The cytoprotective aminothiol WR1065 activates p21waf-1 and down regulates cell cycle progression through a p53-dependent pathway.
The phosphoaminothiol WR1065, the active metabolite of the pro-drug amifostine (WR2721), protects cultured cells and tissues against cytotoxic exposure to radiation or chemotherapeutic agents. We show here that WR1065 and the pro-drug WR2721 activate the p53 tumor suppressor protein and induce the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21waf-1 in the breast cancer cell line MCF-7, and in the mouse fibroblast cell line balb/c 3T3. Using two MCF-7 derived cell lines, MN1 and MDD2, we show that induction of p21waf-1 is detectable in MN1 (expressing a functional p53) but not in MDD2 (p53 disabled). These effects are observed at concentrations of WR1065 (0.5 to 1 mM) identical to those required to protect against cytotoxicity by hydrogen peroxide. Induction of p53 is not prevented by addition of aminoguanidine, an inhibitor of Cu-dependent amine-oxidases which blocks the extra-cellular degradation of WR1065 into toxic metabolites. Moreover, spermidine, a natural polyamine structurally related to amifostine, does not activate p53. Induction of p53 by WR1065 results in a delay in the G1/S transition in MCF-7 and MN-1 cells, but not in the p53 disabled cells MDD2. These data indicate that WR1065, a polyamine analog with thiol anti-oxidant properties, activates a cell cycle check-point involving p53. (+info)
Further evidence that the radioprotective aminothiol, WR-1065, catalytically inactivates mammalian topoisomerase II.
It has recently been proposed that the thiol form of the cytoprotective drug amifostine that is designated WR-1065 [2-((aminopropyl)amino)ethanethiol] exerts its cytoprotective effects in part via a catalytic inhibition of DNA topoisomerase II (topo II)alpha. This in turn leads to the subsequent accumulation of cells in G2 phase and a prolongation of the cell cycle. We have used a Chinese hamster V79 cell-based micronucleus assay to further evaluate this hypothesis. It is demonstrated that WR-1065 strongly inhibits the clastogenesis of the topo II poisons etoposide and clinafloxacin at clinically attained exposure levels while having no effect on clastogenesis induced by topo II-noninteractive chemicals. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that WR-1065 is a catalytic inhibitor of topo II in mammalian cells. These studies also suggest that WR-1065 might be expected to reduce the toxicity and clastogenicity in clinical applications of etoposide or quinolone antibiotics in dose-limiting normal tissues. (+info)
Efficient protection of human bronchial epithelial cells against sulfur and nitrogen mustard cytotoxicity using drug combinations.
The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of several candidate molecules against sulfur mustard (SM) and nitrogen mustard (HN2) using a human bronchial-epithelial cell line (16HBE14o-). Candidate molecules were chosen on the basis of the known cytotoxicity mechanisms of mustards or their efficacy previously observed on other cellular models. It included the sulfhydryl-containing molecules N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) and WR-1065, the nucleophile hexamethylenetetramine (HMT), the energy-level stabilizer niacinamide (NC), the antioxidant dimethylthiourea (DMTU), L-arginine analogues such as L-thiocitrulline (L-TC) and L-nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), and the anti-gelatinase doxycycline (DOX). Their efficacy was determined using 2-(4-[3-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-(2, 4-disulfophenyl)-2Htetrazolium (WST-1) reduction by viable cells 24 h after initial exposure to 100 microM HN2 or SM. On individual immediate cotreatment, some molecules exhibited selective protection against only one mustard, such as DMTU and WR-1065 against HN2 and DOX against SM, whereas NAC and L-TC were effective against both SM and HN2 cytotoxicity. However, as the level of protection against SM was always weak compared to HN2, several combinations were investigated against SM to improve the protection. The effective combinations (L-TC + DOX, NAC + DOX, NAC + DMTU, NAC + HMT, NC + DOX) combined agents, reducing the bioavailability of the mustard with compounds possibly acting on the consequences of alkylation. One of these combinations, NAC + DOX, appeared to be the most interesting, as these agents are already used in human therapy. It exhibited good efficacy in delayed cotreatment (up to 90 min) against SM. (+info)
Mechanism of immunoglobulin A polymerization.
