Complications of scoliosis surgery in children with myelomeningocele.
The purpose of the present study was to evaluate whether the high incidence of complications in scoliosis surgery in myelomeningocele (MMC) could be attributed to the surgical technique and whether improvements were possible. Between 1984 and 1996, 77 patients with MMC and scoliosis were treated surgically. The clinical and radiological follow-up ranged from 1 to 10 years with a mean follow-up of 3.6 years. The mean age at time of surgery was 12 years 8 months. The average preoperative scoliosis measured 90.20 degrees and was corrected by 47%. The first four patients were stabilized with Harrington rods after anterior correction with a Zielke device (group 1). Twenty-five patients were operated only from posterior, using Cotrel-Dubousset (CD) instrumentation (group 2). In 13 patients an anterior release and discectomy was performed prior to CD posterior instrumentation (group 3). In 26 patients (group 4) this was combined with an anterior instrumentation. The 9 patients of group 5 had congenital vertebral malformations which made a special treatment necessary. Complications could be divided into hardware problems, such as implant failure, dislocation or pseudarthrosis, infections, anesthetic, and neurologic complications. Hardware problems were seen in 29% of all patients. More hardware problems were seen with the Harrington rod (75%) and after solitary posterior instrumentation (30%). The occurrence of pseudarthrosis was dependent on the surgical technique, the extent of posterior spondylodesis, and lumbosacral fusion. Patients with hardware problems had a mean loss of correction of 49% compared to 13% in the other patients. Depending on the different surgical techniques a loss of more than 30% was seen in 12-75% of the cases. Early postoperative shunt failure occurred in four cases; delayed failure - after more than 1 year - in three cases. One patient died within 1 day due to an acute hydrocephalus, another died after 2 1/2 years because of chronic shunt insufficiency with herniation. Wound problems were not dependent on the surgical technique, but on the extent of posterior spondylodesis and the lumbosacral fusion. Based on this analysis we believe our current practice of instrumented anterior and posterior fusion is justified. Further, we are very careful to check shunt function prior to acute correction of spinal deformity. (+info)
Congenital kyphosis in myelomeningocele. The effect of cordotomy on bladder function.
To determine the effect of cordotomy on the function of the bladder during surgical correction of congenital kyphosis in myelomeningocele, we reviewed 13 patients who had this procedure between 1981 and 1996. The mean age of the patients at operation was 8.9 years (3.7 to 16) and the mean follow-up was 4.8 years (1.3 to 10.8). Bladder function before and after operation was assessed clinically and quantitatively by urodynamics. The mean preoperative kyphosis was 117 degrees (52 to 175) and decreased to 49 degrees (1 to 89) immediately after surgery. At the latest follow-up, a mean correction of 52% had been achieved. Only one patient showed deterioration in bladder function after operation. Eight out of the nine patients who had urodynamic assessment had improvement in bladder capacity and compliance, and five showed an increase in urethral pressure. One patient developed a spastic bladder and required subsequent surgical intervention. Cordotomy, at or below the level of the kyphosis, allows excellent correction of the structural deformity. (+info)
Migration of the abdominal catheter of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt into the scrotum--case report.
A 3-day-old male neonate presented with migration of the ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt tip through the patent processus vaginalis resulting in scrotal hydrocele. The association of myelomeningocele with hydrocephalus may have been a predisposing factor in this rare complication. Development of scrotal swelling or hydrocele in a child with VP shunt should be recognized as a possible shunt complication. (+info)
Notochord-dependent expression of MFH1 and PAX1 cooperates to maintain the proliferation of sclerotome cells during the vertebral column development.
During axial skeleton development, the notochord is essential for the induction of the sclerotome and for the subsequent differentiation of cartilage forming the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs. These functions are mainly mediated by the diffusible signaling molecule Sonic hedgehog. The products of the paired-box-containing Pax1 and the mesenchyme forkhead-1 (Mfh1) genes are expressed in the developing sclerotome and are essential for the normal development of the vertebral column. Here, we demonstrate that Mfh1 like Pax1 expression is dependent on Sonic hedgehog signals from the notochord, and Mfh1 and Pax1 act synergistically to generate the vertebral column. In Mfh1/Pax1 double mutants, dorsomedial structures of the vertebrae are missing, resulting in extreme spina bifida accompanied by subcutaneous myelomeningocoele, and the vertebral bodies and intervertebral discs are missing. The morphological defects in Mfh1/Pax1 double mutants strongly correlate with the reduction of the mitotic rate of sclerotome cells. Thus, both the Mfh1 and the Pax1 gene products cooperate to mediate Sonic hedgehog-dependent proliferation of sclerotome cells. (+info)
Neural tube defects along the Texas-Mexico border, 1993-1995.
