Formation of lipid-linked sugar compounds in Halobacterium salinarium. Presumed intermediates in glycoprotein synthesis.
The ability of bacitracin to inhibit the growth of Halobacterium salinarium suggested that glycosylation of the major envelope component, a high molecular weight glycoprotein, might occur via a pathway involving lipid intermediates. This report demonstrates that the cells have enzymatic activities for formation of lipid-linked sugar compounds having the expected properties of such intermediates. Whole cell homogenate catalyzed the transfer of sugar from UDP-glucose, GDP-mannose, and UDP-N-acetyglucosamine to endogenous lipid acceptors. Two lipid products were formed from UDP-glucose, two from GDP-mannose, and one from UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. Characterization of the partially purified lipids by ion exchange chromatography, thin layer chromatography, and mild acid and base hydrolysis showed the major product in each case to have the properties expected for polyisoprenyl phosphoglucose, polyisoprenyl phosphomannose, and polyisoprenyl pyrophospho-N-acetylglucosamine. Estimates of chain length by thin layer chromatography indicate that the lipid has 11 to 12 isoprene identity as a C55-60-polyisoprenyl pyrophospho-N-acetylglucosamine. The N-acetylglucosamine transferase, present in cell envelope preparations, was partially characterized. The enzyme was found to be extremely halophilic, specifically requiring a high concentration of KCl. Optimum activity was obtained at 4 m KCl and partial substitution of K+ by Na+ resulted in a decrease in activity. (+info)
Efficient binding of regulated secretory protein aggregates to membrane phospholipids at acidic pH.
Some regulated secretory proteins are thought to be targeted to secretory granules through an acidic-dependent aggregation in the trans-Golgi network. In this report we use pancreatic zymogens, a paradigm of regulated proteins, to test this hypothesis, because they qualitatively aggregate upon acidification in vitro. Pig zymogens were found to start to aggregate significantly at pH approximately 6.0, a pH slightly lower than that at which rat zymogens aggregate, but still compatible with the pH of the cell-sorting compartments. When pig zymogen granule membranes were mixed with the zymogens in the aggregation assay, membranes that normally floated on 1 M sucrose were observed to be pelleted by the aggregating zymogens. Rat membranes were pelleted by pig zymogens and vice versa. Igs, typical constitutively secreted proteins, which needed chemical cross-linking to serve as an aggregated protein control, pelleted membranes almost independently of pH. Corresponding cross-linked zymogen-binding ability and pH dependence was unaffected by the chemical modification. Membranes treated with sodium carbonate, pH 11, or with protease K, were still pelleted by zymogens, suggesting that the aggregated zymogens bound to membrane lipids. This hypothesis was confirmed by the efficient pelleting of unilamellar vesicles composed of granule membrane lipids. Vesicles composed of single classes of phospholipids were also pelleted, but with various efficacies. We conclude that pancreatic zymogen aggregates, formed under the acidic conditions of the secretory pathway sorting compartments, have the capacity to bind firmly to membranes through their phospholipid constituents. (+info)
Molecular dynamics on a model for nascent high-density lipoprotein: role of salt bridges.
The results of an all-atom molecular dynamics simulation on a discoidal complex made of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC) and a synthetic alpha-helical 18-mer peptide with an apolipoprotein-like charge distribution are presented. The system consists of 12 acetyl-18A-amide (Ac-18A-NH2) (. J. Biol. Chem. 260:10248-10255) molecules and 20 molecules of POPC in a bilayer, 10 in each leaflet, solvated in a sphere of water for a total of 28,522 atoms. The peptide molecules are oriented with their long axes normal to the bilayer (the "picket fence" orientation). This system is analogous to complexes formed in nascent high-density lipoprotein and to Ac-18A-NH2/phospholipid complexes observed experimentally. The simulation extended over 700 ps, with the last 493 ps used for analysis. The symmetry of this system allows for averaging over different helices to improve sampling, while maintaining explicit all-atom representation of all peptides. The complex is stable on the simulated time scale. Several possible salt bridges between and within helices were studied. A few salt bridge formations and disruptions were observed. Salt bridges provide specificity in interhelical interactions. (+info)
Surface-induced polymerization of actin.
