Metabolism of (R)-(+)-pulegone in F344 rats.
(R)-(+)-Pulegone, a monoterpene ketone, is a major component of pennyroyal oil. Ingestion of high doses of pennyroyal oil has caused severe toxicity and occasionally death. Studies have shown that metabolites of pulegone were responsible for the toxicity. Previous metabolism studies have used high, near lethal doses and isolation and analysis techniques that may cause degradation of some metabolites. To clarify these issues and further explore the metabolic pathways, a study of (14)C-labeled pulegone in F344 rats at doses from 0.8 to 80 mg/kg has been conducted. High-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the collected urine showed the metabolism of pulegone to be extensive and complex. Fourteen metabolites were isolated by HPLC and characterized by NMR, UV, and mass spectroscopy. The results demonstrated that pulegone was metabolized by three major pathways: 1) hydroxylation to give monohydroxylated pulegones, followed by glucuronidation or further metabolism; 2) reduction of the carbon-carbon double bond to give diastereomeric menthone/isomenthone, followed by hydroxylation and glucuronidation; and 3) Michael addition of glutathione to pulegone, followed by further metabolism to give diastereomeric 8-(N-acetylcystein-S-yl)menthone/isomenthone. This 1,4-addition not only took place in vivo but also in vitro under catalysis of glutathione S-transferase or mild base. Several hydroxylated products of the two mercapturic acids were also observed. Contrary to the previous study, all but one of the major metabolites characterized in the present study are phase II metabolites, and most of the metabolites in free forms are structurally different from those previously identified phase I metabolites. (+info)
Interaction with the small subunit of geranyl diphosphate synthase modifies the chain length specificity of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase to produce geranyl diphosphate.
Geranyl diphosphate synthase belongs to a subgroup of prenyltransferases, including farnesyl diphosphate synthase and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, that catalyzes the specific formation, from C(5) units, of the respective C(10), C(15), and C(20) precursors of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and diterpenes. Unlike farnesyl diphosphate synthase and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase, which are homodimers, geranyl diphosphate synthase from Mentha is a heterotetramer in which the large subunit shares functional motifs and a high level of amino acid sequence identity (56-75%) with geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases of plant origin. The small subunit, however, shares little sequence identity with other isoprenyl diphosphate synthases; yet it is absolutely required for geranyl diphosphate synthase catalysis. Coexpression in Escherichia coli of the Mentha geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit with the phylogenetically distant geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthases from Taxus canadensis and Abies grandis yielded a functional hybrid heterodimer that generated geranyl diphosphate as product in each case. These results indicate that the geranyl diphosphate synthase small subunit is capable of modifying the chain length specificity of geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase (but not, apparently, farnesyl diphosphate synthase) to favor the production of C(10) chains. Comparison of the kinetic behavior of the parent prenyltransferases with that of the hybrid enzyme revealed that the hybrid possesses characteristics of both geranyl diphosphate synthase and geranylgeranyl diphosphate synthase. (+info)
Antiallergic effect of flavonoid glycosides obtained from Mentha piperita L.
Six flavonoid glycosides, eriocitrin (1), narirutin (2), hesperidin (3), luteolin-7-O-rutinoside (4), isorhoifolin (5), diosmin (6), rosmarinic acid (7) and 5,7-dihydroxycromone-7-O-rutinoside (8), were isolated from the aerial part of Mentha piperita L. Among these compounds, compound 4 showed a potent inhibitory effect on histamine release induced by compound 48/80 and antigen-antibody reaction. This compound was more effective than luteolin and luteolin-7-O-glucoside in inhibiting histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells. Compound 4 also caused a dose-related inhibition of the antigen-induced nasal response and significant effects were observed at doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. These results indicate that compound 4 may be clinically useful in alleviating the nasal symptoms of allergic rhinitis. (+info)
Semiquantitative determination of off-notes in mint oils by solid-phase microextraction.
Mint essential oils are produced by the steam distillation of dried or partially dried harvested plant material. In the United States, harvesting is done mechanically so that any weeds found in the field are concomitantly harvested. Steam distillation of contaminated plant material leads to off-notes in the oil, which are currently determined by a sensory panel. Furthermore, nonoptimized distillation conditions can lead to the thermal degradation of carbohydrates and proteins resulting also in the formation of very volatile off top-notes. As a result, the use of a nonequilibrated solid-phase microextraction (SPME) procedure to determine the off-notes is evaluated. The results of this evaluation include a combination of semiquantitative data, odor threshold data, and mathematical data manipulation to ascertain the capabilities of a SPME approach. The results are correlated with sensory panel data to yield a relatively rapid analytical methodology that can be used either in place of or in support of sensory analyses. The main advantage of the technique described is to provide some semiquantitative data in support of the odor-panel screening of mint oils for off-notes. Based on the data presented in this report, it is believed that this has been successfully demonstrated. (+info)
Protective effect of Arque-Ajeeb on acute experimental diarrhoea in rats.
