(1/2761) Mismatch repair and differential sensitivity of mouse and human cells to methylating agents.
The long-patch mismatch repair pathway contributes to the cytotoxic effect of methylating agents and loss of this pathway confers tolerance to DNA methylation damage. Two methylation-tolerant mouse cell lines were identified and were shown to be defective in the MSH2 protein by in vitro mismatch repair assay. A normal copy of the human MSH2 gene, introduced by transfer of human chromosome 2, reversed the methylation tolerance. These mismatch repair defective mouse cells together with a fibroblast cell line derived from an MSH2-/- mouse, were all as resistant to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea as repair-defective human cells. Although long-patch mismatch repair-defective human cells were 50- to 100-fold more resistant to methylating agents than repair-proficient cells, loss of the same pathway from mouse cells conferred only a 3-fold increase. This discrepancy was accounted for by the intrinsic N-methyl-N-nitrosourea resistance of normal or transformed mouse cells compared with human cells. The >20-fold differential resistance between mouse and human cells could not be explained by the levels of either DNA methylation damage or the repair enzyme O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase. The resistance of mouse cells to N-methyl-N-nitrosourea was selective and no cross-resistance to unrelated DNA damaging agents was observed. Pathways of apoptosis were apparently intact and functional after exposure to either N-methyl-N-nitrosourea or ultraviolet light. Extracts of mouse cells were found to perform 2-fold less long-patch mismatch repair. The reduced level of mismatch repair may contribute to their lack of sensitivity to DNA methylation damage. (+info)
(2/2761) High efficiency of benzoporphyrin derivative in the photodynamic therapy of pigmented malignant melanoma.
Benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (verteporfin, BPD-MA) when intravenously injected (5.5 micromol kg(-1)) to C57/BL6 mice bearing a subcutaneously transplanted B1 melanoma gave a maximal accumulation in the tumour within 1-3 h with recoveries of 1.84-1.96 micromol kg(-1). Irradiation of BPD-MA-loaded melanoma with 690-nm light from a dye laser at 3 h and 9 h post injection induced tumour necrosis and delay of tumour growth of 28 and 14 days respectively. The response of the tumour to BPD-MA photosensitization was enhanced by pretreatment with 1064-nm light from a pulse-operated Nd:YAG laser, which caused a selective breakdown of melanosomes. (+info)
(3/2761) Dual roles of sialyl Lewis X oligosaccharides in tumor metastasis and rejection by natural killer cells.
Aberrant expression of cell surface carbohydrates such as sialyl Lewis X is associated with tumor formation and metastasis. In order to determine the roles of sialyl Lewis X in tumor metastasis, mouse melanoma B16-F1 cells were stably transfected with alpha1, 3-fucosyltransferase III to express sialyl Lewis X structures. The transfected B16-F1 cells, B16-FTIII, were separated by cell sorting into three different groups based on the expression levels of sialyl Lewis X. When these transfected cells were injected into tail veins of C57BL/6 mice, B16-FTIII.M cells expressing moderate amounts of sialyl Lewis X in poly-N-acetyllactosamines produced large numbers of lung tumor nodules. Surprisingly, B16-FTIII.H cells expressing the highest amount of sialyl Lewis X in shorter N-glycans died in lung blood vessels, producing as few lung nodules as B16-FTIII.N cells which lack sialyl Lewis X. In contrast, B16-FIII.H cells formed more tumors in beige mice and NK cell-depleted C57BL/6 mice than did B16-FTIII.M cells. B16-FTIII.H cells bound to E-selectin better than did B16-FTIII.M cells, but both cells grew at the same rate. These results indicate that excessive expression of sialyl Lewis X in tumor cells leads to rejection by NK cells rather than tumor formation facilitated by attachment to endothelial cells. (+info)
(4/2761) Vaccination with a recombinant vaccinia virus encoding a "self" antigen induces autoimmune vitiligo and tumor cell destruction in mice: requirement for CD4(+) T lymphocytes.
Many human and mouse tumor antigens are normal, nonmutated tissue differentiation antigens. Consequently, immunization with these "self" antigens could induce autoimmunity. When we tried to induce immune responses to five mouse melanocyte differentiation antigens, gp100, MART-1, tyrosinase, and tyrosinase-related proteins (TRP) 1 and TRP-2, we observed striking depigmentation and melanocyte destruction only in the skin of mice inoculated with a vaccinia virus encoding mouse TRP-1. These mice rejected a lethal challenge of B16 melanoma, indicating the immune response against TRP-1 could destroy both normal and malignant melanocytes. Cytotoxic T lymphocytes specific for TRP-1 could not be detected in depigmented mice, but high titers of IgG anti-TRP-1 antibodies were present. Experiments with knockout mice revealed an absolute dependence on major histocompatibility complex class II, but not major histocompatibility complex class I, for the induction of both vitiligo and tumor protection. Together, these results suggest that the deliberate induction of self-reactivity using a recombinant viral vector can lead to tumor destruction, and that in this model, CD4(+) T lymphocytes are an integral part of this process. Vaccine strategies targeting tissue differentiation antigens may be valuable in cancers arising from nonessential cells and organs such as melanocytes, prostate, testis, breast, and ovary. (+info)
(5/2761) Induction of tumor antigen-specific immunity using plasmid DNA immunization in mice.