Employing mercaptoethylamine as a reducing agent, it was demonstrated by analytical ultracentrifugation and polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis that polymeric immunoglobulin A (IgA) was reduced to a 10 S dimer and 7 S monomer, and that dimer IgA was more resistant to reductive cleavage than the higher polymers. When dimer and monomer IgA were subjected to electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels in 8 M urea or chromatographed on Bio-Gel P-200 equilibrated in 4 M guanidine HCl, there was no dissociations into H, L, or J chains, suggesting that the interchain disulfide bridges between H--H, L--H, and H--J were intact and that mercaptoethylamine produced selective cleavage of intersubunit bonds. Only the dimer, with a sedimentation coefficient of 10.2 S, released J chain upon reduction with dithiothreitol. Polymers of IgA were reduced with mercaptoethylamine and subsequently alkylated with [14C]-iodoacetamide and the dimer and monomer isolated. The results demonstrated that the isolated dimer contained 2 mol of [14C]labeled S carboxyamidomethylcysteine per mol of dimer, while the monomer contained 1 mol of --SH per mol of monomer. The labeled dimer was then completely reduced with dithiothreitol and alkylated with [14C]iodoacetamide and J chain isolated. It was shown that the J chain contained no 14C-labeled sulfhydryl groups, while the monomer contained 1 mol of --SH per mol of monomer. These results suggest that J chain is disulfide-bonded to only two of the subunits of polymeric IgA and that the remaining subunits in the higher polymers are disulfide-bonded one to the other. This is similar to the model previously suggested for 19 S immunoglobulin M (IgM). The sulfhydryl data also suggests that polymeric IgA may not be a covalently bonded circular structure as has been shown for IgM. However, no conclusions can be made from this study regarding the structure of pentameric IgA, since this species was present in very small amounts in our polymer preparation. (+info)
Influence of proteasome and redox state on heat shock-induced activation of stress kinases, AP-1 and HSF.
We studied the pattern of activation of stress kinases and of transcription factors activator protein-1 (AP-1) and heat shock factor (HSF) in FAO cells by combining two treatments, i.e. heating (42 degrees C for 1 h) and proteasome inhibition, each known to cause cellular heat shock response. The co-treatment heat shock (HS) and proteasome inhibitor (a peptidyl aldehyde or lactacystin) showed cumulative effects on the intensity and duration of activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) at the end of the HS period and during recovery. Similarly, the thiol-reducing agents N-(2-mercaptoethyl)-1,3-diaminopropane and dithiothreitol strongly activated both JNK and p38 MAPK in cells undergoing HS. AP-1 DNA binding activity in response to proteasome inhibitors was so strong that it shadowed the stimulatory effect of HS in the combined treatment, but lactacystin, which is the most potent and specific proteasome inhibitor, decreased the binding late during recovery from HS. Thiol-reducing agents prevented AP-1 DNA binding induced by HS. The combined HS/proteasome inhibitors or HS/thiol-reducing agents treatments cooperatively activated HSF DNA binding. Expression of collagenase I and hsp 70 mRNAs reflects the different behavior of AP-1 and HSF transcription factors in cells exposed to HS and proteasome inhibition. The data seem to indicate that JNK and p38 MAPK activations are not necessarily coupled to DNA binding of AP-1, which can be either increased or inhibited when these kinases are activated. AP-1 and HSF show opposite patterns of response to HS in the presence of proteasome inhibitors or reducing agents. (+info)
Binding of the aminothiol WR-1065 to transcription factors influences cellular response to anticancer drugs.
