Endothelial progenitor cells: mobilization, differentiation, and homing.
Postnatal bone marrow contains a subtype of progenitor cells that have the capacity to migrate to the peripheral circulation and to differentiate into mature endothelial cells. Therefore, these cells have been termed endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs). The isolation of EPCs by adherence culture or magnetic microbeads has been described. In general, EPCs are characterized by the expression of 3 markers, CD133, CD34, and the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-2. During differentiation, EPCs obviously lose CD133 and start to express CD31, vascular endothelial cadherin, and von Willebrand factor. EPCs seem to participate in endothelial repair and neovascularization of ischemic organs. Clinical studies using EPCs for neovascularization have just been started; however, the mechanisms stimulating or inhibiting the differentiation of EPC in vivo and the signals causing their migration and homing to sites of injured endothelium or extravascular tissue are largely unknown at present. Thus, future studies will help to explore areas of potential basic research and clinical application of EPCs. (+info)
Immunosuppressive effect of mesenchymal stem cells favors tumor growth in allogeneic animals.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are largely studied for their potential clinical use. Recently, they have gained further interest after demonstration of an immunosuppressive role. In this study, we investigated whether in vivo injection of MSCs could display side effects related to systemic immunosuppression favoring tumor growth. We first showed in vitro that the murine C3H10T1/2 (C3) MSC line and primary MSCs exhibit immunosuppressive properties in mixed lymphocyte reaction. We demonstrated that this effect is mediated by soluble factors, secreted only on "activation" of MSCs in the presence of splenocytes. Moreover, the immunosuppression is mediated by CD8+ regulatory cells responsible for the inhibition of allogeneic lymphocyte proliferation. We then demonstrated that the C3 MSCs expressing the human bone morphogenetic protein 2 (hBMP-2) differentiation factor were not rejected when implanted in various allogeneic immunocompetent mice and were still able to differentiate into bone. Importantly, using a murine melanoma tumor model, we showed that the subcutaneous injection of B16 melanoma cells led to tumor growth in allogeneic recipients only when MSCs were coinjected. Although the potential side effects of immunosuppression induced by MSCs have to be considered in further clinical studies, the usefulness of MSCs for various therapeutic applications still remains of great interest. (+info)
Current state of cartilage tissue engineering.
Damage to cartilage is of great clinical consequence given the tissue's limited intrinsic potential for healing. Current treatments for cartilage repair are less than satisfactory, and rarely restore full function or return the tissue to its native normal state. The rapidly emerging field of tissue engineering holds great promise for the generation of functional cartilage tissue substitutes. The general approach involves a biocompatible, structurally and mechanically sound scaffold, with an appropriate cell source, which is loaded with bioactive molecules that promote cellular differentiation and/or maturation. This review highlights aspects of current progress in cartilage tissue engineering. (+info)
Isolation and culture of umbilical vein mesenchymal stem cells.
Bone marrow contains a population of stem cells that can support hematopoiesis and can differentiate into different cell lines including adipocytes, osteocytes, chondrocytes, myocytes, astrocytes, and tenocytes. These cells have been denoted mesenchymal stem cells. In the present study we isolated a cell population derived from the endothelium and subendothelium of the umbilical cord vein which possesses morphological, immunophenotypical and cell differentiation characteristics similar to those of mesenchymal stem cells isolated from bone marrow. The cells were isolated from three umbilical cords after treatment of the umbilical vein lumen with collagenase. The cell population isolated consisted of adherent cells with fibroblastoid morphology which, when properly stimulated, gave origin to adipocytes and osteocytes in culture. Immunophenotypically, this cell population was found to be positive for the CD29, CD13, CD44, CD49e, CD54, CD90 and HLA-class 1 markers and negative for CD45, CD14, glycophorin A, HLA-DR, CD51/61, CD106, and CD49d. The characteristics described are the same as those presented by bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells. Taken together, these findings indicate that the umbilical cord obtained from term deliveries is an important source of mesenchymal stem cells that could be used in cell therapy protocols. (+info)
Isolation of mouse marrow mesenchymal progenitors by a novel and reliable method.
Bone marrow contains a population of rare progenitor cells capable of differentiating into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, adipocytes, myoblasts, and hematopoiesis-supporting stromal cells. These cells, referred to as mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs), can be purified and culture-expanded from animals and humans. Using bone-marrow-conditioned medium combined with basic fibroblast growth factor, we cultured a relatively homogeneous population of MPCs from murine bone marrow, which uniformly expressed stem cell antigen-1, CD29, CD44, c-kit, and CD105, while being negative for expression of CD45, CD31, and CD34. In vitro differentiation assays showed the tripotential differentiation capacities of these cells toward adipogenic, osteogenic, and chondrogenic lineages. Most importantly, immunophenotypic analyses demonstrated that MPCs did not express major histocompatibility complex class II molecules or the T-cell costimulatory molecules CD80 and CD86, consistent with further investigation showing that MPCs failed to elicit a proliferative response from allogeneic lymphocytes. Moreover, when allogeneic or third-party MPCs were added to T cells stimulated by allogeneic lymphocytes or the potent T-cell mitogen concanavalin-A, a significant reduction in T-cell proliferation was observed. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that we successfully isolated and culture-expanded a relatively homogeneous population of MPCs from adult murine bone marrow. Additionally, these primary cells could suppress T-lymphocyte proliferation induced by cellular or nonspecific mitogenic stimuli. This immunoregulatory feature of MPCs strongly implies that they may have potential applications in allograft transplantation. (+info)
Mobilized endothelial progenitor cells by granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor accelerate reendothelialization and reduce vascular inflammation after intravascular radiation.