We have evaluated the ability of bioballistic "gene gun" immunization of mice with plasmid DNA encoding clinically relevant tumor antigens to induce protective antitumor immunity. Mice immunized with plasmid cDNA encoding the cervical carcinoma-associated human papillomavirus 16-E7 gene product exhibited potent anti-E7-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes and were protected completely against a subsequent challenge with the E7+ C3 sarcoma. Of perhaps greater clinical interest, genetic immunization using cDNA encoding the normal, germline-encoded murine melanosomal protein tyrosinase-related protein-2 (TRP-2) resulted in delayed outgrowth of TRP-2+ B16 melanoma in mice and was associated with an in vivo activation of TRP-2-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. Codelivery of plasmid cDNA encoding TRP-2 and the T helper 1-biasing cytokine murine interleukin-12 considerably enhanced the antitumor efficacy of these gene-based melanoma vaccines. (+info)
(6/2761) Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) secreted by cDNA-transfected tumor cells induces a more potent antitumor response than exogenous GM-CSF.
Clinical cancer gene therapy trials have generally focused on the transfer of cytokine cDNA to tumor cells ex vivo and with the subsequent vaccination of the patient with these genetically altered tumor cells. This approach results in high local cytokine concentrations that may account for the efficacy of this technique in animal models. We hypothesized that the expression of certain cytokines by tumor cells would be a superior immune stimulant when compared with local delivery of exogenous cytokines. Granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) cDNA in a nonviral expression vector was inserted into MDA-MB-231 (human breast cancer), M21 (human melanoma), B16 (murine melanoma), and P815 (mastocytoma) cells by particle-mediated gene transfer. The ability of transfected tumor cells to generate a tumor-specific immune response was evaluated in an in vitro mixed lymphocyte-tumor cell assay and in an in vivo murine tumor protection model. Peripheral blood lymphocytes cocultured with human GM-CSF-transfected tumor cells were 3- to 5-fold more effective at lysis of the parental tumor cells than were peripheral blood lymphocytes incubated with irradiated tumor cells and exogenous human GM-CSF. Mice immunized with murine GM-CSF-transfected irradiated B16 murine melanoma cells or P815 mastocytoma cells were protected from subsequent tumor challenge, whereas mice immunized with the nontransfected tumors and cutaneous transfection of murine GM-CSF cDNA at the vaccination site developed tumors more frequently. The results indicate that GM-CSF protein expressed in human and murine tumor cells is a superior antitumor immune stimulant compared with exogenous GM-CSF in the tumor microenvironment. (+info)
(7/2761) Enhanced adjuvant effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor plus interleukin-12 compared with either alone in vaccine-induced tumor immunity.
Using the poorly immunogenic D5 murine melanoma, we examined the adjuvant effect of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and interleukin-12 (IL-12) secretion by gene-modified tumor cells inoculated as a vaccine to prime tumor-draining lymph nodes (TDLNs). D5 transfectants that secreted IL-12 or GM-CSF alone were compared with a double transfectant that secreted equivalent amounts of both cytokines. TDLN cells harvested 9-10 days after subcutaneous tumor inoculation were cultured sequentially in anti-CD3 and IL-2 and assessed for antitumor reactivity against wild-type D5 tumor. The double transfectant-induced TDLN effector cells had greater cytotoxicity in a long-term assay than TDLN cells primed by single transfectants. In adoptive immunotherapy, the TDLN cells primed by the double transfectant were significantly better at mediating the regression of established tumors compared with the TDLN cells elicited by the single transfectants. Both IL-12 and GM-CSF had adjuvant effects in promoting tumor-reactive TDLN cells, but the combination was better than either alone. These observations suggest that the immunomodulation roles of IL-12 and GM-CSF are different and complementary. (+info)
(8/2761) Regulation of intracellular ceramide content in B16 melanoma cells. Biological implications of ceramide glycosylation.
We previously reported that ceramide released from glycosphingolipids (GSLs) by endoglycoceramidase was directly metabolized to GSLs, and thus the content of GSLs was constantly maintained in B16 melanoma cells (Ito, M., and Komori, H. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 12655-12660). In this study, the metabolism of ceramide released from sphingomyelin (SM) by bacterial sphingomyelinase (SMase) was examined using B16 cells and their GSL-deficient mutant counterpart GM95 cells. Treatment of B16 melanoma cells with bacterial SMase effectively hydrolyzed SM on the plasma membrane. Under these conditions, NeuAcalpha2,3Galbeta1, 4Glcbeta1,1ceramide was significantly increased. Interestingly, UDP-glucose:ceramide glucosyltransferase-1 (GlcT-1) activity and GSL synthesis, but not SM synthesis or sphingosine generation, were found to be up-regulated by SMase treatment. The up-regulation of GSL synthesis seemed to occur at both the transcriptional and post-translational steps of GlcT-1 synthesis. Accumulation of ceramide by bacterial SMase was much higher in GM95 cells than in the parental cells. When the enzyme was removed from the culture medium, the intracellular ceramide level in B16 cells, but not that in the mutant cells, normalized. No rapid restoration of SM in either of the cell lines was observed after removal of the enzyme. SMase treatment strongly inhibited DNA synthesis in GM95 cells but not that in B16 cells. In the presence of D-threo-1-phenyl-2-decanoylamino-3-morpholino-1-propanol, an inhibitor of GlcT-1, SMase treatment markedly increased the ceramide content and thus inhibited DNA synthesis in B16 cells. Our study provides the first evidence that GlcT-1 functions to regulate the level of intracellular ceramide by glycosylation of the ceramide when it is present in excess. (+info)