non-ACEI group (n=21). Renal failure itself led to a slight increase in plasma AcSDKP concentration. In conclusion, intermittent reactivation of ACE between doses of an ACEI is the major mechanism accounting for the lack of major AcSDKP accumulation during chronic ACE inhibition in subjects with normal renal function.  (+info)

(8/3580) Pharmacokinetics of beta-L-2',3'-dideoxy-5-fluorocytidine in rhesus monkeys.

beta-L-2',3'-Dideoxy-5-fluorocytidine (beta-L-FddC), a novel cytidine analog with an unnatural beta-L sugar configuration, has been demonstrated by our group and others to exhibit highly selective in vitro activity against human immunodeficiency virus types 1 and 2 and hepatitis B virus. This encouraging in vitro antiviral activity prompted us to assess its pharmacokinetics in rhesus monkeys. Three monkeys were administered an intravenous dose of [3H] beta-L-FddC at 5 mg/kg of body weight. Following a 3-month washout period, an equivalent oral dose was administered. Plasma and urine samples were collected at various times for up to 24 h after dosing, and drug levels were quantitated by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were obtained on the basis of a two-compartment open model with a first-order elimination from the central compartment. After intravenous administration, the mean peak concentration in plasma (Cmax) was 29.8 +/- 10.5 microM. Total clearance, steady-state volume of distribution, terminal-phase plasma half-life (t1/2 beta), and mean residence time were 0.7 +/- 0.1 liters/h/kg, 1.3 +/- 0.1 liters/kg, 1.8 +/- 0.2 h, and 1.9 +/- 0.2 h, respectively. Approximately 47% +/- 16% of the intravenously administered radioactivity was recovered in the urine as the unchanged drug with no apparent metabolites. beta-L-FddC exhibited a Cmax of 3.2 microM after oral administration, with a time to peak drug concentration of approximately 1.5 h and a t1/2 of 2.2 h. One monkey in the oral administration arm of the study had a significant delay in the absorption of the aqueous administered dose. The absolute bioavailability of orally administered beta-L-FddC ranged from 56 to 66%.  (+info)