BACKGROUND: Endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) play a pivotal role in repair and regeneration of damaged vessels. We investigated the role of mobilized EPCs in the healing process after intravascular radiation therapy. METHODS AND RESULTS: One iliac artery of hypercholesterolemic rabbits was subjected to balloon injury and intravascular radiation with a Re-188 balloon and the contralateral iliac artery to balloon injury only. Rabbits received granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (recombinant human GM-CSF) (60 microg/d subcutaneously) daily for 1 week, either 7 days before the angioplasty or at the time of angioplasty. Control rabbits received human albumin. GM-CSF significantly increased the double-positive (CD31+ and KDR+) fraction in peripheral blood monocytes and showed a higher number of EPCs than albumin after culture and, furthermore, enhanced migration and incorporation of EPCs. In the albumin group, intravascular radiation therapy reduced neointimal hyperplasia but delayed reendothelialization and aggravated monocyte infiltration. GM-CSF treatment significantly accelerated the reendothelialization and inhibited monocyte infiltration (reendothelialization index, 81+/-13% in the GM-CSF radiation [n=7] versus 30+/-11% in the control radiation [n=9] at 2 weeks, P<0.01). GM-CSF treatment produced an additional significant reduction in neointimal formation at 14 and 28 days after injury in the intravascular radiation groups (intima to media ratio, 0.14+/-0.11 in the GM-CSF radiation [n=5] versus 0.36+/-0.07 in the control radiation [n=5] at 4 weeks, P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: GM-CSF treatment mobilizes EPCs, accelerates reendothelialization, and reduces monocytes infiltration after intravascular radiation therapy, suggesting that stem cell mobilization is a promising strategy for enhancing the vascular healing process after cytotoxic angioplasty. (+info)
The profile of gene expression of human marrow mesenchymal stem cells.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are multipotent precursors present in adult bone marrow, that differentiate into osteoblasts, adipocytes and myoblasts, and play important roles in hematopoiesis. We examined gene expression of these cells by serial analysis of gene expression, and found that collagen I, secreted protein acidic and rich in cysteine (osteonectin), transforming growth factor beta- (TGF-beta) induced, cofilin, galectin-1, laminin-receptor 1, cyclophilin A, and matrix metalloproteinase-2 are among the most abundantly expressed genes. Comparison with a library of CD34(+) cells revealed that MSCs had a larger number of expressed genes in the categories of cell adhesion molecule, extracellular and development. The two types of cells share abundant transcripts of many genes, some of which are highly expressed in myeloid progenitors (thymosin-beta 4 and beta 10, fos and jun). Interleukin-11 (IL-11), IL-15, IL-27 and IL-10R, IL-13R and IL-17R were the most expressed genes among the cytokines and their receptors in MSCs, and various interactions can be predicted with the CD34(+) cells. MSCs express several transcripts for various growth factors and genes suggested to be enriched in stem cells. This study reports the profile of gene expression in MSCs and identifies the important contribution of extracellular protein products, adhesion molecules, cell motility, TGF-beta signaling, growth factor receptors, DNA repair, protein folding, and ubiquination as part of their transcriptome. (+info)
Characterization of multipotential mesenchymal progenitor cells derived from human trabecular bone.
The in vitro culture of human trabecular bone-derived cells has served as a useful system for the investigation of the biology of osteoblasts. The recent discovery in our laboratory of the multilineage mesenchymal differentiation potential of cells derived from collagenase-treated human trabecular bone fragments has prompted further interest in view of the potential application of mesenchymal progenitor cells (MPCs) in the repair and regeneration of tissue damaged by disease or trauma. Similar to human MPCs derived from bone marrow, a clearer understanding of the variability associated with obtaining these bone-derived cells is required in order to optimize the design and execution of applicable studies. In this study, we have identified the presence of a CD73(+), STRO-1(+), CD105(+), CD34(-), CD45(-), CD144(-) cell population resident within collagenase-treated, culture-processed bone fragments, which upon migration established a homogeneous population of MPCs. Additionally, we have introduced a system of culturing these MPCs that best supports and maintains their optimal differentiation potential during long-term culture expansion. When cultured as described, the trabecular bone-derived cells display stem cell-like capabilities, characterized by a stable undifferentiated phenotype as well as the ability to proliferate extensively while retaining the potential to differentiate along the osteoblastic, adipocytic, and chondrocytic lineages, even when maintained in long-term in vitro culture. (+info)