The aminothiol WR-1065 (the active form of amifostine) protects normal tissues from the toxic effects of certain cancer drugs, while leaving their antitumor effects unchanged. The present data address the mechanism of action of this dichotomous effect. (35)S-Labeled WR-1065 bound directly to the transcription factors nuclear factor-kappaB, activator protein-1, and p53, resulting in enhanced binding of these proteins to target regulatory DNA sequences and subsequent transactivation of a number of downstream genes. Since other small molecular thiols could mimic WR-1065, the redox potential of the sulfhydryl is an important determinant of its activity. In nontransformed cells, WR-1065 protected cells from the cytotoxic effects of paclitaxel in a p53-dependent manner. However, in a transformed human tumor cell line, there was no cytoprotectivity by WR-1065, consistent with the premise that p53-dependent growth arrest is the basis for the protective effect of this compound, and that this pathway is abrogated in human tumors. The combined data support the principle that the cellular effects of the aminothiol WR-1065 are mediated through an impact on transcriptional regulation and are not only a consequence of radical scavenging. (+info)
Blood thiols following amifostine and mesna infusions, a pediatric oncology group study.
The Pediatric Oncology Group study for metastatic Ewing's sarcoma used amifostine and mesna with the alkylating agents. To determine the fate of combined drug thiols, we measured thiol levels in plasma, red blood cells (RBC), and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) of four patients. We also conducted analogous measurements on two patients who received mesna alone and a volunteer's blood following in vitro treatment. Thiols were labeled with monobromobimane, separated on high-pressure liquid chromatography, and detected by fluorescence. Incubation of a volunteer's blood with mesna, WR-1065, or both revealed that cellular uptake of total reducible drug was approximately 10% of plasma level for mesna but approximately 60% for WR-1065. Cellular drugs were mainly the thiol form, whereas half of the plasma drugs were disulfides. Combined incubation with both thiols did not change the extent or form of uptake. WR-1065 and mesna prevented glutathione depletion by 4-hydroperoxycyclophosphamide. Results from patients were similar. WR-1065 and mesna appeared in the cells by the end of the drug infusions, although WR-1065 uptake was more efficient than mesna. The concentration-time profiles of mesna in RBC paralleled those in plasma. Amifostine administration during mesna infusion caused transient increase in mesna levels. Both agents increased blood cysteine and decreased total reducible cysteine. Mesna alone and mesna plus amifostine prevented cellular glutathione depletion. In conclusion, mesna is imported by RBC and PBMC, but less efficiently than WR-1065. When present at equal levels, these thiols do not influence each other's uptake. Adequate dosing of either drug is necessary for protecting the cells from toxic effects of alkylating agents. (+info)
Kinetics of cisplatin binding to cellular DNA and modulations by thiol-blocking agents and thiol drugs.
DNA platination by cisplatin (CDDP) was investigated in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and ovarian cancer cells using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Plots showing the amount of platinum (Pt) bound to DNA versus the molar concentration of cisplatin in the incubation medium ([CDDP]) were nonlinear. For [CDDP] < about 5 microM, the amount of Pt bound to DNA increased slowly with added drug. However, for larger [CDDP], the slope of the plot increased significantly. To study the role of thiols in affecting cisplatin binding to DNA, cells were treated with N-ethylmaleimide, which modifies thiol groups, rendering them incapable of binding cisplatin. Analysis using high-pressure liquid chromatography showed that approximately 99% of cellular glutathione was modified by N-ethylmaleimide. A plot of the amount of Pt bound to DNA versus [CDDP] for thiol-blocked cells is linear, with a slope similar to that of unblocked cells at high [CDDP]. Neither S-2-(3 aminopropylamino)ethanethiol (WR-1065) nor mesna, when added at clinically achievable concentrations (i.e., < approximately 300 microM), affected DNA platination. However, DNA platination was totally abolished by millimolar concentrations of the drug thiols (approximately 1.25 mM WR-1065 or approximately 5 mM mesna). Thus, the data show that endogenous thiols intercept cellular cisplatin, but this mechanism is less important at high [CDDP]. Moreover, therapeutic concentrations of drug thiols do not significantly affect DNA platination. A simple model that reproduces the experimental results of the amount of cisplatin binding to DNA as a function of [CDDP], time, and thiol content is proposed. The model takes into account passage of cisplatin and thiols through the cell membrane, binding of cisplatin to cellular thiols, and platination of DNA. (+info)