Living cells contain a very large amount of membrane surface area, which potentially influences the direction, the kinetics, and the localization of biochemical reactions. This paper quantitatively evaluates the possibility that a lipid monolayer can adsorb actin from a nonpolymerizing solution, induce its polymerization, and form a 2D network of individual actin filaments, in conditions that forbid bulk polymerization. G- and F-actin solutions were studied beneath saturated Langmuir monolayers containing phosphatidylcholine (PC, neutral) and stearylamine (SA, a positively charged surfactant) at PC:SA = 3:1 molar ratio. Ellipsometry, tensiometry, shear elastic measurements, electron microscopy, and dark-field light microscopy were used to characterize the adsorption kinetics and the interfacial polymerization of actin. In all cases studied, actin follows a monoexponential reaction-limited adsorption with similar time constants (approximately 10(3) s). At a longer time scale the shear elasticity of the monomeric actin adsorbate increases only in the presence of lipids, to a 2D shear elastic modulus of mu approximately 30 mN/m, indicating the formation of a structure coupled to the monolayer. Electron microscopy shows the formation of a 2D network of actin filaments at the PC:SA surface, and several arguments strongly suggest that this network is indeed causing the observed elasticity. Adsorption of F-actin to PC:SA leads more quickly to a slightly more rigid interface with a modulus of mu approximately 50 mN/m. (+info)
Polarization-modulated FTIR spectroscopy of lipid/gramicidin monolayers at the air/water interface.
Monolayers of gramicidin A, pure and in mixtures with dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), were studied in situ at the air/H2O and air/D2O interfaces by polarization-modulated infrared reflection absorption spectroscopy (PM-IRRAS). Simulations of the entire set of amide I absorption modes were also performed, using complete parameter sets for different conformations based on published normal mode calculations. The structure of gramicidin A in the DMPC monolayer could clearly be assigned to a beta6.3 helix. Quantitative analysis of the amide I bands revealed that film pressures of up to 25-30 mN/m the helix tilt angle from the vertical in the pure gramicidin A layer exceeded 60 degrees. A marked dependence of the peptide orientation on the applied surface pressure was observed for the mixed lipid-peptide monolayers. At low pressure the helix lay flat on the surface, whereas at high pressures the helix was oriented almost parallel to the surface normal. (+info)
Differences between the trypanosomal and human GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylases of glycosylphosphatidylinositol membrane anchor biosynthesis.
De-N-acetylation of N-acetylglucosaminyl-phosphatidylino-sitol (GlcNAc-PI) is the second step of glycosylphosphatidylino-sitol (GPI) membrane anchor biosynthesis in eukaryotes. This step is a prerequisite for the subsequent processing of glucosaminyl-phosphatidylinositol (GlcN-PI) that leads to mature GPI membrane anchor precursors, which are transferred to certain proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. In this article, we used a direct de-N-acetylase assay, based on the release of [14C]acetate from synthetic GlcN[14C]Ac-PI and analogues thereof, and an indirect assay, based on the mannosylation of GlcNAc-PI analogues, to study the substrate specificities of the GlcNAc-PI de-N-acetylase activities of African trypanosomes and human (HeLa) cells. The HeLa enzyme was found to be more fastidious than the trypanosomal enzyme such that, unlike the trypanosomal enzyme, it was unable to act on a GlcNAc-PI analogue containing 2-O-octyl-d- myo -inositol or on the GlcNAc-PI diastereoisomer containing l- myo -inositol (GlcNAc-P(l)I). These results suggest thatselective inhibition of the trypanosomal de-N-acetylase may be possible and that this enzyme should be considered as a possible therapeutic target. The lack of strict stereospecificity of the trypanosomal de-N-acetylase for the d- myo -inositol component was also seen for the trypanosomal GPI alpha-manno-syltransferases when GlcNAc-P(l)I was added to the trypanosome cell-free system, but not when GlcN-P(l)I was used. In an attempt to rationalize these data, we modeled the structure and dynamics of d-GlcNAcalpha1-6d- myo -inositol-1-HPO4-( sn )-3-glycerol and its diastereoisomer d-GlcNAcalpha1-6l- myo -inositol-1-HPO4-( sn )-3-glycerol. These studies indicate that the latter compound visits two energy minima, one of which resembles the low-energy conformer of former compound. Thus, it is conceivable that the trypanosomal de-N-acetylase acts on GlcNAc-P(l)I when it occupies a GlcNAc-PI-likeconformation and that GlcN-P(l)I emerging from the de-N-acetylase may be channeled to the alpha-mannosyltransferases in this conformation. (+info)
Interaction between terminal complement proteins C5b-7 and anionic phospholipids.