BACKGROUND: Diarrhoea is a major health problem for children worldwide, accounting for 5-8 million deaths each year. Arque-Ajeeb (AA) is a compound formulation of Unani medicine. It is reputed for its beneficial effects in the treatment of diarrhoea and cholera, but the claim of its efficacy is yet to be tested. Therefore the present study has been planned to investigate the real efficacy of this drug in rats. METHODS: The effect of Arque-Ajeeb was investigated for antidiarrhoeal activity against charcoal-induced gut transit, serotonin-induced diarrhoea and PGE2-induced small intestine enteropooling in rats. The control, standard and test groups of experimental animals were administered with normal saline (p.o.), diphenoxylate hydrochloride (5 mg/kg, p.o.) and Arque-Ajeeb (0.07 ml and 0.14 ml/kg, p.o.) respectively except the control group of PGE2-induced small intestine enteropooling which received only 5% ethanol in normal saline (i.p.). Charcoal (10 ml/kg, p.o.) and serotonin (600 micrograms/kg, i.p.) were administered after 30 min, while PGE2 (100 micrograms/kg, p.o.) was administered immediately afterwards. The distance traveled by charcoal in small intestine was measured after 15 and 30 min of charcoal administration, diarrhoea was observed every 30-min for six hour after serotonin administration and the volume of intestinal fluid was measured after 30 min of PGE2 administration. RESULTS: Arque-Ajeeb (0.07 ml and 0.14 ml/kg) significantly inhibited the frequency of defaecation and decreased the propulsion of charcoal meal through the gastrointestinal tract, reduced the wetness of faecal droppings in serotonin-induced diarrhoea and also reduced the PGE2-induced small intestine enteropooling. CONCLUSION: Arque-Ajeeb may have potential to reduce the diarrhoea in rats. Thus the drug may prove to be an alternate remedy in diarrhoea. (+info)
Organization of monoterpene biosynthesis in Mentha. Immunocytochemical localizations of geranyl diphosphate synthase, limonene-6-hydroxylase, isopiperitenol dehydrogenase, and pulegone reductase.
We present immunocytochemical localizations of four enzymes involved in p-menthane monoterpene biosynthesis in mint: the large and small subunits of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) geranyl diphosphate synthase, spearmint (Mentha spicata) (-)-(4S)-limonene-6-hydroxylase, peppermint (-)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase, and peppermint (+)-pulegone reductase. All were localized to the secretory cells of peltate glandular trichomes with abundant labeling corresponding to the secretory phase of gland development. Immunogold labeling of geranyl diphosphate synthase occurred within secretory cell leucoplasts, (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase labeling was associated with gland cell endoplasmic reticulum, (-)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase labeling was restricted to secretory cell mitochondria, while (+)-pulegone reductase labeling occurred only in secretory cell cytoplasm. We discuss this pathway compartmentalization in relation to possible mechanisms for the intracellular movement of monoterpene metabolites, and for monoterpene secretion into the extracellular essential oil storage cavity. (+info)
Calcium antagonism and the vasorelaxation of the rat aorta induced by rotundifolone.
The vasorelaxing activity of rotundifolone (ROT), a major constituent (63.5%) of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa, was tested in male Wistar rats (300-350 g). In isolated rat aortic rings, increasing ROT concentrations (0.3, 1, 10, 100, 300, and 500 microg/ml) inhibited the contractile effects of 1 microM phenylephrine and of 80 or 30 mM KCl (IC50 values, reported as means +/- SEM = 184 +/- 6, 185 +/- 3 and 188 +/- 19 microg/ml, N = 6, respectively). In aortic rings pre-contracted with 1 microM phenylephrine, the smooth muscle-relaxant activity of ROT was inhibited by removal of the vascular endothelium (IC50 value = 235 +/- 7 microg/ml, N = 6). Furthermore, ROT inhibited (pD2 = 6.04, N = 6) the CaCl2-induced contraction in depolarizing medium in a concentration-dependent manner. In Ca2+-free solution, ROT inhibited 1 microM phenylephrine-induced contraction in a concentration-dependent manner and did not modify the phasic contractile response evoked by caffeine (20 mM). In conclusion, in the present study we have shown that ROT produces an endothelium-independent vasorelaxing effect in the rat aorta. The results further indicated that in the rat aorta ROT is able to induce vasorelaxation, at least in part, by inhibiting both: a) voltage-dependent Ca2 channels, and b) intracellular Ca2+ release selectively due to inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate activation. Additional studies are required to elucidate the mechanisms underlying ROT-induced relaxation. (+info)
Use of RAPD and AFLP markers to identify inter- and intraspecific hybrids of Mentha.
Three controlled crosses were carried out involving Mentha arvensis and Mentha spicata [M. spicata CIMAP/C30 x M. spicata CIMAP/C33 (cv. Neera); M. arvensis CIMAP/C18 x CIMAP/C17 (cv. Kalka); and M. arvensis CIMAP/C17 x M. spicata CIMAP/C33]. The parents were subjected to random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis with 80 primers, and polymorphic primers were tested for detecting coinherited RAPD profiles among the progeny of these crosses. Of 50 seedlings tested from each intraspecific cross, all demonstrated dominant profiles with the selected RAPD primers except the detected hybrid from respective crosses. Coinherited markers could be detected with the primers OPJ 01, MAP 06, OPT 08, and OPO 20 for M. arvensis; OPJ 05, OPJ 14, OPO 19, and OPT 09 for M. spicata; and OPJ 07, OPJ 10, OPJ 11, OPJ 14, and OPO 02 for the cross M. arvensis x M. spicata. In our amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, 40 coinherited marker fragments were identified for the cross involving M. arvensis, 32 for the cross involving M. spicata, and 41 for the interspecific cross between M. arvensis and M. spicata. In all crosses, similarity values between the parents were less than those between the parents and the hybrids. Although RAPD markers are generally considered dominant, it is possible to identify a few codominant markers that behave like restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) markers. This molecular marker system may be helpful in rapidly screening out hybrids in crops where cross-pollination is a problem. (+info)