Nocardia osteomyelitis in a pachymeningitis patient: an example of a difficult case to treat with antimicrobial agents.
Antimicrobial agents played a miraculous role in the treatment of bacterial infections until resistant bacteria became widespread. Besides antimicrobial-resistant bacteria, many factors can influence the cure of infection. Nocardia infection may be a good example which is difficult to cure with antimicrobial agents alone. A 66-year-old man developed soft tissue infection of the right buttock and thigh. He was given prednisolone and azathioprine for pachymeningitis 3 months prior to admission. Despite surgical and antimicrobial treatment (sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim), the infection spread to the femur and osteomyelitis developed. The case showed that treatment of bacterial infection is not always as successful as was once thought because recent isolates of bacteria are more often resistant to various antimicrobial agents, intracellular parasites are difficult to eliminate even with the active drug in vitro, and infections in some sites such as bone are refractory to treatment especially when the patient is in a compromised state. In conclusion, for the treatment of infections, clinicians need to rely on laboratory tests more than before and have to consider the influence of various host factors. (+info)
Meningitis caused by an alkali-producing pseudomonad.
The clinical and microbiological features of a case of meningitis, due to an alkali-producing pseudomonad which closely resembles Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes, are described. A respiratory infection and a course of antibiotic therapy before admission to hospital may have been predisposing factors to opportunistic infection by this normally saprophytic organism. The problems of identifying alkali-producing pseudomonads are discussed. (+info)
Citrobacter koseri meningitis in a special care baby unit.
An outbreak of meningitis due to Citrobacter koseri in a special care baby unit is described. The organism showed a high capacity for spread among the babies on the unit and although the intestinal carriage rate was high, the clinical case:carrier ratio was low. (+info)
Free sialic acid levels in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with meningitis.
The free and bound sialic acid content of cerebrospinal fluid from patients with positive evidence (by CSF culture) of pyogenic and tuberculous meningitis was determined. The free sialic acid content was significantly raised only in cases of pyogenic meningitis, but not in tuberculous or other types of the disease. (+info)
Ultrasound-enhanced latex immunoagglutination and PCR as complementary methods for non-culture-based confirmation of meningococcal disease.
Preadmission administration of antibiotics to patients with suspected meningococcal infection has decreased the likelihood of obtaining an isolate and has stimulated development of rapid and reliable non-culture-based diagnostic methods. The sensitivity of the conventional test card latex agglutination test (TCLAT) for detection of capsular polysaccharide has been reported to be suboptimal. In the United Kingdom meningococcal DNA detection by PCR has become readily available and is now used as a first-line investigation. Recently, the performance of latex antigen detection has been markedly improved by ultrasound enhancement. Three tests for laboratory confirmation of meningococcal infection, (i) PCR assays, (ii) TCLAT, and (iii) ultrasound-enhanced latex agglutination test (USELAT), were compared in a retrospective study of 125 specimens (serum, plasma, and cerebrospinal fluid specimens) from 90 patients in whom meningococcal disease was suspected on clinical grounds. Samples were from patients with (i) culture-confirmed meningococcal disease, (ii) culture-negative but PCR-confirmed meningococcal disease, and (iii) clinically suspected but non-laboratory-confirmed meningococcal disease. USELAT was found to be nearly five times more sensitive than TCLAT. Serogroup characterization was obtained by both PCR and USELAT for 44 samples; all results were concordant and agreed with the serogroups determined for the isolates when the serogroups were available. For 12 samples negative by USELAT, the serogroup was determined by PCR; however, for 12 other specimens for which PCR had failed to indicate the serogroup, USELAT gave a result. USELAT is a rapid, low-cost method which can confirm a diagnosis, identify serogroups, and guide appropriate management of meningococcal disease contacts. A complementary non-culture-based confirmation strategy of USELAT for local use supported by a centralized PCR assay service for detection of meningococci would give the benefits of timely information and improved epidemiological data. (+info)
Intrathecal antibiotic therapy for neonatal meningitis.
Twenty infants with neonatal meningitis were treated with systemic and lumbar intrathecal antibiotics upon initial diagnosis. Failure to sterilize the CSF in 2-3 days was associated with evidence of ventriculitis in these infants who were then treated with intraventricular antibiotics. 4 infants died, but only 2 of them may be regarded as treatment failure. It is suggested that many deaths from neonatal meningitis may be preventable by early detection and treatment of ventriculitis with intraventricular antibiotics. (+info)
Magnetization transfer MR imaging in CNS tuberculosis.
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: CNS tuberculosis may simulate other granulomas and meningitis on MR images. The purpose of this study was to improve the characterization of lesions in CNS tuberculosis and to assess the disease load using magnetization transfer (MT) imaging. METHODS: A total of 107 tuberculomas in seven patients with or without meningitis and 15 patients with tuberculosis meningitis alone were studied. Fifteen patients with cysticercus granulomas with T2 hypointensity, five patients each with viral and pyogenic meningitis, and two patients with cryptococcal meningitis were also studied. The MT ratios were calculated from tuberculomas, cysticercus granulomas, and thickened meninges in tuberculous, viral, pyogenic, and cryptococcal meningitis and were compared within each pathologic group and with the MT ratio of different regions of normal brain parenchyma. Detectability of lesions on T1-weighted MT spin-echo (SE) images was compared with that on conventional SE and postcontrast MT-SE images. RESULTS: Thickened meninges appeared hyperintense relative to surrounding brain parenchyma in the basal and supratentorial cisterns on precontrast MT-SE images in all 18 patients with tuberculosis meningitis. These meninges were not seen or were barely visible on conventional SE images, and enhanced on postcontrast MT-SE images. The MT ratio from the thickened meninges of tuberculous meningitis was significantly lower than that from the meninges in cryptococcal and pyogenic disease and significantly higher than the meninges in viral meningoencephalitis. The MT ratio from T2 visible and invisible tuberculomas appeared to be significantly lower than that of normal white matter. The MT ratio of T2 hypointense cysticercus granuloma was significantly higher than that of T2 hypointense tuberculoma. CONCLUSION: Precontrast MT-SE imaging helps to better assess the disease load in CNS tuberculosis by improving the detectability of the lesions. With the use of MT ratios, it may be possible to differentiate tuberculosis from similar-appearing infective lesions on MR images. (+info)
Sclerosing spinal pachymeningitis. A complication of intrathecal administration of Depo-Medrol for multiple sclerosis.
Reported complications of intrathecal steroid therapy include aseptic meningitis, infectious meningitis, and arachnoiditis. We report a case of sclerosing spinal pachymeningitis complicating the attempted intrathecal administration of Depo-Medrol for multiple sclerosis. The lesion is characterised by concentric laminar proliferation of neomembranes within the subdural space of the entire spinal cord and cauda equina, resulting from repeated episodes of injury and repair to the spinal dura mater by Depo-Medrol. There is clinical and laboratory evidence that Depo-Medrol produces meningeal irritation and that the vehicle is the necrotising fraction. (+info)