We have recently shown that C5b-6 binds to the erythrocyte membrane via an ionic interaction with sialic acid before the addition of C7 and subsequent membrane insertion. In this study we assessed the role of anionic lipids in the binding of the terminal complement proteins to the membrane and the efficiency of subsequent hemolysis. Human erythrocytes were modified by insertion of dipalmitoyl phosphatidylcholine (DPPC), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylserine (DPPS), dipalmitoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (DPPE), or dipalmitoyl phosphatidic acid (DPPA). Lipid incorporation and the hemolytic assays were done in the presence of 100 micromol/L sodium orthovanadate to prevent enzymatic redistribution of lipid. We found that the neutral lipids, DPPC and DPPE, did not affect C5b-7 uptake or hemolysis by C5b-9. In contrast, the two acidic phospholipids, DPPS and DPPA, caused a dose-dependent increase in both lysis and C5b-7 uptake. We conclude that the presence of anionic lipids on the exterior face of the membrane increases C5b-7 uptake and subsequent hemolysis. It is known that sickle cell erythrocytes have increased exposure of phosphatidylserine on their external face and are abnormally sensitive to lysis by C5b-9. The data presented here provide a plausible mechanism for this increased sensitivity. (+info)
Nitric-oxide-induced apoptosis in human leukemic lines requires mitochondrial lipid degradation and cytochrome C release.
We have previously shown that nitric oxide (NO) stimulates apoptosis in different human neoplastic lymphoid cell lines through activation of caspases not only via CD95/CD95L interaction, but also independently of such death receptors. Here we investigated mitochondria-dependent mechanisms of NO-induced apoptosis in Jurkat leukemic cells. NO donor glycerol trinitrate (at the concentration, which induces apoptotic cell death) caused (1) a significant decrease in the concentration of cardiolipin, a major mitochondrial lipid; (2) a downregulation in respiratory chain complex activities; (3) a release of the mitochondrial protein cytochrome c into the cytosol; and (4) an activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3. These changes were accompanied by an increase in the number of cells with low mitochondrial transmembrane potential and with a high level of reactive oxygen species production. Higher resistance of the CD95-resistant Jurkat subclone (APO-R) cells to NO-mediated apoptosis correlated with the absence of cytochrome c release and with less alterations in other mitochondrial parameters. An inhibitor of lipid peroxidation, trolox, significantly suppressed NO-mediated apoptosis in APO-S Jurkat cells, whereas bongkrekic acid (BA), which blocks mitochondrial permeability transition, provided only a moderate antiapoptotic effect. Transfection of Jurkat cells with bcl-2 led to a complete block of apoptosis due to the prevention of changes in mitochondrial functions. We suggest that the mitochondrial damage (in particular, cardiolipin degradation and cytochrome c release) induced by NO in human leukemia cells plays a crucial role in the subsequent activation of caspase and apoptosis. (+info)