In response to a 1991 anencephaly cluster in Cameron County, Texas, a surveillance and neural tube defect (NTD) recurrence prevention project for NTDs was implemented in the 14 Texas-Mexico border counties. For 1993-1995, NTD-affected pregnancies were identified at all gestational ages through active surveillance of multiple case-ascertainment sources. There were 87 cases of anencephaly, 96 cases of spina bifida, and 14 cases of encephalocele for respective rates of 6.4, 7.1, and 1.1 per 10,000 live births. Of the 197 NTD case-women, 93% were Hispanic. The overall, Hispanic, and Anglo NTD rates were, respectively, 14.6, 14.9, and 10.6 per 10,000 live births. The NTD rate for El Paso County (9.8 per 10,000), the most northwestern Texas county, was significantly lower (p = 0.001) than the aggregate rate for the rest of the Texas border (17.1 per 10,000). The overall Texas border rate was significantly higher (p < 0.001) than a recently estimated rate of 9.3 for California and minimally higher than a recently adjusted rate of 11.3 for the Metropolitan Atlanta Congenital Defects Program counties (p = 0.052), both of which now reflect all gestational ages. Of the 197 Texas border cases, 85% (168 cases) reached a gestational age of > or =20 weeks. Excluding cases of <20 weeks' gestation in the rate had a more marked effect on reducing the anencephaly rate (4.9 per 10,000) than the spina bifida rate (6.7 per 10,000). A country of birth was known for 153 (83%) of the 184 Hispanic case-women: 63% were born in Mexico; 24%, in Texas; and 11%, elsewhere in the United States. Rates for Mexico-born Hispanic women (15.1 per 10,000) were significantly higher than rates for United States-born Hispanic women (9.5 per 10,000) (p = 0.006). (+info)
Spinal sonography and magnetic resonance imaging in patients with repaired myelomeningocele: comparison of modalities.
The goals of this study were to evaluate the feasibility of using ultrasonography of the spine in the follow-up evaluation of patients with repaired myelomeningocele at birth and to compare sonography with the accepted modality of magnetic resonance imaging. Over a period of 4 years we performed 165 sonographic studies in 101 patients; 107 sonographic studies had MR imaging results for comparison. We collected our data prospectively. The quality of the sonograms was good in 110 of 129 studies, acceptable in 17 of 129, and poor in two of 129. The sonographic examinations failed in 33 of 165 studies (20%). Concordant information was obtained between ultrasonography and magnetic resonance imaging in the following percentage of studies: level of the distal end of the cord in 82%, position of the cord in the canal in 59%, presence of hydromyelia in 63%, cord duplication in 96%, adhesions in 16%, intradural mass in 37%, cord measurements in 85%, and dural sac measurements in 83%. At the lumbosacral level, we saw no cord pulsation in 57% of the studies in patients with cord adhesions and in 20% of those without adhesions. At the lower thoracic level, we saw no pulsation in 35% of the studies in patients with cord adhesions and in 7% of those without adhesions. Postoperative studies of cord release surgery in eight patients showed varied findings. We conclude that in those patients who have a spinal defect or interlaminar space allowing proper visualization of the lumbosacral spinal canal, ultrasound can provide fairly similar information to that obtained with magnetic resonance imaging of that area with no need for sedation and at a reduced cost. Ultrasonography seems more sensitive than magnetic resonance imaging in the detection of cord adhesions, which is particularly relevant in the diagnosis of tethering. (+info)
Coexistent holoprosencephaly and Chiari II malformation.
Chiari II malformations and holoprosencephaly have been considered to be brain malformations that differ with respect to teratogenic insult, embryologic mechanism, and morphology. We herein describe coexistent Chiari II malformation and holoprosencephaly that occurred in a viable infant. A review of the literature regarding Chiari II malformations and holoprosencephaly suggests that a disturbance to the mesenchyme in early embryologic life may be the cause of both malformations. (+info)
Sagittal static imbalance in myelomeningocele patients: improvement in sitting ability by partial and total gibbus resection.
The progression of kyphosis in myelomeningocele is independent of skeletal growth and requires early operative correction and stabilization to prevent a loss of sitting ability. In severe cases, only vertebrectomy makes it possible to achieve correction, stability and skin-closure without tension. In 14 patients with myelomeningocele gibbus, kyphectomy was performed, removing two vertebral bodies on average. The average kyphosis angle decreased from 128 degrees to 81 degrees, enabling most of the patients to participate again in social life by restoring wheelchair mobility. Nevertheless, a significantly higher complication rate was found compared to other correctional operations, lengthening the average hospital stay to 41 days. Special problems arose from trophic disorders of the skin and soft tissue and from the dystrophic muscles below the level of neural malfunction. In three cases, kyphosis reappeared cranial to the fused segments, requiring ventral stabilization. With respect to increasing kyphosis angle, an early intervention should be aimed at. A secondary operation can be necessary, if surgery is performed without taking care of the growth potential. (+info)